9780805822410

Play and Exploration in Children and Animals

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780805822410

  • ISBN10:

    0805822410

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-11-01
  • Publisher: Psychology Pres

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Summary

Play is a paradox. Why would the young of so many species--the very animals at greatest risk for injury and predation--devote so much time and energy to an activity that by definition has no immediate purpose? This question has long puzzled students of animal behavior, and has been the focus of considerable empirical investigation and debate. In this first comprehensive and state-of-the-art review of what we have learned from decades of research on exploration and play in children and animals, Power examines the paradox from all angles. Covering solitary activity as well as play with peers, siblings, and parents, he considers the nature, development, and functions of play, as well as the gender differences in early play patterns. A major purpose is to explore the relevance of the animal literature for understanding human behavior. The nature and amount of children's play varies significantly across cultures, so the author makes cross-cultural comparisons wherever possible. The scope is broad and the range multidisciplinary. He draws on studies by developmental researchers in psychology and other fields, ethologists, anthropologists, sociologists, sociolinguists, early childhood educators, and pediatricians. And he places research on play in the context of research on such related phenomena as prosocial behavior and aggression. Finally, Power points out directions for further inquiry and implications for those who work with young children and their parents. Researchers and students will find Play and Exploration in Children and Animalsan invaluable summary of controversies, methods, and findings; practitioners and educators will find it an invaluable compendium of information relevant to their efforts to enrich play experiences.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction
1(14)
Unanswered Questions About Children's Play
2(5)
Purpose of This Book
7(1)
Assumptions of the Present Approach
8(1)
Difficulties With the Present Approach
9(2)
Overview
11(4)
PART I: SOLITARY OBJECT EXPLORATION AND PLAY 15(94)
Solitary Object Exploration and Play in Animals
17(38)
Modes of Object Manipulation
19(4)
Studies of Undifferentiated Object Manipulation
23(12)
Studies of Object Exploration
35(4)
Studies of Object Play
39(8)
Studies of Tool-Use
47(4)
Gender Differences in Solitary Object-Directed Behavior
51(1)
Summary and Conclusions: Animal Research
52(3)
Solitary Object Exploration and Play in Children
55(54)
Studies of Undifferentiated Object Manipulation During the First 2 Years
56(7)
Studies of Object Exploration
63(14)
Studies of Object Play
77(15)
Studies of Tool-Use
92(6)
Studies in Non-Western Cultures
98(3)
Gender Differences in Children's Solitary Object-Directed Behavior
101(2)
Solitary Object Manipulation: Summary and Conclusions
103(6)
PART II: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PLAY 109(104)
Play-Fighting in Animals
111(52)
Structure
113(30)
Functions/Effects
143(17)
Models of the Evolution of Play-Fighting
160(1)
Animal Play-Fighting: Summary and Conclusions
160(3)
Play-Fighting in Children
163(28)
Structure
164(11)
Functions/Effects
175(4)
Symbolic Play-Fighting in Humans: The Case of War Play
179(8)
Play-Fighting: Summary and Conclusions
187(4)
Locomotor Play in Animals
191(12)
Structure
192(7)
Functions/Effects
199(4)
Locomotor Play in Children
203(10)
Structure
204(5)
Functions/Effects
209(2)
Locomotor Play: Summary and Conclusions
211(2)
PART III: SOCIAL OBJECT, SOCIAL PRETEND, AND PARENT-CHILD PLAY 213(184)
Social Object and Sociodramatic Play in Children
215(80)
Structure
219(55)
Functions/Effects
274(15)
Social Object and Social Pretend Play: Summary and Conclusions
289(6)
Parent-Child Play
295(94)
Animal Research
295(5)
Child Research: Structure
300(53)
Functions/Effects
353(22)
Parental Influences on Children's Play
375(8)
Parent-Child Play: Summary and Conclusions
383(6)
Conclusions
389(8)
Is Play a Distinct Motivational/Behavioral Category?
389(2)
What Exactly Is Play?
391(1)
Are Comparisons Between Animal and Human Play Meaningful?
392(2)
What Are the Effects of Play on Development?
394(1)
Implications for Practice
395(2)
References 397(78)
Author Index 475(20)
Subject Index 495

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