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Police & Society, Seventh Edition, offers an in-depth and analytical look at policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, the authors explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive research on contemporary policing and show how that research is put into practice. The text is enhanced by extensive pedagogy and a unique chapter on higher education and policing.
Kenneth Novak is currently Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.
Gary Cordner is Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University.
Brad Smith is Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University.
Roy Roberg is Professor Emeritus in the Justice Studies Department at San Jose State University.
Table of Contents
Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors PART I: POLICING FOUNDATIONS CHAPTER 1. Police in a Democracy Policing a Free Society Police and Government Police and Rule of Law Police, Terrorism, and Homeland Security Police Systems The U.S. Police System Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies Similarities and Differences Police Role and Purpose Law Enforcement or Politics? Crime Fighting or Social Service? Proactive or Reactive? Police Activities and Workload Police Goals and Strategies Looking Ahead Summary CHAPTER 2. Police History Foundations of Policing Early Policing Policing in Nineteenth-Century England The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States The First City Police Forces The County Sheriff Vigilance Committees Modern American Policing The Political Era Police Development Criticism in the Political Era The Reform Era Southern Colonial and Frontier Police Development: A Minority Perspective on the Development of American Police State Police Texas and Massachusetts Pennsylvania Highway Patrol Federal Law Enforcement The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal Service Postal Inspectors The Secret Service The Federal Bureau of Investigation Summary CHAPTER 3. Legal Issues Criminal Procedure Searches and Seizures of Persons Searches and Seizures of Property Interrogations and Confessions Civil Liability Costs of Liability in Policing Avenues of Liability Civil Liability in State Courts Civil Liability in Federal Courts Emerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First Century Community Policing and Zero-Tolerance Policing Use of Force Impact on Officers Summary CHAPTER 4. Police Strategies Evolving Strategies of Policing Landmark Studies of Police Effectiveness Patrol Studies Response Time Studies Criminal Investigation Studies Strategic Developments Improving Crime-Control Effectiveness Improving Police-Community Relations Improving Professionalism Developing Evidence-Based Practices Strategic Alternatives Community Policing Problem-Oriented Policing Intelligence-Led Policing Predictive Policing What Works in Policing Summary PART II: POLICE ADMINISTRATION CHAPTER 5. Police Management The Managerial Process The Development of Police Management Classical Police Management Behavioral Police Management Contemporary Police Management Organizational Design Criticisms of the Paramilitary Design Influence of Community Policing Structuring Police Discretion Managing Police Performance Measuring What Matters Police Organizational Performance Police Unit Performance Supervision & Police Performance Managing Group Behavior Police Subcultures Employee Organizations Police Unions Managing Critical Incidents Media Relations & Strategic Communications Summary CHAPTER 6. Organizational Change Organizational Change Reorganizing Improving Leadership and Management Revising Policies and Procedures Changing Strategies and Tactics Changing Behavior Changing Organizational Culture The Change Process Resistance to Change Overcoming Resistance to Change The Madison Experience Laying the Foundation Key Elements to Change Results from Madison Experiences in Other Departments Chicago New York Los Angeles Cincinnati Pittsburgh Institutionalizing Innovation & Change Measuring What Matters Continuous Improvement Research & Development Education & Training Summary CHAPTER 7. Selection and Development Recruitment Recruitment Methods Targeting Females and Minorities Recruitment Toolkit Targeting the Service-Oriented Selection Preemployment Standards General Suitability Preemployment Testing Recruit Screening Methods Americans with Disabilities Act Development Recruit Training Program Orientation Philosophy and Instructional Methods Curriculum Development and Content Curriculum Updates Effectiveness of Recruit Training Field Training FTO Program PTO Program Career Growth Summary CHAPTER 8. Field Operations The Patrol Function Historical Development Patrol Methods Use of Patrol Resources Focused Interventions Proactive Arrests and Crackdowns Guns and Gang Violence Focused Deterrence Initiatives Policing Disorder: Zero-Tolerance and Quality-of-Life Policing Police Pursuits The Investigative Function Historical Development Selected Research on Investigative Operations Advances in Physical Evidence: AFIS and DNA Bias Crime Programs Detective-Patrol Relationships Summary PART III: POLICE BEHAVIOR CHAPTER 9. Behavior and Misconduct Perspectives of Police Behavior Universalistic Perspectives Particularistic Perspectives Socialization Versus Predisposition Early Examinations of Police Behavior Decision Making and Police Discretion Organizational Variables Neighborhood Variables Situational Variables Individual (Officer) Variables Police Deviance Types of Deviance and Misconduct The Prevalence of Police Deviance Deviant Officers The Persistence of Corruption Are Gratuities a Type of Misconduct? Police Sexual Misconduct The Drug War and Police Deviance Summary CHAPTER 10. Force and Coercion Police-Citizen Interactions Context of Force National Estimates on Police Use of Force Learning to Use Force Training Areas of Training Police Culture and the Use of Force Controversy and the Use of Force Inappropriate Force Brutality and Excessive Force Physical and Psychological Force in Police History Frequency of Excessive Force and Brutality Brutality in the Twenty-First Century Deadly Force Category 1: Death Category 2: Injury Category 3: Noninjury Individual and Situational Factors Environmental and Departmental Variations Racial Considerations Legal and Policy Changes Summary CHAPTER 11. Accountability and Ethics Internal Accountability Mechanisms Bureaucratic Organization and Management Internal Investigation Issues in Internal Investigations Early Warning/Early Identification Systems Body-Worn Cameras (BWC) Effectiveness of Internal Investigations External Accountability Mechanisms Civilian Review Police Auditor Systems The Limits of Oversight Mechanisms Professional Standards The Police Professionalization Movement Criteria of Police Professionalization Ethical Standards Ethical Perspectives Ethical Dilemmas The Limits of Professional and Ethical Standards Summary PART IV: CONTEMPORARY ISSUES CHAPTER 12. Diversity Racial Minorities in Policing Unequal Treatment Performance of African American Police Women in Policing Unequal Treatment Performance of Women Officers Affirmative Action Equal Employment Opportunity Reverse Discrimination Increasing Diversity in Police Departments Promotional Opportunities Integration of Minorities and Women Into Policing Police Culture Structural Characteristics Pregnancy and Maternity Sexual Harassment LGBT Officers Future Prospects Summary CHAPTER 13. Stress and Officer Safety The Concept of Stress Occupational Stress Overview of Stressors Police Stressors Emerging Sources of Stress Line-of-Duty and Crisis Situations Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Shift Work Social Supports and Police Stress Consequences of Stress Alcohol Abuse Drug Abuse Suicide Stress and the Impact on Families Policies and Programs Officer Safety Danger and Police Work Improving Safety and Reducing Fatalities Summary CHAPTER 14. Higher Education The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education Quality of Higher Education Programs Higher Education Requirements for Police The Impact of Higher Education on Policing Higher Education and Attitudes Higher Education and Performance Higher Education and Use of Force Higher Education and Promotion Higher Education and Job Satisfaction Higher Education and Terrorism Higher Education and Chief's Scholar Program Validating Higher Education for Police Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Higher Education and Discrimination Higher Education Incentive Programs Higher Education Requirements and Policy Implications Moving Forward: Beyond Traditional University-Based Education? Summary CHAPTER 15. Emerging Issues Changes in American Society Generational Differences Cultural Diversity Immigration and Migration Shifting Economics Modern Problems Crime Trends Mental Health Drugs Police Legitimacy Modern Technology Crime Detection and Crime Solving Surveillance and Privacy Officer Safety and Accountability Social Media Long-Term Trends Professionalization Privatization Federalization Militarization Terrorism and Homeland Security Summary Voices from the Field: Biographical Sketches Glossary Name Index Subject Index