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Policing America : Methods, Issues, Challenges,9780131188648
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Policing America : Methods, Issues, Challenges

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131188648

ISBN10:
013118864X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/17/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Designed to put readers "inside" the police officer's uniform, this personally-involving, comprehensive, and timely introduction to police work provides a "real-world" flavor not found in most policing books. Written in an exceptionally reader-friendly open and frank style, itblendsthe real and the idealreflecting the author's more than 30 years'experience as a police administrator and academic. Features boxed articles fromLaw Enforcement News, and "Practitioner's Perspectives" with short essays written by selected individuals who have expertise in particular areas of policing.Policing Levels, Roles, and Functions. Police Subculture: The Making of a Cop. Organization and Administration. On Patrol: Personnel, Methods, Functions. Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving. Criminal Investigation. Extraordinary Problems and Methods. Police and the Rule of Law. Accountability: Ethics, Force and Corruption, Discipline. Civil Liability. Issues and Trends. Comparative Perspectives. Technology Review. Challenges of the Future.For those involved/interested in General Policing, Community Policing, and Policing Issues.

Table of Contents

Foreword xix
Edward A. Flynn
Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxv
About the Author xxvii
Historical Development
1(40)
English and Colonial Officers of the Law
2(5)
Sheriff
2(1)
Constable
3(2)
Coroner
5(1)
Justice of the Peace
6(1)
The Old English System of Policing
7(5)
Policing in Colonial America
8(2)
Legacies of the Colonial Period
10(2)
Police Reform in England and America, 1829--1860
12(4)
Full-Time Policing Comes to the United States
16(9)
Imitating Peel
16(2)
Early Issues and New Traditions
18(1)
Attempts at Reform in Difficult Times
19(1)
Increased Politics and Corruption
20(2)
Meanwhile, on the American Frontier . . .
22(1)
Practitioner's Perspective What Science Has Done for the Police, Chief Francis O'Neill, Chicago, 1903
23(2)
The Entrenchment of Political Influence
25(1)
The Movement toward Professionalization
25(7)
Attempts to Thwart Political Patronage
25(1)
The Era of August Vollmer
26(2)
The Crime Fighter Image
28(1)
The Wickersham Commission
28(1)
Exhibit 1-1 The Crib of Modern Law Enforcement
29(1)
Police as the ``Thin Blue Line'': William H. Parker
30(2)
A Retreat from the Professional Model
32(1)
Coming Full Circle to Peel: The President's Crime Commission
32(1)
Community-Oriented Policing and Problem-Solving Era
33(3)
The Three Generations of COPPS
35(1)
Summary
36(1)
Review Questions
36(1)
Independent Student Activities
36(1)
Related Web Sites
37(1)
Notes
37(4)
Law Enforcement Levels and Functions: Defending Our Homeland
41(27)
Federal Agencies
42(19)
The Department of Homeland Security
42(6)
The Department of Justice
48(11)
Other Related Federal Agencies
59(2)
State and Local Agencies
61(2)
State Police
61(1)
Local (Municipal Police and County Sheriff) Agencies
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Review Questions
63(1)
Independent Student Activities
63(1)
Related Web Sites
64(1)
Notes
65(3)
Police Subculture: The Making of a Cop
68(31)
First Things First: Recruiting Qualified Applicants
69(4)
Wanted: Those Who Walk on Water
69(2)
Recruiting Problems and Successes
71(2)
Testing: The Hurdle Process for New Personnel
73(5)
Written Examinations: General Knowledge and Psychological Tests
73(1)
Physical Agility Test
74(1)
Oral Interview
75(1)
Character Investigation
76(1)
Polygraph Examination
76(1)
Medical Examination and Drug Screening
77(1)
The Recruit's Formal Entry into Policing: Academy Training
78(7)
Types of Academies
78(1)
The Curriculum: Status and Ongoing Need for Revision
78(2)
A New Uniform and Demeanor
80(1)
A Sixth Sense
81(4)
Postacademy Field Training
85(1)
The Field Training Officer Concept
85(1)
New Technology
85(1)
Having the ``Right Stuff'': A Working Personality
86(3)
Developing and Using a Police Personality
86(2)
What Traits Make a Good Cop?
88(1)
Roles, Functions, and Styles of Policing
89(4)
Defining and Understanding the Police Role
89(1)
Role Conflicts
90(1)
Policing Functions and Styles
91(2)
Which Role, Function, and Style Are Typically Employed?
93(1)
Summary
93(1)
Review Questions
93(1)
Independent Student Activities
94(1)
Related Web Sites
94(1)
Notes
94(5)
Organization and Administration
99(31)
Organizations and the Police
100(1)
What Are Organizations?
100(1)
Organizations as Bureaucracies
101(1)
Organizational Communication
101(4)
Definition and Characteristics
101(2)
Communication within Police Organizations
103(1)
The Grapevine
103(1)
Written Communication
104(1)
Barriers to Effective Communication
104(1)
Police Agencies as Organizations
105(5)
Chain of Command
105(1)
Organizational Structure
106(1)
Unity of Command and Span of Control
107(2)
Organizational Policies and Procedures
109(1)
Contemporary Police Chiefs and Sheriffs
110(4)
Police Chief
110(2)
The Sheriff
112(2)
The Chief Executive Officer: A Model
114(4)
Applying the Mintzberg Model of CEOs
114(1)
The Interpersonal Role
114(1)
The Informational Role
115(1)
The Decision-Maker Role
115(1)
An Example of Mintzberg in Action: NYPD's Compstat
116(2)
Practitioner's Perspective Police Ingenuity and Entrepreneurship, Dennis D. Richards
118(1)
Middle Managers: Captains and Lieutenants
118(2)
The First-Line Supervisor
120(3)
Ten Tasks
121(1)
Types of Supervisors
121(1)
Exhibit 4-1 Good, Better, Best: What Make Some Sergeants a Cut Above the Rest?
122(1)
Police and Politics
123(2)
Political Exploitation of the Police
124(1)
Police Executive Relations and Expectations
124(1)
Summary
125(1)
Review Questions
126(1)
Independent Student Activities
126(1)
Related Web Sites
127(1)
Notes
127(3)
On Patrol: Methods and Menaces
130(30)
Patrol as Work: Culture of the Beat
131(12)
Purposes and Nature of Patrol
131(3)
Exhibit 5-1 Police Patrol: A Job Description
134(3)
Filling Occasional Hours of Boredom
137(1)
Patrol Work as a Function of Shift Assignment
137(2)
Influences of One's Assigned Beat
139(1)
Where Danger Lurks: The Hazards of Beat Patrol
140(3)
An Unappreciated American Icon: The Patrol Vehicle
143(2)
A Sanctuary and a Place for Vital Gear
143(1)
Evolution of the Patrol Vehicle
144(1)
Today's Accoutrements
145(1)
Studies of the Patrol Function
145(3)
Discretionary Use of Police Authority
148(4)
The Link between Patrol and Discretion
148(1)
An Exercise in Discretion
148(1)
Attempts to Define Discretion
149(1)
Determinants of Discretionary Actions
150(1)
Pros, Cons, and Politics of Discretionary Authority
151(1)
A Related Function: Traffic
152(3)
Policing Today's Motorized Society
152(1)
Traffic Accident Investigation
153(1)
In Pursuit of the ``Phantom Driver''
154(1)
Summary
155(1)
Review Questions
156(1)
Independent Student Activities
156(1)
Related Web Sites
156(1)
Notes
157(3)
Community-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving
160(25)
Basic Principles of Community Policing
161(1)
A Major Step Forward: Problem-Oriented Policing
162(7)
The Problem-Solving Process: SARA
164(5)
A Collaborative Approach: Basic Principles of COPPS
169(2)
Exhibit 6-1 The Home Page of the Tempe, Arizona, Police Department's Crime Analysis Unit
170(1)
Implementing COPPS
171(2)
Principal Components of Successful Implementation
172(1)
A Broader Role for the Street Officer
173(1)
Did It Succeed? Evaluating COPPS
174(1)
Crime Prevention
175(3)
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
176(1)
Studying Prey: Repeat Victimization
177(1)
Drug Abuse Resistance and Education
177(1)
COPPS Case Studies
178(3)
Addressing Domestic Violence in Charlotte-Mecklenburg
178(1)
Ameliorating Juvenile Problems in Tulsa
179(2)
Summary
181(1)
Review Questions
181(1)
Independent Student Activities
182(1)
Related Web Sites
182(1)
Notes
182(3)
Criminal Investigation: The Science of Detection
185(39)
The Scope of Forensic Science and Criminalistics
186(3)
Exhibit 7-1 Making His Bones: Famed Sculptor is a Secret Weapon in Missing--Person Cases
188(1)
Origins of Criminalistics
189(6)
Personal Identification: Anthropometry and Dactylography
189(3)
Firearms Identification
192(2)
Contributions of August Vollmer and Others
194(1)
The Evolution of Criminal Investigation
195(2)
Investigative Beginnings: The English Contribution
195(1)
Investigative Techniques Come to America
196(1)
State and Federal Developments
197(1)
Forensic Science and the Criminal Justice System
197(3)
Investigative Stages and Activities
197(2)
Arrest and Case Preparation
199(1)
Detectives: Qualities, Myths, and Attributes
200(1)
Officers Who ``Disappear'': Working Undercover
201(1)
Problems with the Role
201(1)
Returning to Patrol Duties
202(1)
Uses of the Polygraph
202(1)
DNA Analysis
203(5)
Methods
203(2)
Methods and Standards for Testing
205(1)
Exhibit 7-2 DNA and the Green River Killer
206(1)
Recent Developments: Mitochondrial DNA and National Databases
206(2)
Behavioral Science in Criminal Investigation
208(2)
Criminal Profiling
208(1)
Psychics and Hypnosis
209(1)
Recent Developments in Forensic Science and Investigation
210(7)
Interrogations of a Different Sort: Terrorism Suspects
210(1)
Forensic Entomology: Using ``Insect Detectives''
211(2)
Exhibit 7-3 A New Crime Scene Academy
213(1)
Stalking Investigations
213(1)
Investigating ``Cybercrooks''
214(1)
Protecting the Innocents: Investigating Crimes against Juveniles and Missing Youths
215(1)
Exhibit 7-4 Looking at ``Cold'' Cases
216(1)
No Stone Unturned: Handling Cold Cases
216(1)
Summary
217(1)
Review Questions
217(1)
Independent Student Activities
218(1)
Related Web Sites
218(1)
Notes
219(5)
Extraordinary Problems and Methods
224(33)
Terrorism and Homeland Security
225(11)
A Nation Changed and Challenged
225(1)
Definitions and Types
225(2)
Greater Law Enforcement Powers: The USA PATRIOT Act
227(2)
Spiking Resources
229(1)
An Intelligence Overhaul
230(1)
A Companion Threat: Bioterrorism
230(1)
Exhibit 8-1 With Biochem Terror No Longer ``Unthinkable,'' NYPD Gets Ready
231(1)
Practitioner's Perspective Bioterrorism: The Challenges For Local Law Enforcement
232(4)
Kenneth W. Hunter Jr.
Policing Hate
236(2)
Policing the Mafia
238(5)
Origin and Organization
238(1)
Successful Police Offensives
239(1)
Practitioner's Perspective Going Undercover: An FBI Agent's Two-Year Experience, George Togliatti
240(3)
Policing Street Gangs
243(6)
Definition and Extent of the Problem
243(1)
Organization and Revenues
243(1)
Ethnic and Racial Gangs
244(1)
Graffiti and Hand Signals
245(2)
New Threats
247(1)
Gangs and Terrorism
248(1)
Policing America's Borders
249(2)
A New Terrorist Watch Program
249(1)
The Southwestern Border
250(1)
New Technologies: Border Drones
251(1)
Summary
251(1)
Review Questions
252(1)
Independent Student Activities
252(1)
Related Web Sites
252(1)
Notes
253(4)
The Rule of Law
257(30)
The Rule of Law
258(22)
The Fourth Amendment
258(17)
The Fifth Amendment
275(3)
The Sixth Amendment
278(2)
Juvenile Rights
280(2)
Summary
282(1)
Review Questions
282(1)
Independent Student Activities
283(1)
Related Web Sites
283(1)
Notes
283(4)
Accountability: Ethics, Force and Corruption, and Discipline
287(41)
In the Beginning: Problems Greet the New Millennium
288(2)
Troubles in Cities Large and Small
288(1)
A New Tool: Federal Investigations
289(1)
Police Ethics
290(5)
A Scenario
290(1)
Exhibit 10-1 Measuring a Police Department's ``Culture of Integrity''
291(1)
Exhibit 10-2 Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
292(2)
Definition and Types
294(1)
Ethics and Community Policing
294(1)
Use of Violence and Force
295(10)
A Tradition of Problems
295(1)
The Prerogative to Use Force
296(1)
Police Brutality
297(1)
Exhibit 10-3 Good News, Better News on Use of Force
298(1)
Exhibit 10-4 Study Links Use of Force to Suspect's Back Talk
299(2)
Use and Control of Lethal Force
301(1)
Further Sources of Tension: Bias-Based Policing and Other Field Tactics
302(1)
Exhibit 10-5 Sacramento Searches for Biased Policing
303(1)
A Related Issue: Domestic Violence
304(1)
Police Corruption
305(5)
A Long-Standing ``Plague'' on Policing
305(1)
Types and Causes
306(2)
The Code of Silence
308(1)
Investigation and Prosecution
309(1)
Possible Solutions
309(1)
Limitations on Officers' Constitutional Rights
310(6)
Free Speech
310(1)
Searches and Seizures
311(1)
Self-Incrimination
312(1)
Religious Practices
312(1)
Sexual Misconduct
312(1)
Residency Requirements
313(1)
Moonlighting
314(1)
Misuse of Firearms
314(1)
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
315(1)
Disciplinary Policies and Practices
316(6)
Maintaining the Public Trust
316(1)
Due Process Requirements
316(1)
Dealing with Complaints
317(4)
Determining the Level and Nature of Sanctions
321(1)
Summary
322(1)
Review Questions
322(1)
Independent Student Activities
322(1)
Related Web Sites
323(1)
Notes
323(5)
Civil Liability: Failing the Public Trust
328(19)
A Legal Foundation
329(9)
History and Growth of Section 1983 Litigation
332(2)
Police Actions Leading to Section 1983 Liability
334(3)
Criminal Prosecutions for Police Misconduct
337(1)
Liability of Police Supervisors
338(1)
New Areas of Potential Liability
339(1)
Police Vehicle Pursuits: A High-Stakes Operation
339(1)
Practitioner's Perspective Police and Civil Liability, Samuel G. Chapman
340(3)
Computer Evidence
342(1)
Disseminating Public Information
342(1)
Summary
343(1)
Review Questions
343(1)
Independent Student Activities
343(1)
Related Web Sites
344(1)
Notes
344(3)
Issues and Trends
347(39)
Contemporary Policing Trends
348(21)
Labor Relations: Officers' Rights, Unionization, and Collective Bargaining
348(7)
Women Who Wear the Badge
355(3)
Practitioner's Perspective Women in Policing: Past, Present, and Future, Chief Penny Harrington
358(5)
Minorities as Police Officers
363(2)
On Guard: The Private Police
365(3)
Accreditation
368(1)
Contemporary Policing Issues
369(10)
Higher Education for Police
369(2)
Exhibit 12-1 For Florida Police, Higher Education Means Lower Risk of Disciplinary Action
371(1)
A Related Program: The Police Corps
372(1)
Stress: Sources, Effects, and Management
373(5)
Exhibit 12-2 The Blue Plague of American Policing
378(1)
Summary
379(1)
Review Questions
379(1)
Independent Student Activities
380(1)
Related Web Sites
380(1)
Notes
380(6)
Comparative Perspectives: Policing in Foreign Countries
386(33)
Iraq
387(2)
A History of Dictators and Disorder
387(1)
Policing the World's Most Perilous Place
388(1)
Since Saddam's Fall: A Poorly Trained and Equipped Force
388(1)
The Future
389(1)
Saudi Arabia
389(6)
An Exodus over Terrorism
389(1)
Exhibit 13-1 Changing Bad Cops to Good
390(1)
Social Behavior in a Patriarchal Land
390(1)
Religious Underpinnings
391(1)
Laws and Prohibitions
392(1)
Guardians of Religious Purity
393(2)
China
395(4)
Policing a Vast Land
395(1)
Reform under Police Law 1995
395(4)
Northern Ireland
399(6)
Recent Developments and Violence in a Long Civil War
399(1)
A Divided Land
400(1)
Political Factions
400(1)
Policing the Terrorist War
401(2)
A New Source of Terror: Paramilitary Groups
403(2)
Mexico
405(4)
A New President and Unfulfilled Promises
406(1)
Police Organization
406(1)
Recruitment and Training
407(1)
Criminal Codes and the Legal System
408(1)
Jail Atrocities
408(1)
Toward Democratizing the Police Abroad: Lessons Learned
409(1)
Interpol
410(3)
Tracking International Criminals
410(2)
A Formula for Success
412(1)
Exhibit 13-2 Needs of Police Training and Education Transcend International Boundaries
413(1)
Summary
413(1)
Review Questions
414(1)
Independent Student Activities
414(1)
Related Web Sites
415(1)
Notes
415(4)
Technology Review
419(26)
Police and Technology of the Future: Problems and Prospects
420(2)
Exhibit 14-1 The Power of Information, in a Palm-Sized Package
421(1)
Technology versus Terrorists
422(1)
The Development of Less-Lethal Weapons
422(6)
A Historical Overview
422(3)
Exhibit 14-2 Reducing the Death Toll From Nonlethal Weapons
425(1)
The Quest Continues
426(2)
The Use of Wireless Technology
428(6)
Instant Access to Information
428(1)
Integrated Databases
428(1)
Crime Mapping
429(1)
Locating Serial Offenders
430(1)
Exhibit 14-3 Interactive Crime Mapping on the Internet
431(1)
Exhibit 14-4 Twenty-First-Century Police Department
432(1)
Gunshot Locator System
432(1)
Dogs and Searches for Lost Persons
433(1)
Electronics in Traffic Functions
434(2)
Accident Investigation
434(1)
Arresting Impaired Drivers
435(1)
Preventing High-Speed Pursuits
435(1)
DNA
436(1)
Fingerprints and Mug Shots
437(1)
Crime Scenes: Computers to Explore and Draft Evidence
438(1)
Developments Relevant to Firearms
439(1)
Computer-Assisted Training
439(1)
Using Gun ``Fingerprints'' to Solve Cases
439(1)
Gang Intelligence Systems
440(1)
Summary
440(1)
Review Questions
441(1)
Independent Student Activities
441(1)
Related Web Sites
441(1)
Notes
442(3)
Focus on the Future
445(14)
Taking Futures Seriously: A Working Group and a Futurists' Society
446(1)
What the Future Might Hold for the Police
446(7)
Exhibit 15-1 Police Futurists International
447(1)
Futures Research
447(1)
High Technology: Coming Attractions
447(2)
Nanotechnology
449(1)
Community-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving
450(2)
The Role of the Beat Officer
452(1)
Other Personnel Issues
453(1)
Crime, Violence, and the Influence of Drugs and Guns
453(2)
Summary
455(1)
Review Questions
456(1)
Independent Student Activities
456(1)
Related Web Sites
456(1)
Notes
456(3)
Appendix A Career Information
459(3)
Preparing for Job Hunting
459(1)
Careers in Federal Law Enforcement
460(1)
Careers with the State Police
460(1)
Careers in Local Policing
461(1)
Appendix B The Police Corps
462(3)
Index 465

Excerpts

This fifth edition ofPolicing America, more than its predecessors, reflects the changing times in which we live and the tremendous challenges facing law enforcement officers each day.The specter of terrorism and our resulting emphasis on homeland security loom large throughout this edition, as well as what the police are doing to prevent - and react to - any future attacks.Like its forerunners, however, this edition is my best attempt to inform the reader, to the fullest extent possible, of what it is like to wear a police uniform. Because the author brings more than 34 years of both scholarly and policing backgrounds to this effort, the chapters contain a "real world" flavor not found in most policing textbooks. This text provides a highly practical yet comprehensive view of the largely misunderstood, often obscure world of policing.New materials have been added throughout, especially with regard to terrorism, three eras of community policing, mitochondrial DNA, crimes against children, cold cases, policing in Iraq, new technologies in research and development, and recent court decisions (other nuances are listed below).Meanwhile, this edition continues to provide updated material and in-dept coverage of such topics as patrol, the police subculture, accountability, civil liability, extraordinary problems and practices, the rule of law, investigations, organization and administration, policing in selected foreign venues, and policing in the future. Disseminated throughout the book are several "Practitioner's Perspectives"--short essays written by selected individuals who have expertise in particular areas of policing.There are other pedagogical attributes as well. To continue my attempt to make this textbook more reader-friendly, each chapter in this edition begins with a listing of its key items and concepts and an overview of the chapter(each key term is bolded the first time it is used in the chapter). The textbook also includes "Items for Review," and "Independent Student Activities," and "Related Web Sites" at the end of each chapter. It is recommended that the reader examine the review items after reading each chapter in order to get a feel for how well the chapter's are understood. The independent activities and Web sites are also intended to enhance the reader's understanding of the applied aspects of policing.Other instructional aids include the aforementioned "Practitioner's Perspectives," tables and figures, and boxes with recent news items. Finally, a detailed index at the end of the book facilitates the reader's ability to locate specific topics more quickly. [ An Instructor's Manual/Test Bank is also available for classroom instructors using this textbook.]From its introduction, by * * * * * *, through the final chapter, the reader is provided with a penetrating view of what is certainly one of the most difficult and challenging occupations in America. Chapter Organization and OverviewChapter 1 discusses the history of policing, and Chapter 2 examines the contemporary status of federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies; here the focus is on the federal agencies, which have been reorganized in major fashion since the creation of Homeland Security. Chapter 3 examines the police subculture and how ordinary citizens are socialized to the role. The next chapter considers how police agencies are organized and administered and how administrators, middle managers, and supervisors perform their functions. Chapter 5 explores the very important function of patrolling and including its methods and menaces.Chapter 6 focuses on a rapidly spreading form of policing that is being embraced by thousands of police agencies across the United States and around the world: community oriented policing and problem solvi


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