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Police and Society,9780199772568

Police and Society

by ; ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780199772568

ISBN10:
0199772568
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/11/2011
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $95.94

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Summary

Now in its fifth edition,Police & Societyoffers a descriptive and analytical look at the process of policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, Roy Roberg, Kenneth Novak, Gary Cordner, and new coauthor Brad Smith explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive research on contemporary policing practices. Features of the Fifth Edition * Discussion of many new topicsincluding procedural justice, recruitment strategies for females and minorities, social media/social networking, and predictive policing * Enhanced coverageof criminal procedure, officer stress and safety, intimate partner violence, brutality/extralegal police aggression, and more * Expanded glossaryof key terms * Engaging boxed features:"Inside Policing" boxes that discuss real-world police issues and "Voices From the Field" interviews--six of which are new to this edition--with nationally recognized experts * Superior supplements:A revised and expandedInstructor's Manualand an interactiveStudent Study Guide on CD(packaged with the text)

Author Biography


Roy Roberg is Professor of Justice Studies at San Josť State University.

Kenneth Novak is Associate Professor and Chair of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Gary Cordner is Professor of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

Brad Smith is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University.

Table of Contents

Each Chapter ends with a Summary
Preface
Acknowledgements
About the Authors
Police in a Democracy
Policing a Free Society
Police and Government
Police and Rule of Law
Police, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Police Systems
The U.S. Police System
Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies
Similarities and Differences
Police Role and Purpose
Law Enforcement or Politics?
Crime Fighting or Social Service?
Proactive or Reactive?
Police Activities and Workload
Police Goals and Strategies
Looking Ahead
Police History
Foundations of Policing
Early Policing
Policing in Nineteenth-Century England
The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States
The First City Police Forces
The County Sheriff
Vigilance Committees
Modern American Policing
The Political Era
Police Development
Criticism in the Political Era
The Reform Era
Minority Perspective on the Development of American Police
State Police
Texas and Massachusetts
Pennsylvania
Highway Patrol
Federal Law Enforcement
The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal Service
Postal Inspectors
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Legal Issues
Criminal Procedure
Searches and Seizures or Persons
Searches and Seizures of Property
Interrogations and Confessions
Civil Liability
Costs of Liability in Policing
Avenues of Liability
Civil Liability in State Courts
Civil Liability in Federal Courts
Emerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First Century
Use of Force
Impact on Officers
Community Policing
Evolving Strategies of Policing
Early Forms of Community Policing
Police-Community Relations
Crime Prevention
Team Policing
Foot Patrol and Broken Windows
Community Policing
Elements of Community Policing
The Philosophical Dimension
The Strategic Dimension
The Tactical Dimension
Implementing Community Policing
Positive Indications
Questions and Doubts
Evaluating Community Policing
Community Policing Today
Police Management
The Managerial Process
The Development of Police Management
Classical Police Management
Behavioral Police Management
Contemporary Police Management
Organizational Design
Restructuring and Community Policing
Implementation: Fact or Fiction?
Criticisms of the Paramilitary Design
Increasing Influence of Police Paramilitary Units
Broken Windows and Zero-Tolerance Policing
Compstat, Police Legitimacy, and Procedural Justice
Police Goals and Organizational Performance
Impact of Supervisory Styles on Officer Behavior
Measuring Police Performance
Changing Performance Measures
Organization and Change
The Change Process
Resistance to Change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
The Madison Experience
Laying the Foundation
Key Elements to Change
Results from Madison
The Chicago Experience
Laying the Foundation
Key Elements to Change
Results from Chicago
Lessons Learned from Madison and Chicago
Job Redesign and Community Policing
Changing Officer Performance Measures
Innovation
Compstat as a Change Process
Police Departments as Learning Organizations
Organizational Learning
Police-Researcher Partnerships
Utilize Middle Managers
Selection and Development
Recruitment
Recruitment Methods
Targeting Females and Minorities
Targeting the Service Oriented
Cop Crunch
Selection
Preemployment Standards
General Suitability
Preemployment Testing
Written Exams and Performance
Too Smart for Policing?
Development
Recruit Training
Community Policing Training
Terrorism-Related Training
Field Training
Career Growth
Field Operations
The Patrol Function
Historical Development
Patrol Methods
Use of Patrol Methods
Selected Research on Patrol Operations
Random Patrol
Response Time
Differential Response to Calls
Focused Interventions
Proactive Arrests and Crackdowns
Guns and Gang Violence
Policing Disorder: Zero-Tolerance and Quality-of-Life Policing
Problem Oriented Policing Focused on Disorder
Juvenile Curfews
Reactive Arrests and Intimate Partner Violence
Police Pursuits
The Investigative Function
Historical Development
Selected Research on Investigative Operations
Investigative Effectiveness
Career Criminal Programs
Bias Crime Programs
Detective-Patrol Relationships
Enticement and Entrapment
Behavior and Misconduct
Perspectives of Police Behavior
Universalistic Perspectives
Particularistic Perspectives
Socialization Versus Predisposition
Classic Studies of Police Behavior
Violence and the Police
Justice Without Trial
Varieties of Police Behavior
City Police
Working the Street: Police Discretion
Decision Making and Police Discretion
Organizational Variables
Neighborhood Variables
Situational Variables
Individual (Officer) Variables
Police Deviance
Types of Deviance and Misconduct
The Prevalence of Police Deviance
The Trouble With Gratuities
Deviant Officers
The Persistence of Corruption
Police Sexual Misconduct
The Drug War and Police Deviance
Force and Coercion
Police-Citizen Interactions
Context of Force
National Estimates on Police Use of Force
Use of Force
Learning to Use Force
Training
Areas of Training
Police Culture and the Use of Force
Controversy and the Use of Force
Inappropriate Force
Brutality and Excessive Force
Physical and Psychological Force in Police History
Frequency of Excessive Force and Brutality
Brutality in the Twenty-First Century
Deadly Force
Individual and Situational Factors
Environmental and Departmental Variations
Racial Considerations
Legal and Policy Changes
Accountability and Ethics
Internal Accountability Mechanisms
Bureaucratic Organization and Management
Internal Investigation
Issues in Internal Investigations
Early Warning/Early Identification Systems
Effectiveness of Internal Investigations
External Accountability Mechanisms
Civilian Review
Police Auditor Systems
Legal Control
The Limits of Oversight Mechanisms
Professional Standards
The Police Professionalization Movement
Criteria of Police Professionalization
Ethical Standards
Ethical Perspectives
Ethical Dilemmas
The Limits of Professional and Ethical Standards
Diversity
Racial Minorities in Policing
Unequal Treatment
Performance of African American Police
Women in Policing
Unequal Treatment
Performance of Women Officers
Affirmative Action
Equal Employment Opportunity
Reverse Discrimination
Increasing Diversity in Police Departments
Promotional Opportunities
Integration of Minorities and Women Into Policing
Police Culture
Structural Characteristics
Pregnancy and Maternity
Sexual Harassment
Future Prospects
Stress and Officer Safety
The Concept of Stress
Occupational Stress
Overview of Stressors
Police Stressors
Emerging Sources of Stress
Line-of-Duty and Crisis Situations
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Shift Work
Social Supports and Police Stress
Consequences of Stress
Alcohol Abuse
Drug Abuse
Suicide
Marital and Family Problems
Policies and Programs
Officer Safety
Danger and Police Work
Safety and the Mentally Ill
Improving Safety and Reducing Fatalities
Higher Education
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police
Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education
Quality of Higher Education Programs
Higher Education Requirements for Police
Police Chiefs, Promotion, and Higher Education
The Impact of Higher Education on Policing
Higher Education and Attitudes
Higher Education and Performance
Use of Force and Liability
Leadership and Promotion
Other Significant Findings
Summary of Higher Education Findings and Directions for Future Research
Higher Education and Job Satisfaction
Higher Education, Community Policing, and Terrorism
Police Executives' Views on Higher Education
Chief's Scholar Program
Validating Higher Education for Police
Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
Higher Education and Discrimination
Higher Education Incentive Programs
Higher Education Requirements and Policy Implications
Emerging Issues
Changes in American Society
The Aging Population
Diversity
Economics
Immigration and Migration
Modern Problems
Racial Profiling
Immigration Enforcement
Eyewitness Identification
Persons With Mental Illness
Cyber Crime
Modern Technology
Suspect Control and Officer Safety
Crime Detention and Crime Solving
Information Technology
Communications and Interoperability
Social Media
Long-Term Trends
Collaboration
Privatization
Federalization
Militarization
Globalization
Competing Police Strategies
Terrorism and Homeland Security
Compstat and Performance Management
COP, POP, and ILPGlossary of Key Terms
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


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