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Policy Analysis : Concepts and Practice,9780131830011
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Policy Analysis : Concepts and Practice

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131830011

ISBN10:
0131830015
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $114.20
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Summary

This book both introduces and explores thehowsandwhysof the practices of public policy. It providesreality-basedpractical advice about how to actually conduct policy analysis anddemonstratethe application of advanced analytic techniques.A five-part organization emphasizes that policy analysis is client-oriented and raises ethical issues; provides rationales for public policy describing the limitations to effective public policy and generic policy solutions; gives practical advice about implementing policy analysis; presents several examples illustrating how analysts have approached policy problems and the differences that their efforts have made; and summarizes the role and work of the analyst and challenges the analyst to both "do-well and do-good."For individuals interested in policy analysis and the analytical process.

Table of Contents

List of Figures
xiii
List of Tables
xv
Preface xvii
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS
Preview: The Canadian Salmon Fishery
1(22)
Increasing the Social Value of the Canadian Salmon Fishery
2(20)
Postscript and Prologue
22(1)
For Discussion
22(1)
What Is Policy Analysis?
23(16)
Policy Analysis and Related Professions
24(7)
Policy Analysis as a Profession
31(4)
A Closer Look at Analytical Functions
35(2)
Basic Preparation for Policy Analysis
37(1)
For Discussion
38(1)
Toward Professional Ethics
39(15)
Analytical Roles
40(3)
Value Conflicts
43(8)
Ethical Code or Ethos?
51(2)
For Discussion
53(1)
PART II: CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS FOR PROBLEM ANALYSIS
Efficiency and the Idealized Competitive Model
54(17)
The Efficiency Benchmark: The Competitive Economy
55(2)
Market Efficiency: The Meaning of Social Surplus
57(12)
Caveats: Models and Reality
69(1)
Conclusion
70(1)
For Discussion
70(1)
Rationales for Public Policy: Market Failures
71(42)
Public Goods
72(19)
Externalities
91(6)
Natural Monopoly
97(7)
Information Asymmetry
104(8)
Conclusion
112(1)
For Discussion
112(1)
Rationales for Public Policy: Other Limitations of the Competitive Framework
113(19)
Thin Markets: Few Sellers or Few Buyers
114(1)
The Source and Acceptability of Preferences
115(4)
The Problem of Uncertainty
119(5)
Intertemporal Allocation: Are Markets Myopic?
124(4)
Adjustment Costs
128(1)
Macroeconomic Dynamics
129(1)
Conclusion
130(1)
For Discussion
131(1)
Rationales for Public Policy: Distributional and Other Goals
132(24)
Social Welfare Beyond Pareto Efficiency
133(9)
Substantive Values Other Than Efficiency
142(5)
Some Cautions in Interpreting Distributional Consequences
147(6)
Instrumental Values
153(1)
Conclusion
154(1)
For Discussion
155(1)
Limits to Public Intervention: Government Failures
156(36)
Problems Inherent in Direct Democracy
157(6)
Problems Inherent in Representative Government
163(16)
Problems Inherent in Bureaucratic Supply
179(8)
Problems Inherent in Decentralization
187(3)
Conclusion
190(1)
For Discussion
191(1)
Policy Problems as Market and Government Failure: The Madison Taxicab Policy Analysis Example
192(17)
Regulation of the Madison Taxi Market
193(11)
The Relationship between Market and Government Failures
204(4)
Conclusion
208(1)
For Discussion
208(1)
PART III: CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS FOR SOLUTION ANALYSIS
Correcting Market and Government Failure: Generic Policies
209(52)
Freeing, Facilitating, and Simulating Markets
210(8)
Using Subsidies and Taxes to Alter Incentives
218(16)
Establishing Rules
234(12)
Supplying Goods through Nonmarket Mechanisms
246(7)
Providing Insurance and Cushions
253(6)
Conclusion
259(1)
For Discussion
260(1)
Adoption and Implementation
261(34)
The Adoption Phase
263(11)
The Implementation Phase
274(10)
Thinking More Strategically about Policy Design
284(10)
Conclusion
294(1)
For Discussion
294(1)
Government Supply: Drawing Organizational Boundaries
295(14)
Production Costs, Bargaining Costs, and Opportunism Costs
297(5)
Predicting Bargaining and Opportunism Costs
302(4)
Can Opportunism Be Controlled by the Use of Not-for-Profits?
306(1)
Assessing and Building Capacity
307(1)
Conclusion
307(1)
For Discussion
308(1)
PART IV: DOING POLICY ANALYSIS
Gathering Information for Policy Analysis
309(15)
Document Research
310(8)
Field Research
318(3)
Putting Document Review and Field Research Together
321(1)
Conclusion
322(1)
For Discussion
323(1)
Landing on Your Feet: How to Confront Policy Problems
324(39)
Analyzing Yourself: Meta-Analysis
325(1)
The Client Orientation
326(1)
Steps in Rationalist Policy Analysis
327(2)
Problem Analysis
329(14)
Solution Analysis
343(14)
Communicating Analysis
357(4)
Meta-Analysis Once Again: Combining Linear and Nonlinear Approaches
361(1)
Conclusion
362(1)
For Discussion
362(1)
Goals/Alternatives Matrices: Some Examples from CBO Studies
363(17)
Setting Out Broad Options: Auctioning Radio Spectrum Licenses
364(2)
Quantitative Predictions: Restructuring the Army
366(4)
Comparing Proposed Alternatives: Launching Digital Television
370(6)
Combining Policy Alternatives: Improving Water Allocation
376(3)
Conclusion
379(1)
For Discussion
379(1)
Cost-Benefit Analysis
380(46)
A Preview: Increasing Alcohol Taxes
381(1)
Identifying Relevant Impacts
382(2)
Monetizing Impacts
384(15)
Discounting for Time and Risk
399(11)
Choosing among Policies
410(3)
An Illustration: Taxing Alcohol to Save Lives
413(12)
Conclusion
425(1)
For Discussion
425(1)
PART V: CASE STUDIES OF POLICY ANALYSIS
Cost-Benefit Analysis in a Bureaucratic Setting: The Strategic Petroleum Reserve
426(26)
Background: Energy Security and the SPR
427(5)
Analytical Approaches to the Size Issue
432(11)
The Role of Analysis in the SPR Size Controversy
443(7)
Postscript
450(1)
Conclusion
450(1)
For Discussion
451(1)
When Statistics Count: Revising the Lead Standard for Gasoline
452(25)
Background: The EPA Lead Standards
453(2)
Origins of the 1985 Standards
455(1)
Pulling the Pieces Together
456(4)
A Closer Look at the Link between Gasoline Lead and Blood Lead
460(12)
Finalizing the Rule
472(3)
Conclusion
475(1)
For Discussion
476(1)
PART VI: CONCLUSION
Doing Well and Doing Good
477(2)
Name Index 479(10)
Subject Index 489

Excerpts

When we began our study of policy analysis at the Graduate School of Public Policy (now the Goldman School), University of California at Berkeley, the field was so new that we seemed always to be explaining to people just what it was that we were studying. It is no wonder, then, that there were no textbooks to provide us with the basics of policy analysis. More than a dozen years later we found ourselves teaching courses on policy analysis but still without what we considered to be a fully adequate text for an introductory course at the graduate level. Our experiences as students, practitioners, and teachers convinced us that an introductory text should have at least three major features. First, it should provide a strong conceptual foundation of the rationales for, and the limitations to, public policy. Second, it should give practical advice about how todopolicy analysis. Third, it should demonstrate the application of advanced analytical techniques rather than discuss them abstractly. We wrote this text to have these features.We organize the text into six parts. In Part I we begin with an example of a policy analysis and then emphasize that policy analysis, as a professional activity, is client-oriented, and we raise the ethical issues that flow from this orientation. In Part II we provide a comprehensive treatment of rationales for public policy (market failures, broadly defined) and we set out the limitations to effective public policy (government failures). In Part III we set out the conceptual foundations for solving public policy problems, including a catalogue of generic policy solutions that can provide starting points for crafting specific policy alternatives. We also offer advice on designing policies that will have good prospects for adoption and successful implementation and how to think about the choice between government production and contracting out. In Part IV we give practical advice about doing policy analysis: structuring problems and solutions, gathering information, and measuring costs and benefits. In Part V we present several extended examples illustrating how analysts have approached policy problems and the differences that their efforts have made. Part VI briefly concludes with advice about doing well and doing good.We aim our level of presentation at students who have had, or are concur rently taking, an introductory course in economics. Nevertheless, students 14thout a background in economics should find all of our general arguments and most of our technical points accessible. With a bit of assistance from an instructor, they should be able to understand the remaining technical points.We believe that this text has several potential uses. We envision its primary use as the basis of a one-semester introduction to policy analysis for students in graduate programs in public policy, public administration, and business. We believe that our emphasis on conceptual foundations also makes it attractive for courses in graduate programs in political science and economics. At the undergraduate level, we think our chapters on market failures, government failures, generic policies, and cost-benefit analysis are useful supplements, and perhaps even replacements, for the commonly used public finance texts that do not treat these topics as comprehensively.


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