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Now in its fourth edition,Politics of Latin Americaexplores both the evolution and the current state of the political scene in Latin America. Distinguishing itself from more traditional works on the subject, this unique text demonstrates a nuanced sensitivity to the use and abuse of power and the importance of social conditions, gender, race, globalization, and political economy throughout Latin America. The first part of the text is composed of thematic chapters that outline the region's geographic setting, history, economics, society, gender, race, and religion, setting the stage for a more detailed analysis of the politics, democratization, political culture, political movements, and revolution in Latin America. The second part of the book consists of carefully constructed case studies of ten representative Latin American nations: Guatemala, Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia. Each case study traces the historical and political development of key actors and institutions, analyzing contemporary power configurations. FEATURES OF THE FOURTH EDITION: * Focuses on contemporary developments in the region, especially the election and reelection (from 2002 on) of several progressive governments that provide an alternative to the neoliberal policies of the 1990s * Incorporates recent political events (from 2007-2010) including the presidential and legislative elections in Brazil, Venezuela, Uruguay, El Salvador, and Paraguay * Analyzes critical new legislative developments, including the legalization of gay marriage in Argentina in 2010 * Updates all tables and charts with the latest census and economic data * Includes an entirely new chapter (11) on the relationship between the United States and Latin America, which offers an in-depth look at Obama's policies toward the region and places his administration in the context of long-standing themes in this complex relationship * Restructures, expands, and adds statistical tables to the chapter on democracy and authoritarianism * Is supplemented by a Companion Website that includes chapters on additional countries
Harry E. Vanden is Professor of Political Science and International Studies at the University of South Florida.
Gary Prevost is Professor of Political Science at St. John's University and the College of St. Benedict.
Table of Contents
Frequently Cited Acronyms
Introduction: Notes on Studying Politics in Latin America
1. An Introduction to Twenty-First Century Latin America
Once There Were Rain Forests
The Cities Explode: Urbanization
2. Early History
People in the Americas before the Conquest
How Could They Do It?
Production, Trade, and Extraction of Riches
Colonial State Organization
The Bourbon Reforms
3. A Historical Overview from Independence to the Present Day
Early Drive for Independence in Hispanic America
Early Years of Independence
The Aftermath of Independence and the Monroe Doctrine
The Cold War and Change
4. The Other Americans
The Role of Sugar and Slavery
Resistance to Slavery
Concept of Race
Contemporary Struggle of the Indigenous People
5. Society, Family, and Gender
Family and Gender Roles
Class, Gender, Race, and Mobility
Homosexuality and Transgenderism
6. Religion in Latin America
Indigenous Religious Practice
Colonial Catholic Church
The Church in Modern Latin America
A New Political Role
Impact of Liberation Theology
Protestantism and Pentecostalism
7. The Political Economy of Latin America
On Economics and Political Economy
The Latin American Economy
Foreign Investment and Enclave Production
Dependency and Underdevelopment
Raúl Prebisch and the ECLA
Import Substitution Industrialization
Increasing Foreign Debt and the Debt Crisis
Structural Adjustment and the Move to Neoliberalism
Privatization and Neoliberalism
Regional Integration, NAFTA, and the Globalization Process
8. Democracy and Authoritarianism: Latin American Political Culture
Authoritarian Legacy and Weak Democratic Tradition
9. Politics, Power, Institutions, and Actors
10. Struggling for Change: Revolution, Social and Political Movements in Latin America
Chiapas: Regional Victory
New Social Movements and New Politics: The MST
11. U.S.-Latin American Relations
Territorial Expansion: Confrontation with Mexico
Dreams of Cuba
Gunboat Diplomacy, the Big Stick, and Dollar Diplomacy
Democracy and World War II
The Rio Treaty and the Organization of American States
Alliance for Progress
National Security Doctrine
September 11 Coup in Chile
Cold War in Central America
Latin America and the Post-Cold War World
Latin American Initiatives
Prospects for the Future
12. Guatemala, Susanne Jonas
Precolonial, Colonial, and Neocolonial History
The Revolution of 1944-1954 and the 1954 CIA Intervention
Aftermath: Chronic Crisis
Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the 1970s-1980s
Transistion to Restricted Civilian Rule
Social Crisis and Reemergence of Social Movements
Guatemala's Peace Process (1990-1996)
Postwar Guatemala (1997-2007)
13. Mexico, Nora Hamilton
Economic Development and the "Perfect Dictatorship": 1940-1982
Economic Liberalization and Political Transition: 1982-2000
Toward an Uncertain Future: 2000-2010
14. Cuba, Gary Prevost
Revolution in Power
Decade of the 1970s: Economic Changes
Cuban Response to the Collapse of the Soviet Union
15. Brazil, Wilber Albert Chaffee
A Brief Political History
The "New Republic"
Geography of Inequality
A Culture of Discrimination
The Political System
16. Argentina, Aldo C. Vacs
Economic Crisis, Political Upheaval, and the Return of Populism
Politics and Power
Looking Forward: Argentina's Political Prospects
17. Chile, Eduardo Silva
Power and Politics
Chilean Government Structures
18. Venezuela, Daniel Hellinger
Geography and People
Race and Gender
Venezuela's History and Its Uses Today
Oil Changes Everything
The Punto Fijo Regime and the Rise and Fall of "Partyarchy"
From Decay to Collapse of the Punto Fijo System
Venezuela's "Bolivarian" Constitution and Institutional Framework
Political Actors in Bolivarian Venezuela
Economic and Development Strategies in Bolivarian Venezuela
19. Colombia, John C. Dugas
Economic and Social Context
The Colombian Political Regime: Constitutional Structure and Actual Practice
20. Nicaragua, Gary Prevost and Harry E. Vanden
The Modern Era
Carlos Fonseca and the Roots of the FSLN
Turning Point for Revolution
The FSLN in Power
Consolidating Political Institutions
The 1990 Election and After
The Chamorro Years, Alemán and Bolanos
The 1996 Elections and the Evolving Party System
Neoliberalism and the Economy
Nicaraguan Government Structures
21. Bolivia, Waltraud Q. Morales
Colonial Rule (1532-1809)
Independence and Caudillo Rule (1809-1879)
The War of the Pacific (1879-1884)
Republican Government (1880-1932)
The Chaco War and the Coming of Revolution (1932-1951)
From Revolution to Military Dictatorship (1952-1982)
Transition to Democratic Rule
Indigenous Resurgence and Populist Democracy
Crisis of Reform and Autonomy
Appendix 1. Presidential Elections
Appendix 2. Recent Legislative Elections
Authors and Contributors