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Policy Studies for Educational Leaders : An Introduction,9780130993939
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Policy Studies for Educational Leaders : An Introduction

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130993939

ISBN10:
013099393X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
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Summary

This comprehensive book encourages future educational leaders to be proactive rather than reactive, and arms them with an understanding of educational policy and the important political theories upon which it is based. Coverage addresses theory, analysis, development, and implementation of educational policy, with the knowledge base of the typical reader in mind. It explores the reasons for change in educational policy, ways to track its evolution, and techniques for influencing its ultimate destination. Includes updated statistics drawn from the 2000 Census and explores economic changes expected from the business cycle downturn and the effect of war. Features new news stories for analysis--related to chapter content as well as key current issues, including theNo Child Left Behind Act of 2001; New case studies on the teaching of Darwinian evolution and on parent revolts against state testing programs; An entire chapter devoted to policy values and ideology. Extensive coverage on educational policy at the state level. For future educators and educational leaders.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Policy-What It Is and Where It Comes From 1(25)
WHY STUDY POLICY?
1(2)
School Leaders in Oz
1(2)
THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE EDUCATION POLICY ENVIRONMENT
3(5)
The Way It Used to Be
3(1)
The New Policy Environment
3(1)
Reasons for These Changes
4(1)
Changed Roles of School Leaders
5(3)
DEFINING POLICY
8(5)
A Brief Definition
8(1)
Policy and Expressed Government Intentions-Racial Segregation
9(1)
Policy, Law, and Racial Segregation
10(3)
THE POLICY PROCESS
13(5)
Policy Issues
13(1)
Applying the Stage Model to Standards-Based Reform
14(4)
POLICY ANALYSIS
18(2)
A Brief Definition
18(1)
A Brief History
18(1)
Objectives of Policy Analysis
19(1)
Types of Policy Analysis
19(1)
THE SCHOOL LEADER AND POLICY STUDIES
20(2)
Administrators as Policy Makers
20(1)
Administrators as Implementors of Policy
21(1)
Administrators as Followers of Policy Issues
21(1)
Administrators as Influencers of Policy
22(1)
FINAL POINTS
22(4)
Chapter 2 Power and Education Policy 26(28)
INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS
26(1)
DEFINING POWER
27(1)
A "Contested" Concept
27(1)
A Working Definition of Power
27(1)
DISCOURSE AND POWER
28(2)
School Administration as Talk
28(1)
Texts
29(1)
Discourse Practice
29(1)
Social Practice
29(1)
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF POWER
30(11)
The First Dimension of Power: Explicit Uses of Power
30(5)
The Second Dimension of Power: The Mobilization of Bias
35(4)
The Third Dimension of Power: The Shaping of Consciousness
39(2)
POWER IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
41(6)
The Power of Education Policy Actors
41(1)
Analyzing Power Relationships
41(4)
Building Power
45(2)
ETHICAL ISSUES SURROUNDING POWER
47(2)
The Dangers of Power
47(1)
Power as Means and End
47(1)
Using Discursive Power Ethically
48(1)
FINAL POINTS
49(5)
Chapter 3 The Economy and Demographics 54(26)
WHY ANALYZE THE POLICY ENVIRONMENT?
54(2)
Defining Policy Environment
54(1)
Policy and Its Social Context
55(1)
THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
56(9)
Importance of the Economy
56(1)
Overview of U.S. Economic History
56(3)
Short-Term Economic Changes
59(2)
Long-Term Economic Trends
61(4)
DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE POLICY ENVIRONMENT
65(5)
The Importance of Demographics
65(1)
Long-Term Demographic Trends
66(4)
IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION POLICY
70(5)
Implications of the Business Cycle
70(2)
Implications of Long-Range Trends
72(1)
"Do More with Less"
73(1)
"Do a Lot More with a Little More"
74(1)
Reading Between the Lines
75(1)
HOW ABOUT LARGE NEW INVESTMENTS IN SCHOOLS?
75(5)
Chapter 4 The Political System and Political Culture 80(27)
THE IMPORTANCE OFTHE LESS OBVIOUS
80(1)
THE U.S. POLITICAL SYSTEM
81(6)
Federalism
81(3)
Separation of Powers
84(1)
Fragmentation of Governance
84(2)
Focus on Elections
86(1)
Judicial Review
87(1)
IMPLICATIONS OFTHE POLITICALSYSTEM FOR SCHOOL LEADERS
87(7)
Competition Among Governance Bodies
87(2)
Multiple Veto Points
89(1)
Timing Concerns with Elections
90(2)
Network and Coalition Building
92(2)
POLITICAL CULTURE
94(9)
Defining Political Culture
94(1)
Traditionalistic Political Culture
95(2)
Moralistic Political Culture
97(1)
Individualistic Political Culture
98(1)
Political Culture and Education Policy
98(1)
Implications for School Administrators
99(4)
FINAL POINTS
103(4)
Chapter 5 Values and Ideology 107(34)
THE IMPORTANCE OF IDEAS
107(2)
BASIC VALUES IN U.S. POLITICS
109(10)
Self-Interest and Other Values
109(1)
Self-Interest Values
109(1)
General Social Values
110(2)
Democratic Values
112(4)
Economic Values
116(3)
VALUES INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER
119(5)
Cyclical Shifts in Dominant Values
119(2)
Important Value Conflicts
121(3)
IDEOLOGY
124(1)
Defining Ideology
124(1)
MAJOR U.S. IDEOLOGIES
125(3)
Conservatism
125(2)
Liberalism
127(1)
OTHER IDEOLOGIES
128(3)
Extremist Ideologies in the United States
128(2)
Ideologies in Other Countries
130(1)
SCHOOL LEADERS CAUGHT IN IDEOLOGICAL CROSSFIRE
131(6)
Schools as Contested Terrain
131(1)
Dealing Effectively with Ideological Conflicts
132(5)
FINAL POINTS
137(4)
Chapter 6 The Major Education Policy Actors 141(27)
THE DRAMATIS PERSONAE 0F THE POLICY
DRAMA
141(2)
GOVERNMENT ACTORS
143(10)
The Legislative Branch
143(4)
The Executive Branch
147(3)
The Judicial Branch
150(1)
Local Government Actors
151(2)
NONGOVERNMENTAL POLICYACTORS
153(6)
Interest Groups: What They Are and What They Do
153(1)
Education Interest Groups
154(1)
Noneducation Interest Groups
155(1)
Policy Networks
156(1)
Policy Planning Organizations
156(1)
The Media
157(2)
IDENTIFYING AND LEARNING ABOUT POLICY ACTORS
159(4)
Overall Approach
159(1)
Locating Elected Government Officials
159(2)
Identifying Appointed Officials and Groups
161(1)
Identifying Policy Planning and Related Organizations
162(1)
COUNTERACTING "SWISS-CHEESE JOURNALISM"
163(5)
Chapter 7 Setting the Stage and Getting on It: Issue Definition and Agenda Setting 168(28)
PERCEPTION AND REALITY IN THE POLICY PROCESS
168(1)
ISSUE DEFINITION: SETTING THE STAGE
169(12)
Defining Issue Definition
169(2)
The Education Policy Planning and Research Community
171(10)
THE POLICY AGENDA
181(15)
Defining Policy Agenda
181(1)
Types of Policy Agendas
181(1)
How Agendas Relate to Each Other
182(1)
Getting on the Governmental Policy Agenda
183(3)
Staying on a Policy Agenda
186(1)
Nondecisions
186(1)
SCHOOL LEADERS AND THE EARLY STAGES OF THE POLICY PROCESS
187(9)
Following the Early Stages
187(1)
Influencing the Early Stages
188(8)
Chapter 8 Getting the Words and the Money: Policy Formulation and Policy Adoption 196(43)
THE HIGH VISIBILITY STAGES OFTHE POLICY PROCESS
196(1)
POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION IN LEGISLATURES
197(13)
A Conservative Process
197(1)
Legislative Proposals and Where They Come From
198(2)
How Bills Are Drafted
200(1)
How Bills Move Through a Legislature
201(3)
The Politics of Getting a Policy Adopted
204(2)
Obtaining Funding
206(4)
POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES
210(5)
Rule Making
210(4)
Rule Making in the States
214(1)
POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION IN THE COURTS
215(5)
Judges as Policy Actors
215(1)
Taking Cases to Court
216(1)
How, Judges Formulate and Adopt Policy
217(1)
Examples of Education Policy Making by judges
218(2)
INFLUENCING POLICY FORMULATION AND ADOPTION
220(15)
General Principles
220(2)
Influencing Legislatures and Agencies
222(13)
FINAL POINTS
235(4)
Chapter 9 Looking at Policies: Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness 239(30)
LEARNING TO ANALYZE PUBLIC POLICIES
239(1)
LOWI'S TECHNIQUES OF CONTROL
240(10)
Distributive Policies
240(2)
Regulatory Policies
242(2)
Redistributive Policies
244(2)
Do Lowi's Categories Overlap?
246(1)
Using Lowi's Categories in School Leadership
246(4)
MCDONNELL AND ELMORE'S POLICY INSTRUMENTS
250(10)
Mandates
250(2)
Inducements
252(1)
Capacity Building
253(1)
System Change
254(1)
Hortatory Policy, or Persuasion
255(1)
Combining Policy Instruments
256(1)
Using McDonnell and Elmore's Ideas in School Leadership
257(3)
COST ANALYSIS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS
260(7)
Thinking About Costs
260(1)
Cost Analysis
261(4)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
265(2)
FINAL POINTS
267(2)
Chapter 10 Policy Implementation: Getting People to Carry Out a Policy 269(33)
THE SURPRISING DIFFICULTY OF IMPLEMENTATION
269(1)
THE RESEARCH ON IMPLEMENTATION
270(7)
Defining Implementation
270(1)
A Rapidly Growing Field
271(1)
First Generation Research-The Difficulty of Implementation
272(2)
Second Generation Research-Analyses of Failure and Success
274(3)
HOW TO IMPLEMENT A NEW POLICY
277(16)
Mobilizing for Implementation
277(9)
Implementation Proper
286(6)
Institutionalization
292(1)
IMPLEMENTING UNPOPULAR POLICIES
293(4)
Why Some Policies Are Unpopular
293(1)
Issues Surrounding Resistance
294(3)
FINAL POINTS
297(5)
Chapter 11 Policy Evaluation: Determining If the Policy Works 302(24)
A NERVOUS-MAKING TOPIC
302(2)
DEFINITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH POLICY EVALUATION
304(1)
A BRIEF HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY EVALUATION
304(2)
Early Evaluation
304(1)
The War on Poverty
305(1)
The Professionalization of Evaluation
305(1)
CHARACTERISTICS OF POLICY EVALUATIONS
306(7)
The Evaluation Process
306(1)
Criteria for Judging Evaluations
307(2)
Purposes of Evaluations
309(1)
Methodologies Used in Policy Evaluation
310(2)
Indicators
312(1)
FACILITATING MEANINGFUL POLICY EVALUATIONS
313(6)
The Politics of Evaluation
314(2)
Suggestions for Achieving a Sound Evaluation
316(3)
ACTING ON AN EVALUATION REPORT
319(2)
Inaction
320(1)
Minor Modifications
320(1)
Major Modifications
320(1)
Termination
321(1)
FINAL POINTS
321(5)
Chapter 12 Education Policy in the United States: Retrospective and Prospective 326(25)
IF WE AREN'T IN KANSAS, WHERE ARE WE?
326(1)
FOUR THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
327(3)
Competing Values
327(1)
Lowi's Policy Types
328(1)
Institutional Choice
328(1)
International Convergence
329(1)
RETROSPECTIVE ON U.S. EDUCATION POLICY
330(15)
The Young Republic, 1783-1830
330(3)
The Rise of the Common School, 1831-1900
333(3)
The "Scientific" Sorting Machine, 1900-1982
336(5)
In Search of a New Paradigm, 1983-Present
341(4)
WHITHER EDUCATION POLICY?
345(6)
Glossary 351(2)
Appendix A Useful Web Sites for Following Education Policy 353(2)
Appendix B How to Locate Government
Web Sites for Specific States 355(1)
References 356(19)
Author Index 375(4)
Subject Index 379

Excerpts

According to proverbial wisdom, necessity is the mother of invention. Proverbial wisdom is certainly correct in the case of Policy Studies for Educational Leaders: An Introduction.The idea for this book was born in the summer of 1990 when, new Ph.D. in hand, I was invited to teach a graduate course in education policy at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. After discovering no suitable textbooks, I ordered a few paperbacks on current issues and put together a course packet consisting of articles on various aspects of education policy. Although my students were bright and motivated, I often felt frustrated; none had taken a college course in political science and few had been involved in the policy process at any level. I found, therefore, that I had to devote much class time to filling in the gaps in their knowledge. Often I longed for a good textbook that would provide basic information, freeing up precious class time for substantive discussions of policy issues. That fall I began a new position at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where one of my responsibilities was a graduate course in education policy. As I worked with my students over the next few years, my earlier feelings were reinforced. The lack of a good, basic text hampered my teaching in various ways. Thus, the idea for this book was born. As I revised and restructured the course during those years, I also gathered materials for a future textbook, developing an organizational structure and a series of learning materials for students. TEXT PHILOSOPHY AND FOCUS Policy Studies for Educational Leaders: An Introductionis based on the following set of beliefs: Educational leaders need to be literate about policy and the policy process.The time is long past (if indeed there ever was a time) when education administrators could tell themselves that "Politics and education don't mix" and sit complacently on the sidelines while others make important policy decisions for the schools. In today's rapidly changing policy environment, those who lead our schools musthave a basic understanding of education policy and how it is made. Otherwise, they will be reactive rather than proactive; and, when they move into action, they are likely to make serious blunders. Educational leaders need both theories and practical information about education policy and policy making.Unfortunately, many people in education believe that theory and practice are unrelated and; indeed, opposites. I reject this view. If school administrators are truly to be reflective leaders, they need tools for thinking, deeply and critically, about education policy. Among these necessary tools are knowledge about major research findings, analytical frameworks, and important political theories. However, people who are politically inexperienced also need practical advice about how to apply this abstract information. Therefore, this book presents both the underlying theories and specific recommendations for practice. Educational leaders need to understand power and how to use it responsibly.The underlying theory behind this book is conflict theory--the belief that policy grows out of conflict between different individuals, groups, and institutions. Since the outcome of these struggles is shaped by the balance of power among the participants, students must understand power. Conflict theory is a large theoretical house, ranging from the pluralists who focus on the dynamics of practical politics to scholars whose thinking has been influenced by Marx and Gramsci, with many stops in between. Unfortunately, education scholars in the United States tend to set up a binary opposition between the pluralists and more "critical" thinkers, focusing on either practical politics or cultural politics to the exclusion of the other. In my opinion, these approaches are neither theoretically adequate nor peda


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