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Police Operations : Theory and Practice,9780534632229
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Police Operations : Theory and Practice

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534632229

ISBN10:
053463222X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/26/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $166.95
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Summary

This introductory text covers all major areas of police operations with a focus on community-oriented and problem-oriented policing, which reflects the current direction of progressive police departments. Providing a comprehensive presentation of police operations, the authors incorporate the latest research on patrol techniques, cultural diversity, and changes in police administration policy. The text goes beyond the traditional focus on the patrol function of policing, but is still geared towards the student pursuing a career in law enforcement. Known for solid coverage of basic policing principles and practices, this text is one of the few texts in this market intended purely for the police operations course, and not for a combination of introduction to law enforcement and police operations courses. Wrobleski brings a practical and professional knowledge with a practitioner's point of view, while Hess brings her experience of over 25 years of developing instructional products.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
SECTION I THE BASICS BEHIND EFFECTIVE POLICE OPERATIONS
1(96)
Police Operations in Context
3(20)
Introduction
3(1)
Changes Affecting Police Operations
4(9)
A Changing Public and Society
4(1)
A Changing Law Enforcement Officer
5(2)
A Changing Police Bureaucracy
7(2)
A Change in Community Involvement: Community Policing
9(4)
Mission and Values
13(1)
Goals, Objectives and Tasks
14(4)
Policies
15(1)
Procedures
16(1)
Policies and Procedures Manuals
16(1)
Regulations
16(1)
A Final Note and Caution
16(2)
Discretion
18(2)
Problems with Officer Discretion
18(1)
Limits on Discretion
19(1)
Discretion and Critical-Thinking Skills
19(1)
Summary
20(3)
Communication: The Foundation of Police Operations
23(38)
Introduction
23(1)
Lines of Communication within an Agency
24(1)
Technological Advances in Communication
24(3)
Problems in Using Radios and Cell Phones to Communicate
27(3)
Communication Security
27(1)
Interference on the Line
28(1)
Lack of Interoperability
29(1)
Problems in Communicating One-on-One
30(7)
Communicating with the Elderly
30(1)
Communicating with Non-English-Speaking Immigrants
31(1)
Communicating with Those from a Different Culture
32(1)
Communicating with Individuals with Disabilities or Conditions Affecting Speech
32(1)
Communicating with Individuals Who Are Mentally Ill
33(2)
Communicating with Individuals Who Are Mentally Retarded or Autistic
35(1)
Communicating with the Homeless
36(1)
Communication as a Tool or a Weapon
37(1)
Communicating to Obtain Information
37(1)
The Field Inquiry
38(1)
The Authority to Stop
38(1)
The Interview
39(1)
The Certified Forensic Interviewer Program
40(1)
Guidelines for Interviewing
40(1)
Interviewing and Interrogating Techniques
40(6)
Phrasing Questions
41(1)
Avoiding Contaminating an Interview
41(1)
Interviewing Witnesses: The Lifeblood of Criminal Cases
41(3)
The Cognitive Interview
44(1)
Interviewing Children
45(1)
Statements
45(1)
Information from Informants
46(1)
Anonymous Tips
46(1)
The Interrogation
47(6)
The Miranda Decision
47(2)
Waiving the Miranda Rights
49(1)
Providing Consular Rights Warnings to Foreign Nationals
49(1)
Ethical Considerations in Interrogation
50(1)
Use of Force or Coercion during Interrogation
50(1)
Detecting Deception
51(1)
The Polygraph and CVSA
52(1)
Documenting Confessions
52(1)
Report Writing
53(2)
The Importance of Field Notes
53(1)
Purposes of Reports
54(1)
The Audience
54(1)
The Effective Report
54(1)
Computer-Assisted Report Entry
55(1)
Interaction and Cooperation with the Media
55(1)
Summary
56(5)
Operational Skills: Performing within the Law
61(36)
Introduction
62(1)
Stop and Frisk
63(3)
The Stop
63(2)
The Frisk
65(1)
Legal Arrests
66(5)
Arrest Defined
66(1)
When Arrests Can Be Made
66(2)
The Importance of Lawful Arrests
68(3)
Procedures for Making Legal Arrests
71(1)
De Facto Arrests
72(1)
The Use of Force in Making an Arrest
72(11)
Gender Differences in Use of Force
73(1)
The Use of Force Model
73(1)
Use of Force Continuums
74(1)
Using Forcible Entry to Arrest
75(1)
The Use of Handcuffs in Making an Arrest
76(1)
Excessive Force
77(1)
The Use of Nonlethal or Less-Lethal Weapons in Making Arrests
78(2)
The Use of Deadly Force in Making Arrests
80(2)
The Duty to Warn
82(1)
Reports on Use of Force
83(1)
Use of Force and Community Policing
83(1)
Legal Searches
83(5)
Search Warrants
84(1)
Exceptions to the Search Warrant Requirement
84(4)
Procedures for Legally Searching People
88(1)
Procedures for Legally Searching Buildings
89(1)
Using K-9s in Searches
90(1)
Summary
91(6)
SECTION II GETTING THE JOB DONE: BASIC POLICE OPERATIONS
97(218)
Patrol: The Backbone of Police Operations
99(33)
Introduction
99(1)
An Organizational Contradiction---The Importance of Patrol
100(1)
Patrol Functions
100(6)
Noncrime Calls for Service
101(2)
Controlling Traffic
103(1)
Assisting at the Scene of a Crime
103(1)
Making Arrests
103(1)
Special Events
103(2)
Assisting at the Scene of a Fire
105(1)
The Community Service and Peacekeeping Function
105(1)
Patrol Methods
106(11)
Foot Patrol
106(1)
Automobile Patrol
107(1)
Motorcycle Patrol
108(1)
Bicycle Patrol
109(3)
Segways
112(1)
Mounted Patrol
112(2)
Air Patrol
114(1)
Personal Vertical Takeoff and Landing Aircraft
114(1)
Water Patrol
114(1)
Special-Terrain Vehicles
115(1)
K-9-Assisted Patrol
116(1)
Combination Patrol
117(1)
Patrol Techniques and Strategies
117(3)
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
117(1)
Area and Shift Assignments
118(1)
Response Time
119(1)
Differential Police Response
119(1)
Directed Patrol
120(1)
Patrol and Problem-Oriented Policing
120(6)
The SARA Problem-Solving Process
120(6)
Implementing Problem-Oriented Policing
126(1)
Patrol and Community Policing
126(2)
Summary
128(4)
Traffic: Policing in a Country on the Move
132(37)
Introduction
132(1)
Traffic Direction and Control
133(1)
The Cruising Problem
134(1)
Traffic Enforcement
134(9)
Traffic Violators and Violations
136(1)
Seat Belt Laws
136(2)
Speeding
138(2)
Red-Light Runners
140(1)
Aggressive Driving and Road Rage
141(1)
Driving under the Influence
142(1)
Selective Traffic Enforcement and the Enforcement Index
143(1)
The Traffic Stop
143(5)
Automated Citations
145(1)
Pretext Stops
145(1)
Racial Profiling
146(2)
Recognizing and Stopping Drivers ``Under the Influence''
148(4)
Field and Chemical Tests for DUI
148(1)
Recognizing the Driver under the Influence of Drugs
149(1)
Implied Consent
149(1)
Videotaping Drivers
150(1)
Strategies to Deter DUI
150(2)
Legal Liability
152(1)
Enforcement and Pursuit
152(3)
Enforcement and Transportation of Hazardous Materials
155(1)
Crash Management and Investigation
155(6)
Responding to a Crash Call
156(1)
Crash Investigation and Reconstruction
157(1)
Fake ``Accidents''
158(2)
Crash Reduction Strategies
160(1)
Crash Reports
160(1)
Legal Liability
160(1)
Traffic and Community Policing
161(1)
Traffic and Problem-Oriented Policing
162(2)
Scanning
162(1)
Analysis
162(1)
Response
163(1)
Assessment
164(1)
Summary
164(5)
Crime, Disorder and Quality-of-Life Issues: Responding to the Call
169(36)
Introduction
169(2)
Classifying and Measuring Crime
171(4)
Uniform Crime Reports
171(2)
National Incident-Based Reporting System
173(1)
National Crime Victimization Survey
173(2)
From Measuring Crime to Predicting Crime---Becoming Proactive
175(1)
Mapping Crime
175(4)
Responding to Calls about Crime and Disorder
179(4)
Arriving at the Scene
179(1)
Attending to Injuries and Apprehending Suspects
180(1)
Securing the Crime Scene
180(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
181(2)
Crime-Scene Units
183(1)
Disorder and Quality-of-Life Issues
183(5)
Responding to Disorderly or Troublesome People
185(3)
Civil Disobedience
188(6)
Issues Leading to Civil Disobedience
189(3)
Responding to Demonstrations and Civil Disturbances
192(2)
Crisis Situations
194(4)
Hostage Situations
194(2)
Barricaded Individuals and Suicide Attempts
196(2)
Crime, Disorder and Community Policing
198(1)
Crime, Disorder and Problem-Oriented Policing
199(2)
Scanning
199(1)
Analysis
199(1)
Response
200(1)
Assessment
200(1)
Summary
201(4)
Violence: At Home, in the Classroom, on the Job
205(52)
Introduction
205(2)
Domestic and Family Violence
207(1)
Partner Abuse
208(4)
Battered Women
208(3)
Battered Men
211(1)
Gay Domestic Violence
212(1)
Responding to Domestic Violence Calls
212(7)
The Danger of Domestic Calls
213(1)
Documenting Evidence of Domestic Violence
214(1)
Arresting Batterers
215(2)
Batterer Intervention Programs
217(2)
Helping Victims Deal with the Assault
219(1)
Stalking
219(2)
The Police Response
220(1)
Cyberstalking
220(1)
Child Abuse
221(6)
The Police Response
223(2)
Special Challenges Related to Child Abuse Investigations
225(2)
Elder Abuse
227(3)
Indications of Financial Crimes against the Elderly
228(1)
The Police Response
228(1)
Cooperative Efforts
229(1)
Community Policing and Domestic Violence
230(1)
School Violence
230(6)
Bullying
231(2)
School Shootings
233(3)
The Police Response
236(1)
In Search of Safer Schools
236(4)
Crisis Planning
236(1)
Security Technology
237(1)
Partnerships
238(2)
Other Efforts to Prevent School Violence
240(4)
Zero-Tolerance Policies
242(1)
Proactive Lockdowns
243(1)
Workplace Violence
244(4)
Similarities between School and Workplace Violence
245(1)
Early Warning Signs
246(1)
The Police Response
246(2)
Problem-Oriented Policing and Violence
248(2)
Scanning
248(1)
Analysis
248(1)
Response
249(1)
Assessment
249(1)
Summary
250(7)
Emergency Situations: When Disaster Strikes
257(23)
Introduction
257(1)
The Four Phases of an Emergency
258(1)
Predisaster Plans
258(4)
Communication, Coordination and Interoperability
260(1)
Planning for Evacuation
261(1)
Planning to Protect Computers
261(1)
Planning to Interact with the Media
261(1)
The Emergency Operations Center
262(1)
Guidelines for Dealing with Emergencies
263(4)
Before the Emergency
263(1)
During the Emergency
264(1)
After the Emergency
264(3)
Natural Disasters
267(2)
Floods
267(1)
Explosions
268(1)
Fires
268(1)
Cyclones: Hurricanes and Tornados
268(1)
Earthquakes
269(1)
Accidental or Intentional Emergencies
269(7)
Plane Crashes
270(1)
Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Incidents
270(3)
Bombs and Bomb Threats
273(3)
Emergencies and Community Policing
276(1)
Summary
276(4)
Terrorism: Securing Our Homeland
280(35)
Introduction
280(2)
Terrorism Defined
282(1)
Classification of Terrorist Acts
283(1)
Domestic Terrorism
283(1)
International Terrorism
283(1)
The Dual Threat
284(1)
Motivations for Terrorism
284(3)
White Supremacists
285(1)
Black Supremacists
285(1)
The Militia Movement
285(1)
Other Right-Wing Extremists
285(1)
Left-Wing Extremists
286(1)
Pro-Life Extremists
286(1)
Animal Rights Activists
286(1)
Environmental Extremists
286(1)
A New Kind of War --- An Asymmetric War
287(1)
Methods Used by Terrorists
287(5)
Explosives and Bombs
287(3)
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
290(2)
Technological Terrorism
292(1)
The Federal Response to Terrorism
292(4)
The Department of Homeland Security
293(1)
The USA Patriot Act
293(3)
The Critical Role of Local Law Enforcement in Homeland Security
296(9)
Understanding the Enemy
298(3)
Intelligence Gathering and Sharing
301(2)
Crucial Collaborations---Partnerships and Communication
303(1)
Investigating Terrorist Crimes
304(1)
Initiatives to Assist in the Fight against Terrorism
305(1)
Increased Border Security
305(1)
Community Vulnerability Assessment Methodology
305(1)
The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT)
306(1)
The Center for Food Protection and Defense
306(1)
The National Incident Management System
306(1)
The Role of the Media in the War on Terrorism
306(1)
Concerns Related to the War on Terrorism
307(1)
Concern for Civil Rights
307(1)
Retaliation or Discrimination against People of Middle Eastern Descent
307(1)
Community Policing and Homeland Security
308(2)
Being Proactive
309(1)
Summary
310(5)
SECTION III SPECIALIZED POLICE OPERATIONS
315(118)
Criminal Investigation
317(47)
Introduction
317(1)
Goals of Criminal Investigation
318(1)
The Investigative Process
318(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
318(2)
Who Investigates?
320(1)
Crime Scene Investigators
320(1)
Evidence
320(8)
Kinds of Evidence
321(7)
Using Computers in Criminal Investigation
328(2)
Geographic Profiling
329(1)
Investigating Specific Crimes
330(19)
Violent Crimes
330(7)
Property Crimes
337(7)
Other Crimes
344(5)
False Reports
349(1)
Victimless Crimes
349(1)
Prostitution and Pornography
349(1)
Gaming
350(1)
Surveillance, Undercover Assignments and Raids
350(5)
Surveillance
351(1)
Undercover Assignments
352(3)
Raids
355(1)
Investigation and Community Policing
355(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing and Investigation
356(1)
Scanning
356(1)
Analysis
356(1)
Response
356(1)
Assessment
357(1)
Judge's Commentary
357(1)
Summary
357(7)
Responding to Children and Juveniles: Our Nation's Future
364(29)
Introduction
364(1)
An Overview of Our Juvenile Justice System
365(2)
The Welfare Model versus the Justice Model
366(1)
The ``One-Pot'' Jurisdictional Approach
366(1)
Children in Need of Help
367(3)
Children Who Are Poor, Neglected or Abused
368(1)
Children Who Are Missing, Runaways or Thrownaways
368(2)
Other Law Enforcement/Youth Encounters
370(3)
Disorderly Youths Who Are ``Hanging Out''
371(1)
Curfew Violators
372(1)
Truants
372(1)
Status Offenders
373(3)
Underage Drinking
373(2)
Rave Parties
375(1)
Police Dispositions of Status Offenses
376(1)
Police Discretion and the Initial Contact
376(1)
Violent Offenders
377(1)
Legal Procedures When Dealing with Youths
378(2)
Custody and Detention
379(1)
Police Records and Files
380(1)
Fingerprinting and Photographing Children
380(1)
Law Enforcement Programs Aimed at Youths
380(6)
Aggressive Enforcement
381(1)
Referrals
382(1)
Explorer Posts
382(2)
Educational Programs
384(1)
Camps
385(1)
Other Programs
385(1)
The Juvenile Justice System and Community Policing
386(1)
Juvenile Justice and Problem-Oriented Policing
386(2)
Scanning
386(1)
Analysis
386(1)
Response
387(1)
Assessment
388(1)
Judge's Commentary
388(1)
Summary
388(5)
Gangs and Drugs: Two National Threats
393(40)
Introduction
393(1)
Gangs Defined
394(1)
The Extent of the Gang Problem
395(1)
Types of Gangs
395(4)
Why People Join Gangs
399(1)
Characteristics and Activities of Gangs
399(2)
Recognizing a Gang Problem
401(1)
Warning Signs of a Gang Problem
401(1)
Criteria for Qualifying as a Gang
402(1)
Identifying Gang Members
402(3)
Investigating Gangs' Illegal Activities
405(2)
Reading Graffiti
406(1)
Gang Impact Teams
406(1)
Obtaining and Recording Information
407(1)
Approaches to the Gang Problem
407(3)
Suppression
408(1)
Gang Units
409(1)
Civil Gang Injunctions and Ordinances
410(1)
Vertical Prosecution and Special Prosecution Units
410(1)
A Five-Pronged Approach to Gang Reduction
410(1)
Gangs and Community Policing
411(1)
The Drug Problem
411(2)
The Drugs Involved
413(2)
Approaches to the Drug Problem
415(6)
The Drug Buy
416(1)
Undercover Operations
416(2)
Proving Guilty Knowledge
418(1)
Drug Raids
419(1)
Combating Prescription Drug Diversion
419(1)
Dealing with Meth Labs
420(1)
Combating Street-Level Narcotics Sales
421(1)
Public Housing and the Drug Problem
421(1)
Recognizing Individuals Using Illegal Drugs
422(1)
An Alternative to Arrest
422(1)
Legislation as a Tool in the War on Drugs
422(2)
Prevention
424(1)
Educational Programs
424(1)
Community Policing and the Drug Problem
425(1)
Adolescent Counseling Exchange (ACE), Denver, Colorado
425(1)
Troy Community Coalition (TCC), Troy, Michigan
425(1)
North Central Community Based Services (NCCBS), Chama, New Mexico
425(1)
Together! Youth Violence, Alcohol, Drug Prevention, Lacey, Washington
426(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing, Gangs and Drugs
426(2)
Summary
428(5)
SECTION IV THE PERSONAL SIDE OF POLICE OPERATIONS
433(57)
Physical and Mental Health Issues: Keeping Fit for Duty
435(24)
Introduction
435(1)
Physical Fitness
436(2)
Myths about Physical Fitness
436(2)
Physical Fitness Training Programs
438(2)
Other Areas of Physical Fitness
439(1)
Bloodborne Pathogens and Biological and Chemical Threats
440(2)
HIV Infection and AIDS
440(1)
Hepatitis B Viral Infection
440(1)
Hepatitis C Viral Infection
440(1)
How Bloodborne Pathogens Are Spread
440(1)
Other Diseases
441(1)
Protecting Oneself
441(1)
Biological and Chemical Threats
442(1)
Mental Fitness
442(1)
Stress
442(1)
Sources of Stress
443(3)
Internal, Individual Stressors
443(1)
Stress Related to Police Work
443(2)
Administrative and Organizational Stressors
445(1)
Stressors Related to the Criminal Justice System and Society
445(1)
The Interplay of Stressors
445(1)
Effects of Stress
446(4)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
446(2)
Burnout
448(1)
Depression
448(1)
Officer Suicide
449(1)
Reducing Stress
450(1)
Mental Fitness Programs
450(1)
Officer Safety
450(5)
The Warrior Attitude
452(1)
Responding to an Emotionally Disturbed Person Call
453(1)
Countering a Canine Attack
454(1)
The Other Two Sides of the Survival Triangle
454(1)
Advice from Veteran Officers
455(1)
Summary
455(4)
Liability and Ethics: Is It Legal? Is It Moral?
459(31)
Introduction
460(1)
Civil Liability: An Overview
460(1)
Section 1983, The Civil Rights Act
461(1)
Vicarious Liability
462(1)
Common Charges Brought against Police Officers
462(5)
False Arrest or Imprisonment
463(1)
Malicious Prosecution
463(1)
Excessive Force or Brutality
463(1)
Wrongful Death
464(1)
Negligent Operation of a Vehicle
465(1)
Failure to Protect
465(1)
Failure to Identify
466(1)
Negligent Service
466(1)
Other Areas of Civil Liability
467(1)
Reducing the Occurrence of Civil Lawsuits
467(1)
Countersuits
468(1)
Legal Liability and Community Policing
468(1)
Ethics: An Overview
469(1)
The Police Culture
470(4)
The Police Culture and Use of Force
474(1)
Gray Areas in Police Ethics
474(4)
Police Use of Deception
474(2)
Gratuities
476(2)
Unethical Behavior
478(1)
Corruption
479(2)
Why Do Officers Become Corrupt?
479(1)
Rotten Apples versus Rotten Barrels
480(1)
Basic Ethics Tests
481(1)
The Role of the Police Department
482(1)
Ethics and Community Policing and Problem Solving
482(1)
Integrating Ethics into the SARA Model
483(1)
Summary
483(7)
A Look Ahead
490(1)
Appendix: Policies and Procedures Sample Form 491(2)
Glossary 493(8)
Author Index 501(12)
Photo Credits 513


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