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The Police In America: An Introduction, with "Making the Grade" Student CD-ROM and PowerWeb

by
ISBN13:

9780072944785

ISBN10:
0072944781
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/4/2004
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

Descriptive and analytical, the text is designed to offer undergraduate students a balanced and up-to-date overview of who the police are and what they do, problems related to policing, and the many reforms and innovations that have been attempted in police work. Divided into four parts, The Police in America begins with a compelling analysis of the foundation of law enforcement, including the underlying purpose of police in society, the history of American police, as well as the contemporary law enforcement industry. It goes on to cover everything from the critical role of the beat cop and the fundamental problems in policing to the career path of police officers and a level-by-level overview of police organizations. Using timely articles and excerpts, the author takes readers beyond the headlines and statistics, to present a comprehensive and contemporary overview of what it means to be a police officer.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
PART I FOUNDATIONS
1(84)
Police and Society
3(20)
The Goals of This Book
4(1)
A Definition of Terms
4(1)
What Is a Law Enforcement Agency?
4(1)
Who Is a Police Officer?
5(1)
Myths, Realities, and Possibilities
5(1)
Myths about Policing
5(2)
Sources of the Crime-Fighter Image
6(1)
Consequences of the Crime-Fighter Image
6(1)
The Realities of Policing
7(6)
Factors That Shape the Police Role
10(1)
The Authority to Use Force
11(1)
The Police and Social Control
11(1)
The Police and Social Control Systems
12(1)
Possibilities
13(3)
Problem-Oriented Policing
14(1)
Community Policing
15(1)
Zero-Tolerance Policing
16(1)
Honest Law Enforcement
16(1)
The Implications of Change
16(2)
Summary
18(1)
Key Terms
18(1)
Case Study: Reality-Based Television: Does it Distort Reality?
19(1)
For Discussion
20(1)
Internet Exercises
20(3)
The History of the American Police
23(36)
The Relevance of History
25(1)
The English Heritage
25(2)
Creation of the Modern Police: London, 1829
26(1)
Law Enforcement in Colonial America
27(2)
The Quality of Colonial Law Enforcement
28(1)
The First Modern American Police
29(1)
American Policing in the Nineteenth Century, 1834--1900
30(4)
Personnel Standards
30(1)
Patrol Work
31(1)
The Police and the Public
31(1)
Corruption and Politics
32(1)
The Failure of Police Reform
33(1)
The Impact of the Police on Society
34(1)
The Twentieth Century: The Origins of Police Professionalism, 1900--1930
34(5)
The Professionalization Movement
35(1)
The Reform Agenda
35(2)
The Impact of Professionalization
37(1)
The New Police Subculture
37(1)
Police and Racial Minorities
38(1)
New Law Enforcement Agencies
38(1)
The New Communications Technology
39(1)
New Directions in Police Administration, 1930--1960
40(2)
The Wickersham Commission Report
40(1)
Professionalization Continues
40(1)
Simmering Racial and Ethnic Tensions
41(1)
J. Edgar Hoover and the War on Crime
41(1)
The Police Crisis of the 1960s
42(5)
The Police and the Supreme Court
42(1)
The Police and Civil Rights
43(1)
The Police in the National Spotlight
44(2)
The Research Revolution
46(1)
New Developments in Policing, 1970--2000
47(6)
The Changing Police Officer
47(1)
The Control of Police Discretion
48(1)
Police Unions
49(1)
Citizen Oversight of Police
49(1)
Community Policing and Problem-Oriented Policing
50(1)
Race and Ethnic Conflict Continues
51(1)
Federal Pattern or Practice Suits
52(1)
The Racial Profiling Controversy
52(1)
Summary: The Lessons of the Past
53(1)
Key Terms
54(1)
Case Study: Police Patrol Practices
54(1)
For Discussion
55(1)
Internet Exercises
55(4)
The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry
59(26)
Basic Features of American Law Enforcement
59(2)
An ``Industry'' Perspective
61(1)
An International Perspective
61(1)
Size and Scope of the Law Enforcement Industry
62(4)
The Number of Law Enforcement Agencies
62(1)
The Number of Law Enforcement Personnel
63(1)
Understanding Law Enforcement Personnel Data
63(1)
Civilianization
64(1)
The Police--Population Ratio
65(1)
The Cost of Police Protection
65(1)
Municipal Police
66(1)
County Police
67(1)
The County Sheriff
67(1)
The Role of the Sheriff
67(1)
Other Local Agencies
68(4)
The Constable
68(1)
The Coroner/Medical Examiner
69(1)
Special District Police
69(1)
Tribal Police
70(1)
State Law Enforcement Agencies
71(1)
Roles and Responsibilities
72(1)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
72(3)
Roles and Responsibilities
73(1)
Federal Law Enforcement after September 11, 2001
73(2)
The Private Security Industry
75(1)
The Fragmentation Issue
75(3)
Alternatives to Fragmentation
77(1)
The Fragmentation Problem Reconsidered
78(1)
Minimum Standards: American Style
78(2)
The Role of the Federal Government
79(1)
The Role of State Governments
79(1)
Accreditation
80(1)
Summary
80(1)
Key Terms
81(1)
Case Study: Tribal Sovereignty and the Department of Justice
81(1)
For Discussion
81(1)
Internet Exercises
82(3)
PART II OFFICERS AND ORGANIZATIONS
85(106)
Police Organization
87(28)
The Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations
89(1)
Criticisms of the Quasi-Military Style
89(1)
Police Departments as Organizations
90(4)
The Dominant Style of American Police Organizations
90(1)
Police Organizations as Bureaucracies
90(3)
The Problems with Bureaucracy
93(1)
Problems with Police Organizations
94(2)
The Positive Contributions of Bureaucracy in Policing
94(1)
Informal Aspects of Police Organizations
94(2)
Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism
96(1)
Changing Police Organizations
96(4)
Community Policing
97(1)
Total Quality Management
97(1)
Task Forces
98(1)
Creating Learning Organizations
99(1)
Compstat
100(1)
Civil Service
101(2)
Police Unions
103(5)
Aspects of Police Unions
103(1)
Collective Bargaining
104(1)
Grievance Procedures
104(1)
Unions and Shared Governance
104(2)
Impasse Settlement and Strikes
106(1)
The Impact of Police Unions
107(1)
Police Organizations and Their Environment
108(1)
Contingency Theory
108(1)
Institutional Theory
108(1)
Resource Dependence Theory
109(1)
Summary
109(1)
Key Terms
110(1)
Case Study: Union Influence in the Lowell, Massachusetts, Police Department
110(1)
For Discussion
111(1)
Internet Exercises
111(4)
Police Officers I: Entering Police Work
115(34)
Aspects of the Personnel Process
117(1)
A Career Perspective
117(1)
Beyond Stereotypes of Cops
117(1)
The Personnel Process: A Shared Responsibility
118(1)
Recruitment
118(6)
Minimum Qualifications
119(4)
Recruitment Effort
123(1)
Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career
124(2)
Applicants' Motivations
124(2)
People Who Do Not Apply
126(1)
Selection
126(2)
Selection Tests
126(1)
Oral Interviews
127(1)
Background Investigations
128(1)
Predicting Police Officer Performance
128(2)
The Problem of Measuring Officer Performance
128(2)
Equal Employment Opportunity
130(5)
The Law of Equal Employment Opportunity
130(1)
Job-Related Qualifications
131(1)
Employment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
131(2)
Hispanic and Latino Officers
133(1)
Women in Policing
133(1)
Barriers to Women in Policing
134(1)
Gay and Lesbian Officers
134(1)
Diversity in Police Employment
135(3)
The Affirmative Action Controversy
136(1)
The Issue of Quotas
136(2)
Diversity as a ``Compelling State Interest''
138(1)
Training
138(4)
Police Academy Training
138(1)
Field Training
139(1)
State Training and Certification
140(1)
Shortcomings of Current Police Training
141(1)
The Probationary Period
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Key Terms
143(1)
Case Study: Excerpts from the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society
143(1)
For Discussion
144(1)
Internet Exercises
144(5)
Police Officers II: On the Job
149(42)
Reality Shock: Entering Police Work
151(2)
Encountering Citizens
151(1)
Encountering the Criminal Justice System
152(1)
Encountering the Department
152(1)
The Concept of Organizational Culture
152(1)
The Seniority System
153(1)
Police Officer Attitudes and Behavior
154(4)
The Concept of a Police Subculture
154(3)
Criticisms of the Traditional Police Subculture Concept
157(1)
The Dimensions of the Police Subculture
158(1)
The Changing Rank and File
158(9)
Women Police Officers
159(1)
Female Officers and the Use of Force
159(2)
African American Officers
161(1)
Hispanic/Latino Officers
162(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Performance
162(1)
Gay and Lesbian Officers
163(1)
The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Sexual Identity
163(1)
Education
164(1)
The Impact of Training on Performance
164(1)
Cohort Effects
165(1)
Attitudes toward Community Policing
166(1)
Summary
166(1)
The Relationship between Attitudes and Behavior
167(1)
Styles of Police Work
168(1)
Career Development
169(3)
Promotion
169(1)
Salaries and Benefits
170(1)
Assignment to Special Units
170(1)
``Coveted Assignments''
171(1)
Lateral Entry
171(1)
Performance Evaluation
172(2)
Traditional Performance Evaluation Systems
172(1)
Problems with Performance Evaluations
172(2)
Job Satisfaction
174(4)
Job Stress
178(3)
Community Policing and Job Satisfaction
179(1)
Coping with Stress
180(1)
The Rights of Police Officers
181(1)
The Police Officer's Bill of Rights
181(1)
Outside Employment
182(1)
Turnover: Leaving Police Work
183(1)
Summary
183(1)
Key Terms
184(1)
Case Study: National Center for Women and Policing (Excerpt)
184(1)
Underrepresentation of Women Hurts Law Enforcement
184(1)
Escalating Cost of Police Brutality
184(1)
Ineffective Response to Domestic Violence
184(1)
Damaged Police-Community Relations
185(1)
Costly Sexual Harassment and Sexual Discrimination Lawsuits
185(1)
For Discussion
185(1)
Internet Exercise
185(6)
PART III POLICE WORK
191(162)
Patrol: The Backbone of Policing
193(38)
The Central Role of Patrol
195(1)
Functions of Patrol
195(1)
The Standard Model of Policing
196(1)
The Organization and Delivery of Patrol
196(6)
Number of Sworn Officers
197(1)
Factors Affecting the Delivery of Patrol Services
197(1)
The Distribution of Patrol Officers
198(1)
Assignment of Officers
199(1)
``Hot Spots''
200(1)
Types of Patrol
200(1)
Foot Patrol
201(1)
One-Officer versus Two-Officer Cars
201(1)
Staffing Patrol Beats
202(1)
Styles of Patrol
202(1)
Individual Styles
202(1)
Supervisors' Styles
203(1)
Organizational Styles
203(1)
Patrol Supervision
203(1)
The Role of the Sergeant
203(1)
The Communications Center
204(4)
The Nerve Center of Policing
204(1)
911 Systems
205(1)
Processing Calls for Service
206(2)
Operator--Citizen Interactions
208(1)
The Systematic Study of Police Patrol
208(2)
Standards for Systematic Social Observation
209(1)
The Call Service Workload
210(3)
The Volume of Calls
210(1)
Types of Calls
210(2)
Advertisements on Patrol Cars
212(1)
Aspects of Patrol Work
213(3)
Response Time
213(1)
Officer Use of Patrol Time
214(1)
Evasion of Duty
215(1)
High-Speed Pursuits
215(1)
The Effectiveness of Patrol
216(4)
Initial Experiments
216(1)
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
217(1)
Findings and Implications
218(1)
The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment
219(1)
New Questions, New Approaches
220(1)
Improving Traditional Patrol
220(5)
Differential Response to Calls
220(1)
Telephone Reporting Units
221(1)
311 Nonemergency Calls
222(1)
Non-English 911 Service Calls
222(1)
Reverse 911
222(1)
Computers and Video Cameras in Patrol Cars
223(1)
Police Aides or Cadets
223(1)
Street Skills Training for Patrol Officers
223(1)
Directed Patrol and ``Hot Spots''
224(1)
Beyond Traditional Patrol
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Key Terms
225(1)
Case Study: Kansas City (MO) Gun Experiment (Excerpt)
225(1)
For Discussion
226(1)
Internet Exercises
226(5)
Peacekeeping and Order Maintenance
231(32)
The Police Role
233(1)
Calling the Police
233(2)
Public Expectations
233(1)
Police Response
234(1)
Traffic Enforcement
235(3)
Drunk-Driving Crackdowns
237(1)
Policing Domestic Disputes
238(3)
Defining Our Terms
238(1)
The Prevalence of Domestic Violence
239(1)
Calling the Police
240(1)
Police Response to Domestic Disturbance
241(4)
Factors Influencing the Arrest Decision
242(1)
A Revolution in Policy: Mandatory Arrest
242(1)
The Impact of Arrest on Domestic Violence
243(1)
Impact of Mandatory Arrest Laws and Policies
244(1)
Other Laws and Policies
244(1)
The Future of Domestic Violence Policy
245(1)
Policing Vice
245(3)
Prostitution
245(2)
Gambling
247(1)
Policing the Homeless
248(1)
Policing the Mentally Ill
249(2)
Police Response to the Mentally Ill
249(2)
Old Problems/New Programs
251(1)
Policing People with AIDS
251(2)
Policing Juveniles
253(3)
Controversy over the Police Role
253(1)
Specialized Juvenile Units
254(1)
On-the-Street Encounters
254(1)
The Issue of Race Discrimination
255(1)
Crime Prevention Programs
256(1)
Summary
256(1)
Key Terms
257(1)
Case Study: Westminster, California, Police Department's Shield Program
257(2)
For Discussion
259(1)
Internet Exercises
260(3)
The Police and Crime
263(46)
The Police and Crime
265(2)
Crime Control Strategies
265(1)
Crime Control Assumptions
266(1)
Measuring Effectiveness
266(1)
Summary
266(1)
Preventing Crime
267(1)
Apprehending Criminals
267(4)
Citizen Reporting of Crime
268(2)
Reporting and Unfounding Crime
270(1)
Criminal Investigation
271(1)
Myths about Detective Work
271(1)
The Organization of Detective Work
271(1)
The Investigation Process
272(2)
The Preliminary Investigation
272(1)
Arrest Discretion
273(1)
Follow-Up Investigations
273(1)
The Reality of Detective Work
273(1)
Case Screening
274(1)
Measuring the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation
274(2)
The Clearance Rate
274(2)
Defining an Arrest
276(1)
Success and Failure in Solving Crimes
276(3)
Case Structural Factors
277(1)
Organizational Factors
278(1)
Environmental Factors
278(1)
The Use of Eyewitnesses, Criminalistics, and DNA in Investigations
279(2)
Eyewitness Identification
279(1)
Criminalistics
279(1)
DNA
279(1)
Officer Productivity
280(1)
The Problem of Case Attrition
281(1)
Improving Criminal Investigations
281(1)
Special Investigative Techniques
282(2)
Undercover Police Work
282(1)
Informants
283(1)
Policing Drugs
284(3)
Drug Enforcement Strategies
284(1)
Retail Drug Enforcement
285(1)
Minorities and the War on Drugs
285(1)
Demand Reduction: The D.A.R.E. Program
286(1)
New Approaches to Drug Enforcement
287(1)
Policing Gangs and Gang-Related Crime
287(3)
Gang Suppression
288(1)
Gang Prevention: The G.R.E.A.T. Program
289(1)
Policing Career Criminals
290(1)
Policing Guns and Gun Crimes
290(2)
Gun Suppression
291(1)
Policing Hate Crime
292(2)
The Scope and Nature of Hate Crime
293(1)
The Police Response to Hate Crime
293(1)
Current Problems Facing Law Enforcement
294(8)
School Crime
294(1)
Terrorism
295(1)
Domestic Terrorism
296(2)
Foreign Terrorism
298(1)
Responding to Terrorism
299(1)
Computer Crime
300(2)
Summary
302(1)
Key Terms
303(1)
Case Study: Solving a Complex Case of International Terrorism
303(1)
For Discussion
304(1)
Internet Exercises
304(5)
Innovations in Police Strategy
309(44)
Impetus for Change in Policing
311(1)
The Roots of Community Policing: The Broken Windows Hypothesis
311(2)
Types of Disorder
312(1)
Characteristics of Community Policing
313(9)
Community Partnerships
314(3)
The Effectiveness of Community Partnerships
317(2)
Organizational Change
319(1)
Evidence of Organizational Change
320(1)
Problem Solving
321(1)
Putting It All Together: Implementing Community Policing at the Department Level
322(6)
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Program
323(5)
Community Policing: Problems and Prospects
328(3)
Rhetoric or Reality
328(1)
Too Rapid Expansion
328(1)
A Legitimate Police Role
328(1)
A Political Police
329(1)
Decentralization and Accountability
329(1)
Conflicting Community Interests
330(1)
But Does Community Policing Work?
331(1)
The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing
331(2)
The Problem-Solving Process
333(3)
Scanning
333(2)
Analysis
335(1)
Response
335(1)
Assessment
336(1)
Effectiveness of Problem-Oriented Policing
336(4)
Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News
336(1)
Smart in Oakland
337(1)
The Boston Gun Project: Operation Cease Fire
338(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing in Jersey, New Jersey
339(1)
Characteristics of Zero-Tolerance Policing
340(5)
The Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Policing
342(2)
Potential Problems with Zero-Tolerance Policing
344(1)
Summary
345(1)
Key Terms
346(1)
Case Study: Project Exile
346(2)
For Discussion
348(1)
Internet Exercises
348(5)
PART IV ISSUES IN POLICING
353(160)
Police Discretion
355(28)
Discretion in Police Work
357(1)
A Definition of Discretion
357(1)
Limits on the Exercise of Discretion
357(1)
Aspects of Police Discretion
358(2)
Street-Level Bureaucrats
358(1)
Potential Abuse of Discretion
358(1)
Positive Uses of Discretion
359(1)
Decision Points and Decision Makers
360(1)
Patrol Officer Decisions
360(1)
Detectives' Decisions
361(1)
Police Managers' Decisions
361(1)
Underlying Sources of Discretion
361(2)
The Nature of the Criminal Law
361(1)
Conflicting Public Expectations
362(1)
Social and Medical Issues
362(1)
The Work Environment of Policing
362(1)
Limited Police Resources
362(1)
Factors Influencing Discretionary Decisions
363(4)
Situational Factors
363(3)
Organizational Factors
366(1)
Environmental Factors
367(1)
The Control of Discretion
367(3)
The Need for Control
367(1)
Abolish Discretion?
368(1)
Enhancing Professional Judgment
368(1)
Informal Bureaucratic Controls
369(1)
Written Policies
370(1)
Administrative Rulemaking
370(7)
Examples of Administrative Rulemaking
370(1)
Principles of Administrative Rulemaking
370(1)
The Advantages of Written Rules
370(1)
The Impact of Administrative Rulemaking
370(1)
Ensuring Compliance with Rules
370(4)
Codifying Rules: The Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) Manual
374(1)
``Pattern or Practice'' Suits and Discretion
374(1)
Systematic Rulemaking
374(1)
Citizen Oversight and Policymaking
375(1)
The Limits of Administrative Rulemaking
376(1)
Summary
377(1)
Key Terms
377(1)
Case Study: ``Broken Windows'' and Police Discretion
377(1)
For Discussion
378(1)
Internet Exercises
378(5)
Police--Community Relations
383(58)
A Definition of Police--Community Relations
385(5)
Different Racial and Ethnic Groups
386(2)
A Changing Multicultural Society
388(1)
Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
389(1)
Gender and Sexual Preference
389(1)
Discrimination versus Disparity
390(1)
A Contextual Approach to Police--Community Interactions
390(1)
Public Opinion and the Police
391(7)
Differences in Attitude by Race and Ethnicity
391(2)
Attitudes about Police Use of Force
393(1)
Race and Class
394(1)
Age
394(1)
Other Variables
394(1)
Intercity Variations
395(1)
The Impact of Controversial Incidents
395(1)
The Case of Detroit
395(1)
Dimensions of Trust of the Police
396(1)
The Police and Larger Society
396(1)
Police and Other Occupations
397(1)
Summary
397(1)
Police Perceptions of Citizens
398(1)
Sources of Police Attitudes
399(1)
Sources of Police--Community Relations Problems
399(1)
Level of Police Protection
400(2)
Inadequate Police Protection
400(1)
Underprotection versus Overenforcement
401(1)
Police Field Practices
402(11)
Deadly Force
402(2)
Use of Physical Force
404(2)
Arrests
406(2)
Filed Interrogations and Searches
408(1)
Being ``Out of Place'' and Getting Stopped
408(1)
Enforcement of Loitering and Vagrancy Laws
409(1)
Sex Discrimination: ``Driving While Female''
409(1)
Making Sense of Conflicting Evidence on Discrimination
409(1)
Crime Fighting, Stereotyping, Race, and Ethnicity
410(1)
Verbal Abuse and Racial and Ethnic Slurs
411(1)
Language and Cultural Barriers
411(1)
Language Barriers in Patrol Work
412(1)
Canine Units
413(1)
Delay in Responding to Calls
413(1)
Abuse of Gay Men, Lesbians, and Transgendered Persons
413(1)
Special Topic: Racial Profiling
413(9)
Traffic Enforcement Practices
414(1)
Data on Traffic Enforcement Patterns
414(2)
Interpreting Traffic-Stop Data
416(1)
Explaining Disparities
417(1)
The Legitimate Use of Race and Ethnicity in Police Work
418(1)
Policies to Prevent Bias in Police Work
419(1)
Do Policies Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities?
420(1)
Problem Solving on Racial Profiling
421(1)
Conclusion
421(1)
Administrative Practices
422(1)
Handling Civilian Complaints
422(1)
Police Employment Practices
423(3)
The Goals of Employing a Diverse Workforce
423(1)
Signs of Progress
424(1)
Employing Newly Arrived Ethnic Groups
425(1)
Does the Color of an Officer's Skin Make a Difference?
426(1)
Improving Police--Community Relations
426(1)
Special Police--Community Relations Units
427(4)
Should Local Police Enforce Federal Immigration Laws?
428(1)
Outreach to Immigrant Communities
428(1)
Race Relations and Human Relations Training
428(2)
``Best Practices'' in Policing
430(1)
Community Policing and Improving PCR
431(1)
Summary
431(1)
Key Terms
431(1)
Case Study: Responding to Community Crises: The U.S. Community Relations Service
432(1)
For Discussion
433(1)
Internet Exercises
433(8)
Police Corruption
441(30)
A Definition of Police Corruption
443(1)
The Costs of Police Corruption
443(2)
Types of Corruption
445(4)
Gratuities
445(1)
Bribes
446(1)
Theft and Burglary
447(1)
Internal Corruption
448(1)
Corruption and Brutality
449(1)
Levels of Corruption
449(1)
Type I: Rotten Apples and Rotten Pockets
450(1)
Type II: Pervasive Unorganized Corruption
450(1)
Type III: Pervasive Organized Corruption
450(1)
Theories of Police Corruption
450(5)
Individual Officer Explanations
451(1)
Social Structural Explanations
451(2)
Neighborhood Explanations
453(1)
The Nature of Police Work
453(1)
The Police Organization
454(1)
The Police Subculture
454(1)
Becoming Corrupt
455(1)
The Moral Careers of Individual Officers
455(1)
Corrupting Organizations
456(1)
Controlling Corruption
456(1)
Internal Corruption Control Strategies
457(7)
The Attitude of the Chief
457(1)
Rules and Regulations
457(1)
Managing Anticorruption Investigations
458(2)
Investigative Tactics
460(1)
Cracking the ``Blue Curtain''
460(1)
Proactive Integrity Tests
461(1)
Effective Supervision
461(1)
Rewarding the Good Officers
462(1)
Personnel Recruitment
463(1)
External Corruption Control Practices
464(2)
Special Investigations
464(1)
Criminal Prosecution
464(1)
Mobilizing Public Opinion
465(1)
Altering the External Environment
466(1)
The Limits of Anticorruption Efforts
466(1)
Summary
466(1)
Key Terms
467(1)
Case Study: Police Integrity---New Orleans Style
467(1)
For Discussion
468(1)
Internet Exercises
468(3)
Accountability of the Police
471(42)
A Definition of Accountability
473(1)
The Dimensions of Accountability
473(2)
The Dilemmas of Policing in a Democracy
473(1)
A Historical Perspective on Accountability
474(1)
Accountability and Community Policing
474(1)
Accountability for What the Police Do
475(1)
The Traditional Approach
475(1)
New Measures of Police Service
476(1)
Compstat: A New Approach
476(1)
Accountability for How the Police Do Their Job
476(1)
Internal Mechanisms of Accountability
477(1)
Supervision
477(4)
Routine Supervision
477(1)
Close Supervision
478(1)
The Impact of the Organizational Culture
478(1)
Informal Corrective Action
479(1)
Written Policies and Reporting Requirements
479(1)
Performance Evaluations
480(1)
Internal Affairs and Professional Standards Units
481(3)
Problems with Internal Discipline Practices
482(1)
Reforms of Internal Discipline
483(1)
The ``Code of Silence''
483(1)
Early Intervention Systems
484(3)
The Nature of EI Systems
484(1)
Performance Indicators
485(1)
Interventions
486(1)
Goals of EI Systems
486(1)
Effectiveness of EI Systems
486(1)
Accreditation
487(2)
The Nature of Accreditation
487(1)
The Benefits of Accreditation
487(1)
Criticisms of Accreditation
488(1)
External Mechanisms of Accountability
489(1)
The Political Process
489(1)
The Courts
489(10)
The Supreme Court and the Police
489(1)
The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions
490(2)
Civil Suits against the Police
492(2)
Risk Management
494(1)
``Pattern or Practice'' Suits
494(1)
Department of Justice Suits
494(2)
State and Private Suits
496(1)
Court-Ordered Reforms
496(1)
Court-Appointed Monitors
497(1)
The Impact of Consent Decrees
497(1)
Injunctions
498(1)
Criminal Prosecution
498(1)
Summary
499(1)
Citizen Oversight of the Police
499(6)
Forms of Citizen Oversight
499(2)
The Roles of Citizen Oversight
501(1)
Citizen Review: Pro and Con
502(1)
Blue-Ribbon Commissions
503(1)
The News Media
503(1)
Public Interest Organizations
504(1)
Accountability and Crime Control: A Trade-Off
504(1)
A Mixed Approach to Police Accountability
505(1)
Summary
506(1)
Key Terms
507(1)
Case Study: Miami--Dade Police Department, Early Identification System (Excerpt)
507(1)
For Discussion
507(1)
Internet Exercises
508(5)
PART V CHALLENGES FOR A NEW CENTURY
513(18)
The Future of Policing in America
515(16)
Police Technology
516(4)
Major Technology Applications
516(4)
Crime Analysis
520(1)
Types of Crime Analysis
521(1)
The Outlook for Police Employment
521(4)
Opportunities in Local, County, and State Law Enforcement
522(1)
Local, County, and State Salaries
522(2)
Opportunities in Federal Law Enforcement
524(1)
Federal Salaries
524(1)
The Future of Police Research
525(2)
Does Research Do Any Good?
525(1)
The Future of Federal Support for Research
526(1)
Demographic Change
527(1)
Impact of the War in Terrorism
527(2)
Role Expansion
527(1)
Immigration Enforcement
528(1)
Racial and Ethnic Profiling
528(1)
Personnel Shortages
528(1)
Conclusion
529(1)
Key Terms
529(1)
Case Study: FBI Futures Work Group
529(1)
For Discussion
530(1)
Internet Exercises
530(1)
Glossary 531(8)
Index 539


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