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Politics and Change in the Middle East: Sources of Conflict and Accommodation,9780131401938
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Politics and Change in the Middle East: Sources of Conflict and Accommodation

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131401938

ISBN10:
0131401939
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Politics and Change in the Middle East presents the politics of this area by discussing the economic, historical, social science, popular culture, and religious issues. It incorporates historical perspectives with contemporary material, giving readers the necessary background to make informed judgments on the politics of the region today. Comprehensive in its scope, this book covers traditional cultures of the region, the foundations of Islam, issues and events in the region from A.D. 632 to 1990, religious politics, culture, and social life, political leaders, the economic setting, and the events of 9/11/2001. For employees in corporations that deal with the region of the Middle East, where an understanding of the history and culture is necessary.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction xv
Politics and Conflict
xvi
Approaches to Social Change
xvii
CHAPTER ONE Traditional Cultures of the Middle East: The Cradle of Civilization and Politics 1(10)
Foundations of Social Diversity
3(5)
Unity in Diversity
8(3)
CHAPTER TWO The Foundations of Islam 11(15)
Central Beliefs of Islam
12(2)
Pre-Islamic Arab Ethics
14(1)
The Social Setting of Mecca
15(2)
Muhammad's Ministry
17(5)
Five Popular Misconceptions about Islam
22(3)
Conclusion
25(1)
CHAPTER THREE The Political Legacy of Islam, A.D. 632-1800 26(17)
The Establishment of the Islamic State
27(1)
The Golden Age of the Caliphate
28(3)
Mongol Destruction and the Rebirth of Empire
31(3)
Growth and Decline in the Islamic State
34(1)
Legitimacy in Government
35(1)
The Sharia Law
36(1)
The Shia
37(1)
Sufism
38(1)
Islam and Radical Politics
39(1)
The Kharijites
39(1)
Ismailis and Qarmatians
39(2)
Diversity in Islamic Political Thought
41(2)
CHAPTER FOUR Western Imperialism, 1800-1914 43(13)
Setting the Stage
44(1)
The Ottomans
45(2)
Egypt
47(2)
The Levant
49(1)
The Arabian Peninsula
50(1)
Iran
51(3)
Conclusion
54(2)
CHAPTER FIVE The Rise of the State System, 1914-1950 56(16)
The McMahon-Husein Correspondence
57(3)
The Mandates
60(2)
Egypt
62(2)
Saudi Arabia
64(1)
Turkey and Iran
65(2)
From Palestine to Israel
67(3)
Conclusion
70(2)
CHAPTER SIX The Drive for Self-Determination, 1950-1990 72(33)
Arab Nationalism
73(10)
Iran, the Gulf States, and Petroleum
83(6)
Israel
89(10)
The Palestinians and the 1988 Uprising
99(5)
Conclusion
104(1)
CHAPTER SEVEN Turning Points 105(21)
Globalization
107(3)
Arab Nationalism
110(3)
Economic Liberalization
113(6)
From Oslo to Jerusalem
119(5)
Conclusion
124(2)
CHAPTER EIGHT The Politics of Religion, Culture, and Social Life 126(27)
The Politics of Culture
127(2)
The Contemporary Politics of Islam
129(3)
Turkey: Radical Westernization and the Durability of Islam
132(3)
Egypt: The Labyrinth of Possibilities
135(3)
Saudi Arabia: An Islamic Camelot?
138(4)
Iran and the Islamic Republic
142(4)
Sexual Politics
146(5)
Conclusion
151(2)
CHAPTER NINE Political Elites 153(24)
Traditional, Transitional, and Technically Modernizing Elites
156(20)
Conclusion
176(1)
CHAPTER TEN Political Leadership in the Contemporary Middle East 177(24)
Traditional Leadership
177(4)
Charismatic Leadership
181(3)
Modern Bureaucratic Leadership
184(2)
Consequences of Leadership Styles
186(1)
Traditional States
187(2)
Modern Bureaucratic States
189(7)
Charismatic Rule
196(4)
Conclusion
200(1)
CHAPTER ELEVEN The Economic Setting 201(34)
The Economic Record
204(1)
Organization of Economic Activity
205(6)
Liberalization and Globalization
211(1)
Land Policies
211(4)
Agricultural Policies
215(1)
Water
216(3)
Population
219(7)
Industry
226(1)
Petroleum
227(6)
Conclusion
233(2)
CHAPTER TWELVE International Relations in the Contemporary Middle East, 1945-1990 235(17)
The Great-Power System and the Middle East
238(2)
U.S. Foreign Policy
240(6)
Soviet Foreign Policy
246(3)
Britain and France
249(1)
China and Japan
250(1)
Conclusion
251(1)
CHAPTER THIRTEEN International Relations in the Contemporary Middle East, 1945-1990: The Regional Actors 252(27)
Palestinian International Action
256(3)
OPEC and Islam
259(1)
The Foreign Policies of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Israel
260(18)
Conclusion
278(1)
CHAPTER FOURTEEN The Middle East and the Changing International Order, 1991-2001 279(30)
Dimensions of the Emerging International Order
281(1)
The Middle East in the Emerging International Order
282(9)
The Arabs and the Israelis
291(6)
Superpowers and Great Powers
297(2)
Middle Eastern States
299(8)
Conclusion
307(2)
CHAPTER FIFTEEN Did 9/11 Change Everything? 309(15)
The Reemergence of Iraq
310(2)
Two Coalitions
312(1)
The Middle East Quartet
313(1)
Regional Actors
314(3)
World Public Opinion
317(1)
War
318(5)
Conclusion
323(1)
Internet Resources 324(2)
Glossary 326(3)
Index 329

Excerpts

This book has grown out of the authors' conviction that a proper understanding of present events in the Middle East requires knowledge of the cultural, social, and economic, as well as the political, background of these events. It is, more specifically, an outgrowth of the authors' attempts to develop an undergraduate course sequence aimed at such understanding. We found that, despite the abundance of excellent scholarship on the Middle East, there was a paucity of works that brought together the diverse disciplinary perspectives in a way suitable to our pedagogic aims. It is our belief that this book, with its combination of historical and contemporary materials and its integrated perspective, provides something of value that is not elsewhere available to the undergraduate student or educator. Many profound changes have occurred since the original publication of this book. As we published our first edition in 1982, the first signs were evident of the inevitable decline of the bipolar international system, a system in which the overarching conflict between the United States and the U.S.S.R gave substance and meaning to a wide range of international interactions. Now, the U.S.S.R. no longer exists, replaced by a loose confederation of states, autonomous areas, and dependencies that is only a shadow of the old order. It must now compete for power and influence with its former allies in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Kazakhstan, as well as its old enemies in the West. It has been necessary to incorporate these new realities into our analysis of governments and politics in the Middle East. But the long-term consequences of these changes are not yet clear; they are, in fact, in the process of evolution. The new Russia is not the powerhouse that the old U.S.S.R. was reputed to be; but Russia still sees a role for itself in the Middle East. Regaining an element of its dominance in the areas of Central Asia is an emergent theme in its domestic politics--yet another example of the "domesticization of international politics and the internationalization of the domestic." Changes in the Middle East itself have also been drastic. OPEC, for instance, was in its robust maturity as we began our initial work, a dominant player in the international energy system, capable of ostensible control of both supply and price of petroleum. Indeed it can be demonstrated that as Middle Eastern leaders "played the petroleum card" they were able to extract concessions from East and West. But by 2400, OPEC was not nearly the dominant influence it had been, despite a 1999 rally of prices engineered by OPEC. Its influence was diluted by a combination of new non-OPEC sources of petroleum, new technology squeezing new life and profits out of older fields, and modest conservation measures. The oil-rich monarchies of the Middle East are still rich, it is true; but they now live in an age of tough economic constraints in which important choices must be made, economically and politically. The cushion upon which they have relied for two decades has dramatically thinned. If ever there was an issue or conflict considered architectonic in the Middle East, it was surely the Arab-Israeli conflict. Many regional issues and prospects were held hostage to this seemingly intractable problem. Parties directly involved in the conflict--Israel and the PLO--seemed inexorably headed in opposite directions. Even moderate Israelis seriously considered the merits of "transfer," a euphemism for the coercive expulsion of all Palestinians from Gaza and the West Bank. Many Palestinians committed themselves to violent confrontation with Israel, joining and working within a range of parties and groups dedicated to the destruction of Israel. Even the heavy-handed intervention of the United States failed to break the emotional and political deadlock between Israeli and Palestinian. In the spring of 1993, Norway and indepen


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