9780131145580

Plastics Materials and Processing

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131145580

  • ISBN10:

    0131145584

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 6/6/2005
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This book is designed to introduce plastics to a wide range of non-chemists who need to either gain, improve, or refresh their knowledge of plastic materials and manufacturing. It fully discusses both materials and manufacturing processes in a carefully-constructed and logical presentation. While providing a fundamental overview of a broad spectrum of topics, this bookrs"s high level of detail makes it valuable as a professional reference manual.Complete examination of materials, processes and performance of plastics includes many recent developmentsat the molecular, micro and macro levelssuch as conductive polymers, nano technology, biodegradable polymers, bio-based raw materials, twin-sheet thermoforming, and health considerations of plasticizers.Appropriate as a reference manual by manufacturing engineers, chemical engineers, plastics engineers, mechanical engineers, industrial engineers, or any other engineer working in a plastics-oriented company.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Plastics
1(24)
Definitions of Plastics and Polymers
1(4)
History of Plastics
5(5)
Raw Material Supply and Pricing
10(3)
Strategic Materials
13(1)
The Plastics Industry
13(3)
Uses of Plastics in Modern Society
16(5)
Case Study 1.1---The Development of Nylon
21(4)
Polymeric Materials (Molecular Viewpoint)
25(48)
Introduction
25(1)
Fundamentals of Matter
26(5)
Bonding
31(8)
Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry
39(9)
Polymers
48(3)
Formation of Polymers
51(12)
Thermoplastics and Thermosets
63(2)
Copolymers
65(1)
Case Study 2.1---Modifications to Improve Teflon® Processing
66(7)
Microstructures in Polymers
73(46)
Introduction
73(1)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
74(1)
Polymeric Solid State: Amorphous and Crystalline
75(5)
Polymeric Liquid State
80(1)
Polymeric Gaseous State
80(1)
Thermal Changes in Polymers
81(14)
Polymer Length
95(1)
Molecular Weight
96(9)
Melt Index
105(3)
Shape (Steric) Effects
108(2)
Case Study 3.1---Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene (PE) as Functions of Density and Melt Index
110(9)
Mechanical Properties (Macro Viewpoint)
119(32)
Introduction
119(2)
Mechanical Properties in Solids (Elastic Behavior)
121(2)
Mechanical Properties in Liquids (Viscous Flow)
123(6)
Viscoelastic Materials
129(3)
Plastic (High-Strain) Stress--Strain Behavior
132(7)
Creep
139(2)
Toughness, Impact Strength, and Hardness
141(3)
Reinforcements
144(1)
Fillers
145(1)
Toughness Modifiers
146(1)
Case Study 4.1---Testing of Trash Containers to Predict In-Use Performance
146(5)
Chemical and Physical Properties (Macro Viewpoint)
151(46)
Introduction
151(1)
Environmental Resistance and Weathering
152(4)
Chemical Resistivity and Solubility
156(10)
Permeability
166(5)
Electrical Properties
171(5)
Optical Properties
176(5)
Flammability
181(8)
Plastics Identification
189(2)
Case Study 5.1---Using Carbon Black to Protect Polyethylene from UV Degradation
191(2)
Case Study 5.2---Conductive Polymers
193(4)
Designing with Plastics
197(26)
Introduction
197(2)
Design Methodology
199(4)
Layout/Drawing
203(1)
Constraints
203(6)
Material Choice
209(5)
Prototyping
214(4)
Case Study 6.1---Design of Plastic Stakes for Concrete Tilt-up Walls
218(5)
Thermoplastic Materials (Commodity Plastics)
223(38)
Introduction
223(1)
Polyethylene (PE)
224(11)
Polyethylene Copolymers
235(4)
Polypropylene (PP)
239(3)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
242(5)
Polystyrene (PS)
247(4)
Alloys and Blends
251(6)
Case Study 7.1---Typical PVC Formulation
257(4)
Thermoplastic Materials (Engineering Plastics)
261(34)
Introduction
261(2)
Cellulosics
263(2)
Polyamides or Nylons (PA)
265(5)
Acetals or Polyoxymethylenes (POM)
270(3)
Thermoplastic Polyesters (PET/PBT)
273(4)
Polycarbonate (PC)
277(2)
Acrylics (PAN, PMMA)
279(2)
Fluoropolymers (PTFE, FEP, PFA)
281(5)
High-Performance Thermoplastics
286(3)
Case Study 8.1---Making Nonstick Electrosurgical Blades
289(6)
Thermoset Materials
295(42)
Introduction
295(2)
Crosslinking
297(7)
Thermoset Types, General Properties, and Uses
304(2)
Phenolics (PF)
306(3)
Amino Plastics (UF and MF)
309(3)
Thermoset Polyesters or Unsaturated Polyesters (UP)
312(8)
Vinyl Esters (VE)
320(1)
Epoxies (EP)
321(4)
Thermoset Polyimides
325(1)
Polyurethanes (PUR)
326(5)
Case Study 9.1---Thermoset Composites for Wrapping Utility Poles
331(6)
Elastomeric (Rubber) Materials
337(26)
Introduction
337(4)
Aliphatic Thermoset Elastomers
341(9)
Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE)
350(2)
Fluoroelastomers
352(1)
Silicones
353(2)
Processing of Elastomers
355(2)
Case Study 10.1---Elastomeric Lining for a Pump
357(6)
Extrusion
363(68)
Introduction
363(7)
Equipment
370(14)
Normal Operation and Control of the Process
384(9)
Extrusion Problems and Troubleshooting
393(5)
Design for Extrusion
398(21)
Special Extrusion Processes and Products
419(4)
Case Study 11.1---Extrusion of Irrigation Tubing
423(8)
Injection Molding
431(70)
Introduction
431(3)
Equipment
434(26)
Normal Operation and Control
460(1)
Critical Operational Parameters and Techniques
461(7)
Injection Molding Problems and Troubleshooting
468(6)
Design for Injection Molding
474(11)
Modeling and Computer-Aided Mold-Flow Analysis
485(2)
Special Injection Molding Processes
487(2)
Case Study 12.1---Estimating the Cost of an Injection-Molded Pocket Knife
489(6)
Case Study 12.2---Mold Costs and Selection
495(6)
Blow Molding
501(28)
Introduction
501(2)
Extrusion Blow Molding
503(6)
Injection Blow Molding
509(4)
Plant Considerations
513(1)
Blow Molding Problems and Troubleshooting
514(1)
Design for Blow Molding
514(6)
Special Blow Molding Processes and Products
520(4)
Case Study 13.1---Making Soft-Drink Bottles
524(5)
Thermoforming
529(42)
Introduction
529(2)
Forming Processes
531(16)
Equipment
547(3)
Plant Considerations
550(1)
Normal Operation and Control
551(2)
Thermoforming Problems and Troubleshooting
553(2)
Design for Thermoforming
555(8)
Film Thermoforming Processes and Products
563(3)
Case Study 14.1---Plastic Windshield Protective Film
566(5)
Rotational Molding
571(28)
Introduction
571(5)
Equipment
576(5)
Operation and Control of the Process
581(3)
Troubleshooting
584(2)
Design for Rotomolding
586(7)
Case Study 15.1---Trash Cart Manufacturing
593(6)
Casting
599(28)
Introduction
599(3)
Casting Processes
602(13)
Equipment
615(2)
Operation and Control of the Casting Process
617(1)
Casting Problems and Troubleshooting
618(1)
Design for Casting
619(3)
Case Study 16.1---Casting a Polyester Thermoset Part in a Silicone Mold
622(5)
Foaming
627(30)
Introduction
627(4)
Creating Foams in Resins
631(2)
Shaping and Solidifying Foams
633(11)
Rebond
644(2)
Design for Foams
646(1)
Applications
647(3)
Operation and Control of the Foaming Process
650(2)
Case Study 17.1---Foam Insulation
652(5)
Compression Molding, Transfer Molding, and Related Processes
657(30)
Introduction
657(1)
Compression Molding
658(11)
Transfer Molding
669(5)
Design for Compression and Transfer Molding
674(1)
Control and Operation
674(4)
Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)
678(1)
Cold Forming, Sintering, and Ram Extrusion
679(2)
Case Study 18.1---Manufacture of Automobile Body Panels
681(6)
Polymeric Composite Materials and Processes
687(52)
Introduction
687(8)
Matrix Materials
695(3)
Reinforcements
698(7)
Composite Material Properties
705(6)
Manufacturing Methods for Composite Parts
711(23)
Plant Concepts
734(1)
Case Study 19.1---Filament Winding of the Beech Starship Airplane Fuselage
734(5)
Radiation
739(24)
Introduction
739(1)
Directed Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation
740(1)
High-Energy Microwaves
741(2)
Electron Beam Radiation
743(7)
Gamma Radiation
750(1)
Plasma Polymerization and Reactions
751(3)
Properties, Materials, and Applications
754(4)
Case Study 20.1---Making Shrink-Tubing Using Electron Beam Crosslinking
758(5)
Finishing, Adhesion, and Assembly
763(38)
Introduction
763(1)
Runner System Trimming and Flash Removal
764(2)
Machining
766(2)
Nontraditional Machining
768(1)
Shaping (Postmold Forming)
769(1)
Mechanical Joining and Assembly
770(5)
Adhesive Bonding
775(8)
Nonadhesive Bonding
783(5)
Joint Design
788(2)
Coating and Decorating
790(6)
Case Study 21.1---Comparison of Adhesive-Bonded and Metal Attachments
796(5)
Operations and Management
801(24)
Introduction
801(1)
Safety and Cleanliness
802(2)
Plastic Resin Handling, Conveying, and Drying
804(3)
Plant Layout
807(1)
Quality Assurance
807(7)
Management
814(3)
Supervision and Employees
817(4)
Case Study 22.1---Establishing QC for a PET Bottle Plant
821(4)
Environmental Aspects of Plastics
825(28)
Introduction
825(1)
Source Reduction
826(2)
Recycling of Plastics
828(7)
Biocompatible Materials and Degradation
835(3)
Landfills
838(1)
Incineration
839(1)
Regeneration
840(1)
Total Product Life Cycle
841(4)
The Future
845(2)
Case Study 23.1---Recycling Solid Wastes
847(6)
Appendix 1 Typical Properties of Some Engineering Materials 853(2)
Appendix 2 Cost Estimating Form for Injection Molding 855(1)
Appendix 3 Plastics Design/Selection Matrix 856(1)
Appendix 4 Impact Toughness Guide 857(1)
Appendix 5 Plastics Identification Chart 858(2)
Appendix 6 Process Procedures---Startup, Steady-state, and Shutdown 860(6)
Appendix 7 Plastic Machining Guidelines 866(2)
Appendix 8 Sample MSDS Form 868(3)
Glossary 871(36)
Index 907

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