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Political Science : An Introduction,9780130208729

Political Science : An Introduction

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780130208729

ISBN10:
0130208728
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $58.00
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Summary

Exceptionally up-to-date and rich in cross-national examples, "Political Science" offers an unbiased and thorough introduction to the basic concepts and theories of political science. With a critical look at the major theories, it exposes students to many ways of thinking, and challenges them to think critically. Emphasizing both U.S. and comparative politics provides students with a solid foundation for connecting their studies ot what is happening in the world around them.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I The Bases of Politics 1(90)
1 A Science of Politics?
1(18)
The Master Science
2(3)
History
3(1)
Human Geography
3(1)
Economics
4(1)
Sociology
4(1)
Anthropology
4(1)
Psychology
4(1)
Political Power
5(7)
Biological
5(3)
Psychological
8(1)
Cultural
8(1)
Rational
9(1)
Irrational
10(1)
Power as a Composite
10(2)
Is Politics a Science?
12(5)
The Struggle to See Clearly
12(4)
What Good Is Political Science?
16(1)
Key Terms
17(1)
Key Websites
17(1)
Further Reference
18(1)
2 Theories: Classic and Modern
19(19)
Classic Theories
21(5)
The Contractualists
23(1)
Marxist Theories
24(2)
Institutional Theories
26(1)
Contemporary Theories
26(10)
Behavioral Theory
27(1)
Systems Theory
28(3)
Modernization Theory
31(2)
Developmentalist Theories
33(1)
Rational-Choice Theory
34(2)
New Institutionalism
36(1)
Key Terms
36(1)
Key Websites
37(1)
Further Reference
37(1)
3 Nations, States, and Governments
38(17)
The Elements of Nationhood
40(2)
Territory
40(1)
Population
41(1)
Independence
41(1)
Government
42(1)
The Crises of Nation Building
42(4)
Identity
43(1)
Legitimacy
43(1)
Penetration
43(1)
Participation
43(1)
Distribution
44(2)
Government: What It Is and What It Does
46(5)
Classifying Governments
46(2)
The State as Agent of Modernization
48(3)
Making Public Policy
51(2)
Public Policies: Material and Symbolic
52(1)
Key Terms
53(1)
Key Websites
54(1)
Further Reference
54(1)
4 Individuals and Constitutions
55(16)
Constitutions in the Modern World
56(7)
The Highest Law of the Land
57(2)
The Purpose of a Constitution
59(4)
The Adaptability of the U.S. Constitution
63(2)
Can the Constitution Ensure Rights?
64(1)
Freedom of Expression in the United States
65(4)
Free Speech and Sedition
66(3)
Key Terms
69(1)
Key Websites
69(1)
Further Reference
70(1)
5 Democracy, Totalitarianism, and Authoritarianism
71(20)
Modern Democracy
72(5)
Representative Democracy
72(5)
Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism?
77(3)
Totalitarian Government
80(4)
What Is Totalitarianism?
80(4)
Authoritarianism
84(2)
Authoritarianism and the Developing Nations
85(1)
The Democratization of Authoritarian Regimes
86(3)
Key Terms
89(1)
Key Websites
89(1)
Further Reference
89(2)
Part II Political Attitudes 91(58)
6 Political Ideologies
91(20)
What Is Ideology?
91(3)
The Major Ideologies
94(11)
Classic Liberalism
94(1)
Classic Conservatism
95(1)
Modern Liberalism
96(1)
Modern Conservatism
97(1)
Marxist Socialism
97(1)
Social Democracy
98(2)
Communism
100(2)
Nationalism
102(1)
Fascism
103(2)
Ideology in Our Day
105(4)
The Collapse of Communism
105(1)
Neoconservatism
106(1)
Libertarianism
107(1)
Feminism
107(1)
Environmentalism
108(1)
Is Ideology Finished?
109(1)
Key Terms
109(1)
Key Websites
110(1)
Further Reference
110(1)
7 Political Culture
111(17)
The Environment of Government: Political Culture
111(5)
Political Culture and Public Opinion
112(1)
Participation in America
113(3)
The Decay of Political Culture
116(6)
Elite and Mass Cultures
118(1)
Political Subcultures
119(3)
Political Socialization
122(4)
The Agents of Socialization
123(3)
Key Terms
126(1)
Key Websites
126(1)
Further Reference
127(1)
8 Public Opinion
128(21)
The Shape of Public Opinion
130(5)
Social Class
131(1)
Education
132(1)
Region
132(1)
Religion
133(1)
Age
134(1)
Gender
134(1)
Ethnic Group
135(1)
Public-Opinion Patterns
135(3)
Public-Opinion Polls
138(3)
Polling Techniques
139(1)
How Reliable Are the Polls?
140(1)
American Opinion
141(6)
Presidential Popularity
141(2)
Liberals and Conservatives
143(1)
Who Pays Attention?
143(2)
Is Polling Fair?
145(1)
Should America Be Governed by Polls?
146(1)
Key Terms
147(1)
Key Websites
147(1)
Further Reference
148(1)
Part III Political Interactions 149(77)
9 Political Communication and the Media
149(20)
Communication in Politics
149(5)
Levels of Communication
150(2)
Modern Mass Media
152(2)
The Giant: Television
154(8)
Television News
154(2)
Television and Politics
156(2)
Television: Ownership and Control
158(4)
Are We Poorly Served?
162(4)
What Can Be Done?
163(1)
The Adversaries: Media and Government
164(2)
Key Terms
166(1)
Key Websites
167(1)
Further Reference
167(2)
10 Interest Groups
169(20)
What Is an Interest Group?
169(5)
Who Belongs to Interest Groups?
171(1)
Interest Groups and Government
172(1)
Bureaucrats as an Interest Group
173(1)
Effective Interest Groups
174(6)
Political Culture
174(1)
The Rise of Big Money
175(2)
The Rise of Single-Issue Groups
177(1)
Size and Membership
178(1)
Access
179(1)
Strategies of Interest Groups
180(5)
Approaching the Lawmakers
180(1)
Approaching the Administration
181(1)
Approaching the Judiciary
182(1)
Other Tactics
183(2)
Interest Groups: An Evaluation
185(2)
Stalemating Political Power
186(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Key Websites
187(1)
Further Reference
187(2)
11 Political Parties and Party Systems
189(18)
Functions of Parties
190(2)
A Bridge between People and Government
190(1)
Aggregation of Interests
190(1)
Integration into the Political System
190(1)
Political Socialization
191(1)
Mobilization of Voters
191(1)
Organization of Government
192(1)
Parties in Democracies
192(3)
Centralization
192(1)
Setting Government Policy
193(2)
Party Participation in Government
195(1)
The Party in Communist States
195(2)
Classifying Political Parties
197(1)
Financing Political Parties
198(1)
Party Systems
199(6)
Classifying Party Systems
199(4)
The Party System and the Electoral System
203(1)
The U.S. Party System: Could It Be Different?
204(1)
Key Terms
205(1)
Key Websites
205(1)
Further Reference
206(1)
12 Voting
207(19)
Why Do People Vote?
207(5)
Who Votes?
208(4)
How Do People Vote?
212(4)
Party Identification
212(1)
Who Votes How?
213(3)
Electoral Realignment
216(3)
A Reagan Realignment?
217(2)
What Wins Elections?
219(5)
Retrospective Voting
220(2)
Candidate Strategies and Voter Groups
222(2)
Key Terms
224(1)
Key Websites
224(1)
Further Reference
224(2)
Part IV The Institutions of Politics 226(96)
13 The Basic Structures of Government
226(19)
Monarchy or Republic
227(1)
Unitary or Federal Systems
228(10)
Unitary Systems
229(3)
Federal Systems
232(4)
The United States: Balkanization of Government
236(2)
The Unitary-Federal Mixture
238(1)
Electoral Systems
238(5)
Single-Member Districts
239(2)
Proportional Representation
241(1)
Choosing Institutions
242(1)
Key Terms
243(1)
Key Websites
243(1)
Further Reference
244(1)
14 Legislatures
245(21)
Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
247(5)
Pros and Cons of Each System
249(3)
What Legislatures Do
252(7)
The Committee System
254(2)
A Closer Look at Legislatures
256(3)
The Decline of Legislatures
259(4)
Structural Disadvantages
259(1)
Lack of Expertise
260(1)
Psychological Disadvantages
261(1)
The Absentee Problem
261(1)
Lack of Turnover
262(1)
The Dilemma of Parliaments
263(1)
Key Terms
263(1)
Key Websites
264(1)
Further Reference
264(2)
15 Executives
266(20)
Presidents and Prime Ministers
266(6)
"Forming a Government" in Britain
267(2)
"Constructive No Confidence" in Germany
269(1)
"Cohabitation" in France
269(1)
The "Presidentialization" of Prime Ministers
269(1)
Executive Terms
270(2)
The Roles of the Executive
272(3)
Chief of State
272(1)
Head of Government
272(1)
Party Chief
272(1)
Commander in Chief
273(1)
Chief Diplomat
273(2)
Dispenser of Appointments
275(1)
Chief Legislator
275(1)
Executive Leadership
275(3)
Disabled Presidents
278(3)
Cabinets
281(2)
Who Serves in a Cabinet?
281(1)
The Rise of Noncabinet Advisers
282(1)
The Danger of Expecting Too Much
283(1)
Key Terms
284(1)
Key Websites
284(1)
Further Reference
284(2)
16 Administration and Bureaucracy
286(18)
The U.S. Federal Bureaucracy
287(2)
The Cabinet Departments
287(1)
Federal Agencies
288(1)
Federal Corporations
288(1)
Independent Regulatory Agencies
288(1)
Bureaucracies in Other Nations
289(2)
Communist Countries
289(1)
France
289(1)
Germany
290(1)
Great Britain
291(1)
Characteristics of Bureaucracies
291(2)
Bureaucracy in Modern Governments
293(3)
Administration
293(1)
Services
294(1)
Regulation
294(1)
Licensing
295(1)
Information Gathering
295(1)
The Trouble with Bureaucracy
296(6)
The Bureaucracy: Administrator or Policymaker?
297(2)
What to Do with Bureaucracy?
299(3)
Bureaucracy and Society
302(1)
Key Terms
302(1)
Key Websites
303(1)
Further Reference
303(1)
17 Legal Systems and the Courts
304(18)
Types of Law
304(3)
Criminal Law
304(1)
Civil Law
305(1)
Constitutional Law
305(1)
Administrative Law
306(1)
International Law
306(1)
The Courts, the Bench, and the Bar
307(6)
The U.S. Court System
307(3)
Judges
310(1)
Comparing Courts
311(1)
The British Court System
312(1)
The European Court System
312(1)
The Role of the Courts
313(7)
The U.S. Supreme Court
315(1)
The Supreme Court's Political Role
316(1)
The Views of Judges
316(2)
The Political Impact of the Court
318(2)
Key Terms
320(1)
Key Websites
321(1)
Further Reference
321(1)
Part V What Political Systems Do 322(68)
18 Political Economy
322(17)
Government and the Economy
323(5)
Inflation
324(1)
Tax Hike
324(1)
Balance of Payments
324(1)
Gold Standard
324(1)
Wage-Price Freeze
325(1)
Oil Shocks
325(1)
Stagflation
326(1)
Interest Rates
326(1)
Tax Cut
326(1)
Budget Deficits
327(1)
Trade Deficits
328(1)
Budget Balancing
328(1)
Who Is Entitled to What?
328(9)
The Costs of Welfare
331(6)
How Big Should Government Be?
337(1)
Key Terms
337(1)
Key Websites
338(1)
Further Reference
338(1)
19 Violence and Revolution
339(18)
System Breakdown
339(6)
Violence as a Symptom
340(1)
Types of Violence
341(2)
Change as a Cause of Violence
343(2)
Revolutions
345(4)
Intellectuals and Revolution
346(1)
The Stages of Revolution
346(3)
After the Revolution
349(6)
The Waning of Revolution
351(4)
Key Terms
355(1)
Key Websites
356(1)
Further Reference
356(1)
20 International Relations
357(17)
Power and National Interest
359(2)
The Role of Elites
361(3)
Keeping Peace
364(3)
World Government
364(1)
Collective Security
365(1)
Functionalism
365(1)
Third-Party Assistance
366(1)
Diplomacy
366(1)
Peacekeeping
366(1)
The Cold War
367(2)
The Truman Doctrine
367(1)
The Marshall Plan
368(1)
Containment
368(1)
Deterrence
368(1)
Beyond Sovereignty?
369(3)
The United Nations
371(1)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
371(1)
Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
372(1)
Key Terms
372(1)
Key Websites
372(1)
Further Reference
373(1)
21 The Global System
374(16)
Historical Systems
374(2)
The Nineteenth-Century Balance of Power System
375(1)
The Interwar System
376(1)
The Bipolar Cold War System
376(1)
What System Is Emerging?
376(7)
A Unipolar Model
377(1)
A Hub-and-Spokes Model
377(1)
A Multipolar Model
378(1)
A Stratified Model
378(1)
A Zones-of-Chaos Model
379(1)
A Repolarized Model
379(1)
A Globalized Model
380(1)
A Resource-Wars Model
381(1)
A "Clash-of-Civilizations" Model
382(1)
A Proliferation Model
382(1)
Foreign Policy: Involved or Isolated?
383(4)
Key Terms
387(1)
Key Websites
388(1)
Further Reference
388(2)
Index 390


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