CART

(0) items

The Police in America: An Introduction, with PowerWeb,9780072532401
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

The Police in America: An Introduction, with PowerWeb

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072532401

ISBN10:
0072532408
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/28/2001
Publisher(s):
MCG (Manual)
List Price: $87.00
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.02
See Prices

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Related Products


  • POLICE IN AMERICA: INTRO
    POLICE IN AMERICA: INTRO
  • The Police in America: An Introduction
    The Police in America: An Introduction
  • The Police in America: An Introduction
    The Police in America: An Introduction
  • The Police in America: An Introduction
    The Police in America: An Introduction
  • The Police In America: An Introduction, with
    The Police In America: An Introduction, with "Making the Grade" Student CD-ROM and PowerWeb




Summary

The Police in America: An Introduction provides a comprehensive introduction to the foundations of policing in the United States today. Descriptive and analytical, the text is designed to offer undergraduate students a balanced and up-to-date overview of who the police are and what they do, the problems they face, and the many reforms and innovations that have taken place in policing. The book is designed primarily for undergraduate students enrolled in their first police or law enforcement course such as Introduction to Policing, Police and Society, Police Function, or Law Enforcement Systems.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
PART ONE FOUNDATIONS
Police and Society
3(20)
Introduction: Why Police?
3(2)
The Goals of This Book
4(1)
Myths, Realities, and Possibilities
4(1)
Myths about Policing
5(1)
Sources of the Crime-Fighter Image
5(1)
Consequences of the Crime-Fighter Image
5(1)
The Realities of Policing
6(6)
Factors That Shape the Police Role
9(1)
The Authority to Use Force
10(1)
The Police and Social Control
11(1)
The Police and Social Control Systems
12(1)
Possibilities
12(4)
Functional Specialization
13(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing
14(1)
Community Policing
15(1)
Zero-Tolerance Policing
15(1)
Honest Law Enforcement
16(1)
The Implications of Change
16(1)
Summary
17(1)
Case Study: Reality-Based Police Television: Do These Programs Distort Reality?
18(5)
The History of the American Police
23(35)
Introduction
23(1)
The Relevance of History
24(1)
The English Heritage
24(2)
Creation of the Modern Police: London, 1829
25(1)
Law Enforcement in Colonial America
26(2)
The Quality of Colonial Law Enforcement
27(1)
The First Modern American Police
28(1)
American Policing in the Nineteenth Century 1834-1900
29(4)
Personnel Standards
29(1)
Patrol Work
29(1)
The Police and the Public
30(1)
Corruption and Politics
31(1)
The Failure of Police Reform
32(1)
The Impact of the Police on Society
32(1)
The Twentieth Century: The Origins of Police Professionalism, 1900-1930
33(4)
The Professionalization Movement
33(1)
The Reform Agenda
34(1)
The Impact of Professionalization
35(1)
The New Police Subculture
35(1)
Police and Racial Minorities
36(1)
New Law Enforcement Agencies
36(1)
The New Communications Technology
37(1)
New Directions in Police Administration, 1930-1960
38(2)
The Wickersham Commission Report
38(1)
Professionalization Continues
38(1)
J. Edgar Hoover and the War on Crime
39(1)
The Police Crisis of the 1960s
40(4)
The Cops and the Supreme Court
40(1)
The Cops and Civil Rights
41(1)
The Police in the National Spotlight
41(2)
The Research Revolution
43(1)
New Developments in Policing, 1970-2000
44(5)
The Changing Police Officer
44(1)
The Control of Police Discretion
45(1)
Police Unions
45(1)
Citizen Oversight of Police
46(1)
Community Policing and Problem-Oriented Policing
46(1)
Race and Ethnic Conflict Continues
47(2)
Summary: The Lessons of the Past
49(1)
Case Study: Police Patrol Practices
50(8)
The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry
58(28)
Introduction
59(3)
Basic Features of American Law Enforcement
59(1)
An ``Industry'' Perspective
60(1)
An International Perspective
61(1)
A Definition of Terms
62(1)
What Is a Law Enforcement Agency?
62(1)
Who Is a Police Officer?
62(1)
Size and Scope of the Law Enforcement Industry
63(3)
The Number of Law Enforcement Agencies
63(1)
The Number of Law Enforcement Personnel
64(1)
Understanding Law Enforcement Personnel Data
64(1)
Civilianization
65(1)
The Police-Population Ratio
65(1)
The Cost of Police Protection
66(1)
Municipal Police
66(1)
County Police
67(1)
The County Sheriff
67(1)
The Role of the Sheriff
67(1)
Other Local agencies
68(1)
The Constable
68(1)
The Coroner
68(1)
Special District Police
69(1)
Campus Police
69(1)
Native American Tribal Police
69(1)
State Law Enforcement agencies
70(1)
Roles and Responsibilities
70(1)
Federal law Enforcement agencies
71(1)
Roles and Responsibilities
71(1)
The Private Security Industry
71(1)
The Fragmentation Issue
72(3)
Alternatives to Fragmentation
74(1)
The Fragmentation Problem Reconsidered
75(1)
Minimum Standards: American Style
75(2)
The Role of the Federal Government
76(1)
The Role of State Governments
76(1)
Accreditation
77(1)
Summary
77(1)
Case Study: Special District Police: The New York City Transit Police
77(9)
PART TWO POLICE WORK
Patrol: The Backbone of Policing
86(34)
Introduction
87(1)
The Central Role of Patrol
87(2)
The Functions of Patrol
89(1)
The Organization and Delivery of Patrol
89(5)
Number of Sworn Officers
89(1)
Allocation and Distribution of Officers to Patrol
90(2)
Assignment to Shifts and Areas
92(1)
``Hot Spots''
92(1)
Types of Patrol
93(1)
Foot Patrol
93(1)
One-Officer versus Two-Officer Cars
93(1)
Staffing Patrol Beats
94(1)
Styles of Patrol
94(1)
Individual Styles
94(1)
Supervisors' Styles
95(1)
Organizational Styles
95(1)
Patrol Supervision
95(1)
The Role of the Sergeant
95(1)
How Much Actual Police Protection? A Summary
96(1)
The Communications Center
96(3)
The Nerve Center of Policing
96(1)
911 Systems
97(1)
Processing Calls for Service
98(1)
The Systematic Study of Police Patrol
99(1)
The Call Service Workload
100(2)
The Volume of Calls
100(1)
Types of Calls
100(2)
Aspects of Patrol Work
102(3)
Response Time
102(1)
Officer Use of Patrol Time
103(1)
Evasion of Duty
104(1)
High-Speed Pursuits
104(1)
The Effectiveness of Patrol
105(4)
Initial Experiments
105(1)
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
106(1)
Findings and Implications
107(1)
The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment
108(1)
New Questions, New Approaches
109(1)
Improving Patrol
109(4)
Differential Response to Calls
109(1)
Telephone Report Units
110(1)
311 Nonemergency Numbers
110(1)
Non-English 911 Call Services
111(1)
Reverse 911
111(1)
Computers and Video Cameras in Patrol Cars
111(1)
Police Aides or Cadets
111(1)
Directed Patrol and ``Hot Spots''
112(1)
Beyond Traditional Patrol
112(1)
Summary
113(1)
Case Study: Kansas City (MO) Gun Experiment (Excerpt)
113(7)
Peacekeeping and Order Maintenance
120(38)
Introduction
121(2)
The Police Role
122(1)
Calling the Police
123(2)
Public Expectations
123(1)
Police Response
124(1)
Traffic Enforcement
125(1)
Drunk-Driving Crackdowns
126(1)
Policing Domestic Disputes
126(3)
Defining Our Terms
127(1)
The Prevalence of Domestic Violence
127(1)
Calling the Police
127(2)
Danger to Police?
129(1)
Police Response to Domestic Disturbances
129(5)
Factors Influencing the Arrest Decision
130(1)
A Revolution in Policing: Mandatory Arrest
131(1)
The Impact of Arrest on Domestic Violence
132(1)
Impact of Mandatory Arrest Laws and Policies
132(2)
Other Laws and Policies
134(1)
The Future of Domestic Violence Policy
134(1)
Policing Vice
134(2)
Prostitution
135(1)
Gambling
136(1)
Policing the Homeless
136(3)
The Old Homeless Problem
137(1)
The New Homeless Problem
137(1)
Police and the Chronic Alcoholic
138(1)
Policing the Mentally Ill
139(2)
Police Response to the Mentally Ill
139(2)
Old Problems/New Programs
141(1)
Policing People with Aids
141(2)
Policing Juveniles
143(4)
Controversy over the Police Role
143(1)
Specialized Juvenile Units
144(1)
On-the-Street Encounters
145(1)
The Issue of Race Discrimination
146(1)
Crime Prevention Programs
146(1)
Summary
147(1)
Case Study: Westminster, California, Police Department's Shield Program
147(11)
The Police and Crime
158(42)
Introduction
159(1)
The Police and Crime
160(2)
Crime Control Strategies
160(1)
Crime Control Assumptions
161(1)
Measuring Effectiveness
162(1)
Summary
162(1)
Preventing Crime
162(1)
Apprehending Criminals
163(3)
Citizen Reporting of Crime
163(1)
Reporting and Unfounding Crimes
164(2)
Criminal Investigation
166(1)
Myths about Detective Work
166(1)
The Organization of Detective Work
166(1)
The Investigation Process
167(2)
The Preliminary Investigation
167(1)
Arrest Discretion
167(1)
Follow-Up Investigations
168(1)
The Reality of Detective Work
168(1)
Case Screening
169(1)
Measuring the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation
169(2)
The Clearance Rate
169(1)
Defining an Arrest
170(1)
Success and Failure in Solving Crimes
171(3)
Eyewitness Identification
172(1)
Criminalistics
172(1)
Officer Productivity
173(1)
The Problem of Case Attrition
173(1)
Improving Criminal Investigations
174(1)
Targeting Career Criminals
175(1)
Special Investigative Techniques
175(2)
Undercover Police Work
175(1)
Informants
176(1)
Policing Drugs
177(3)
Drug Enforcement Strategies
177(1)
Retail Drug Enforcement
178(1)
Minorities and the War on Drugs
178(1)
Demand Reduction: The D.A.R.E. Program
179(1)
New Approaches to Drug Enforcement
179(1)
Policing Gangs and Gang-Related Crimes
180(3)
Gang Suppression
181(2)
Gang Prevention: The G.R.E.A.T Program
183(1)
Policing Guns and Gun Crime
183(1)
The Kansas City Gun Experiment
183(1)
Policing Hate Crime
184(1)
The Scope and Nature of Hate Crime
184(1)
The Police Response to Hate Crime
184(1)
Current Problems Facing Law Enforcement
185(4)
School Crime
185(1)
Terrorism
186(2)
Computer Crime
188(1)
Summary
189(1)
Case Study: Recent Innovations in Gang Violence Reduction
189(11)
Innovations in Policing
200(44)
Introduction
201(1)
Impetus for Change in Policing
202(1)
The Roots of Community Policing: The Broken Windows Hypothesis
203(2)
Types of Disorder
204(1)
Characteristics of Community Policing
205(7)
Community Partnerships
206(1)
The Effectiveness of Community Partnerships
207(2)
Organizational Change
209(1)
Evidence of Organizational Change
210(1)
Problem Solving
211(1)
Putting It All Together: Implementing Community Policing At the Department Level
212(4)
Chicago's Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Program
212(4)
Community Policing: Problems and Prospects
216(3)
Rhetoric or Reality?
216(1)
Too Rapid Expansion
216(2)
A Legitimate Police Role
218(1)
A Political Police?
218(1)
Decentralization and Accountability
218(1)
Conflicting Community Interests
219(1)
The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing
219(1)
The Problem-Solving Process
220(4)
Scanning
222(1)
Analysis
222(1)
Response
222(1)
Assessment
222(2)
Effectiveness of Problem-Oriented Policing
224(4)
Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News
224(1)
SMART in Oakland
225(1)
The Boston Gun Project: Operation Cease Fire
226(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing in Jersey City, New Jersey
227(1)
Characteristics of Zero-Tolerance Policing
228(4)
The Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Policing
228(3)
Potential Problems with Zero-Tolerance Policing
231(1)
Summary: The New Era in Policing?
232(2)
Case Study: Addressing Repeat Calls for Service in San Diego, California: Problem-Oriented Policing In Action
234(10)
PART THREE POLICE PROBLEMS
Police Discretion
244(28)
Introduction
245(1)
Discretion in Police Work
246(1)
A Definition of Discretion
246(1)
Aspects of Police Discretion
247(2)
Street-Level Bureaucrats
247(1)
Potential Abuse of Discretion
248(1)
Positive Uses of Discretion
248(1)
Decision Points and Decision Makers
249(1)
Patrol Officer Decisions
249(1)
Order Maintenance Decisions
249(1)
Criminal Investigation Decisions
250(1)
Law Enforcement Policy Decisions
250(1)
Underlying Sources of Police Discretion
250(1)
The Nature of the Criminal Law
250(1)
The Work Environment of Policing
251(1)
Limited Police Resources
251(1)
Factors Influencing Discretionary Decisions
251(5)
Situational Factors
251(2)
Police-Citizen Interactions
253(1)
The Neighborhood Environment
253(1)
Characteristics of the Individual Officer
254(1)
Official Department Policy
254(1)
Informal Organizational Culture
255(1)
Local Political Culture
255(1)
The Control of Discretion
256(2)
The Need for Control
256(1)
Abolishing Discretion
256(1)
Enhancing Professional Judgment
257(1)
Bureaucracy and the Control of Discretion
257(1)
Written Policies
258(1)
Administrative Rulemaking
258(7)
Examples of Administrative Rulemaking
258(2)
Principles of Administrative Rulemaking
260(1)
Advantages of Written Rules
260(1)
The Impact of Administrative Rulemaking
261(1)
Ensuring Compliance with Rules
261(1)
Codifying Rules: The Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Manual
261(1)
Systematic Rulemaking
262(2)
The Limits of Administrative Rulemaking
264(1)
Summary
265(1)
Case Study: ``Broken Windows'' and Police Discretion
265(7)
Police-Community Relations
272(48)
Introduction
273(1)
A Definition of Police-Community Relations
274(4)
Different Racial and Ethnic Groups
275(1)
A Changing Multicultural Society
276(1)
Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
277(1)
Gender and Sexual Preference
278(1)
Discrimination Versus Disparity
278(1)
A Contextual approach To Police-Citizen Interactions
278(1)
Public Opinion and the Police
279(6)
Racial and Ethnic Differences
281(1)
Attitudes about Police Use of Force
281(1)
Race and Class
281(1)
Age
282(1)
Intercity Variations
282(1)
The Impact of Controversial Incidents
283(1)
The Detroit Exception
283(1)
Expectations about Police Performance
283(1)
The Police and the Larger Society
284(1)
Police and Other Occupations
284(1)
Summary
284(1)
Police Perceptions of Citizens
285(1)
Sources of Police Attitudes
286(1)
Sources of Police-Community Relations Problems
286(1)
Level of Police Protection
287(2)
Inadequate Police Protection
287(1)
Underprotection versus Overenforcement
288(1)
Police Field Practices
289(10)
Deadly Force
289(2)
Use of Physical Force
291(2)
Arrests
293(1)
Traffic Stops: ``Driving While Black'' and ``Driving While Brown''
294(1)
Sex Discrimination: ``Driving While Female''
295(1)
Field Interrogations and Searches
295(1)
Being ``Out of Place'' and Getting Stopped
296(1)
Conflicting Evidence
296(1)
The Heart of the Problem: Crime Fighting, Stereotyping, Race, and Ethnicity
297(1)
Verbal Abuse and Racial and Ethnic Slurs
297(1)
Canine Units
298(1)
Delay in Responding to Calls
298(1)
Abuse of Gay Men, Lesbians, and Transgendered Persons
299(1)
Summary
299(1)
Administrative Practices
299(1)
Handling Citizen Complaints
299(1)
Police Employment Practices
300(3)
Employment Discrimination
300(1)
The Goals of Equal Employment Opportunity
301(1)
Signs of Progress
302(1)
Employing Newly Arrived Ethnic Groups
302(1)
Does the Color of the Officer Make a Difference?
303(1)
Improving Police-Community Relations
303(4)
Special Police-Community Relations Units
304(1)
Race Relations and Human Relations Training
305(1)
Language Training for Non-English Speakers
306(1)
``Best Practices'' in Policing
306(1)
Community Policing and Improving PCR
307(1)
Summary
307(1)
Case Study: Responding to Community Crises: The U.S. Community Relations Service
307(13)
Police Corruption
320(30)
Introduction
321(1)
A Definition of Police Corruption
322(1)
The Costs of Police Corruption
323(1)
Types of Corruption
324(4)
Gratuities
324(1)
Bribes
325(1)
Theft and Burglary
326(1)
Internal Corruption
327(1)
Corruption and Brutality
327(1)
Levels of Corruption
328(1)
Type I: Rotten Apples and Rotten Pockets
328(1)
Type II: Pervasive Unorganized Corruption
328(1)
Type III: Pervasive Organized Corruption
328(1)
Theories of Police Corruption
329(3)
Individual Officer Explanations
329(1)
Social Structural Explanations
329(2)
The Nature of Police Work
331(1)
The Police Organization
331(1)
The Police Subculture
332(1)
Becoming Corrupt
332(1)
The Moral Careers of Individual Officers
332(1)
Corrupting Organizations
333(1)
Controlling Corruption
333(1)
Internal Corruption Control Strategies
334(7)
The Attitude of the Chief
334(1)
Rules and Regulations
335(1)
Managing Anticorruption Investigations
336(1)
Investigative Tactics
337(1)
Cracking the ``Blue Curtain''
338(1)
Proactive Integrity Tests
338(1)
Effective Supervision
338(1)
Rewarding the Good Officers
339(1)
Personnel Recruitment
340(1)
External Corruption Control Approaches
341(2)
Special Investigations
341(1)
Criminal Prosecution
341(1)
Mobilizing Public Opinion
342(1)
Altering the External Environment
343(1)
The Limits of Anticorruption Efforts
343(1)
Summary
343(1)
Case Study: Police Integrity-New Orleans Style
343(7)
Accountability of the Police
350(36)
Introduction
351(1)
A Definition of Accountability
352(1)
Basic Issues in Police Accountability
352(2)
What, How, and to Whom?
352(1)
The ``Three E's''
353(1)
The Dilemmas of Policing in a Democracy
353(1)
A Historical Perspective on Accountability
354(1)
Accountability for What the Police Do
354(2)
The Traditional Approach
354(1)
New Measures of Police Service
355(1)
Compstat: A New Approach
355(1)
Accountability for How the Police Do Their Job
356(1)
Internal Mechanisms of Accountability
356(1)
Supervision
356(4)
Routine Supervision
356(1)
The Impact of Organizational Culture
357(1)
Close Supervision
358(1)
Written Policies and Reporting Requirements
358(1)
Performance Evaluations
359(1)
Internal affairs Units
360(3)
The ``Code of Silence''
361(1)
Early Warning Systems
362(1)
Accreditation
363(1)
External Mechanisms of Accountability
364(1)
The Political Process
364(1)
The Courts
365(6)
The Supreme Court and the Police
365(1)
The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions
366(2)
Civil Suits against the Police
368(1)
``Pattern or Practice'' Suits
369(1)
Injunctions
370(1)
Criminal Prosecution
370(1)
Summary
371(1)
Citizen Oversight of the Police
371(5)
Forms of Citizen Oversight
372(1)
The Roles of Citizen Oversight
373(1)
Citizen Review: Pro and Con
374(1)
Blue-Ribbon Commissions
374(1)
The News Media
375(1)
Public Interest Groups
375(1)
A Mixed Approach to Police Accountability
376(1)
Summary
376(1)
Case Study: Miami-Dade Police Department, Early Identification System (Excerpt)
377(9)
PART FOUR OFFICERS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Police Officers I: Entering Police Work
386(36)
Introduction
387(1)
The Changing American Police Officer
387(1)
Aspects of the Personnel Process
388(2)
A Career Perspective
388(1)
Beyond Stereotypes of Cops
388(1)
The Personnel Process: A Shared Responsibility
389(1)
Recruitment
390(5)
Minimum Qualifications
390(4)
Recruitment Effort
394(1)
Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career
395(2)
Motivations
395(1)
People Who Do Not Apply
396(1)
Selection
397(2)
Selection Tests
397(1)
Oral Interviews
398(1)
Background Investigations
399(1)
Predicting Who Will Be Good Officers
399(2)
Equal Employment Opportunity
401(5)
The Law of Equal Employment Opportunity
401(1)
Job-Related Qualifications
401(1)
Employment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
402(2)
Hispanic or Latino Officers
404(1)
Women in Policing
404(1)
Barriers to Women in Policing
405(1)
Gay and Lesbian Officers
405(1)
Employment Discrimination Litigation
406(1)
The Affirmative Action Controversy
406(3)
The Law of Affirmative Action
406(1)
The Issue of Quotas
407(2)
Training
409(4)
Police Academy Training
410(1)
Field Training
411(1)
State Training and Certification
411(1)
Shortcomings of Current Police Training
411(2)
The Probationary Period
413(1)
Summary
414(1)
Case Study: Excerpt from the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society
414(8)
Police Officers II: On the Job
422(40)
Introduction
423(1)
Reality Shock: Entering Police Work
424(2)
Encountering Citizens
424(1)
Encountering the Justice System
425(1)
Encountering the Department
425(1)
The Seniority System
426(1)
Police Officer Attitudes and Behavior
426(5)
The Concept of a Police Subculture
427(3)
Criticisms of the Police Subculture Concept
430(1)
The Changing Rank and File
431(7)
Women Police Officers
431(1)
Female Officers and the Use of Force
432(1)
African American Officers
433(1)
Hispanic/Latino Officers
434(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Performance
434(1)
Gay and Lesbian Officers
435(1)
The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Sexual Identity
435(1)
Education
436(1)
Cohort Effects
436(1)
Attitudes toward Community Policing
437(1)
Summary
438(1)
The Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior
438(1)
Styles of Police Work
439(1)
Career Development
440(3)
Promotion
440(1)
Salaries and Benefits
441(1)
Assignment to Special Units
441(1)
Lateral Entry
442(1)
Performance Evaluation
443(5)
Traditional Performance Evaluation Systems
443(1)
Problems with Performance Evaluations
443(5)
Job Satisfaction and Job Stress
448(2)
Sources of Stress
448(1)
Coping with Stress
449(1)
The Rights of Police Officers
450(1)
Officers' Rights versus Accountability
450(1)
Outside Employment
451(1)
Turnover: Leaving Police Work
451(1)
Summary
452(1)
Case Study: National Center for Women and Policing (Excerpt)
452(10)
Police Organizations
462
Introduction
463
The Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations
464
Criticisms of the Quasi-Military Style
464
Police Departments as Organizations
466
The Dominant Style of American Police Organizations
466
Police Organizations as Bureaucracies
466
The Problems with Bureaucracy
467
Problems with Police Organizations
469
The Positive Contributions of Bureaucracy in Policing
470
Informal Aspects of Police Organizations
470
Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism
471
Changing Police Organizations
471
Community Policing
472
Total Quality Management
472
Task Forces
473
Creating Learning Organizations
474
Compstat
475
Civil Service
476
Police Unions
477
Aspects of Police Unions
477
Collective Bargaining
477
Grievance Procedures
478
Unions and Shared Governance
478
Impasse Settlement and Strikes
478
Impact of Police Unions
481
Police Organizations and Their Environment
481
Contingency Theory
481
Institutional Theory
482
Resource Dependency Theory
482
Summary
483
Case Study: Union Influence in the Lowell, Massachusetts, Police Department
483


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...