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Politics and Policy in American States and Communities,9780205291182
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Politics and Policy in American States and Communities

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205291182

ISBN10:
020529118X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
List Price: $75.00
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Table of Contents

Preface xv
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
Face-to-Face Governance
1(13)
Learning Objectives for Chapter
3(1)
Scope
3(1)
Capacity
4(3)
Participation
7(5)
Plan of This Book
12(1)
Discussion Questions
12(1)
Notes
13(1)
SECTION II LAYING THE FOUNDATION
State Diversity, Growth and Decline, and the Contemporary Urban Dilemma
14(33)
Learning Objectivies for Chapter 2
16(1)
Values
16(2)
Political Cultures
18(3)
An Introductory Tour of the States
21(7)
The Northeast
21(2)
The South
23(1)
The Midwest
24(2)
The West
26(2)
Metropolitan Development
28(5)
The Emergence of the City
29(1)
The Rise of the Suburbs
30(1)
The Third Wave: Contemporary Edge Cities
31(2)
Patterns of Interregional Growth and Decline
33(8)
The New Immigration and Metropolitan Growth
41(1)
The Consequences of Growth and Decline
42(1)
Summary and Conclusions
43(1)
Discussion Questions
44(1)
Glossary
45(1)
Notes
45(2)
Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations
47(30)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 3
49(1)
Constitutional Developments
49(4)
The Phases of Federalism
53(14)
Dual Federalism (1787-1932)
54(1)
Cooperative Federalism (1933-1963)
55(1)
Centralized Federalism (1964-1980)
56(3)
The New Federalism (1981-1992)
59(6)
Constrained Empathetic Federalism (1993- )
65(2)
The Plight of Local Governments in the Federal System
67(2)
Regulaory Federalism
69(3)
Mandates
69(1)
Penalties to Bias Options
70(1)
Partial Preemption
71(1)
Outright Preemption
71(1)
Relations Among the States
72(1)
Full Faith and Credit
72(1)
Privileges and Immunities
72(1)
Extradition
73(1)
Interstate Compacts
73(1)
Summary and Conclusions
73(2)
Discussion Questions
75(1)
Glossary
75(1)
Notes
75(2)
Constitutions and Charters
77(26)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 4
78(1)
History of State Constitutions
78(9)
The First State Constitutions: Guarantee Individual Rights, Weaken Executive Powers
79(1)
The Federal Constitution: Strengthen National Government
79(1)
Northwest Ordinance of 1787: Copy Original Constitutions and Add States
80(1)
Civil War: Dispute Slavery and Settle Sovereignty
81(2)
Expansion West and Progressive Reforms: Alow Direct Democracy
83(1)
Hawaii: A Special Case
84(1)
Tribal Constitutions
85(1)
National Government Changes: Intervening on Behalf of Individuals
86(1)
Reforms Since the 1960s: Strengthen Institutional Capacity and Restrict Taxation
87(1)
Major Features of State Constitutions
87(8)
Bill of Rights
90(1)
Suffrage and Elections
91(1)
Structure and Power of Government Institutions
92(1)
Amendment Process
93(2)
Local Government Charters
95(2)
Types of Local Governments
97(2)
Summary and Conclusions
99(1)
Discussion Questions
100(1)
Glossary
101(1)
Notes
101(2)
Policy-Making Processes: The Framework for Participation
103(31)
Learning Objectives for Chapters 5
104(1)
Public Policy Instruments
104(2)
Individual and Group Participation in Public Policy Making
106(4)
The Centrality of Lawmaking in Shaping Public Policy
110(2)
The Substantive Bill State Legislative Process
112(8)
Legislative Initiatives and Their Origin
112(3)
The Process of Legislative Consideration and Approval
115(1)
Two Variants of the State Legislative Process
116(4)
The State Budgetary Process
120(10)
Executive Budged Development
123(1)
The Legislative Fiscal Committee's Involvement
123(2)
Action Shifting to the Legislative Chambers
125(4)
The Governor's Chance Again: The Veto
129(1)
Legislative Review of Gubernatorial Vetoes
129(1)
The Process Recycles
130(1)
Summary and Conclusions
130(1)
Discussion Questions
131(1)
Glossary
131(1)
Notes
132(2)
SECTION III PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
Grassroots Participation
134(22)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 6
135(1)
Access to Government
135(2)
Who Participates?
137(4)
Ways of Participating
141(3)
Engaging in the Electoral Process
141(1)
Testifying at Hearings and Meetings
141(1)
Being on Advisory Committees
142(1)
Contacting Public Officals
142(1)
Using the Media
142(1)
Protesting
142(2)
Direct Democracy
144(10)
The Debate
145(3)
The Initiative and Popular Referendum
148(4)
The Courts and Direct Democracy
152(2)
Summary and Conclusions
154(1)
Discussion Questions
154(1)
Glossary
154(1)
Notes
155(1)
Interest Groups
156(22)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 7
157(1)
General Trends
157(2)
Internal Characteristics
159(6)
Membership
159(2)
Resources
161(2)
Interests Represented
163(2)
Functions and Activities
165(7)
Interest Groups and Elections
166(1)
Interest Groups and Lobbying
167(1)
Regulation of Lobbying
168(1)
Who Are Lobbyists?
169(1)
Types of Lobbyists
170(1)
What Lobbyists Do
170(2)
Impact of Interest Groups
172(3)
Summary and Conclusions
175(1)
Discussion Questions
175(1)
Glossary
175(1)
Notes
176(2)
Political Parties and Elections
178(28)
Learning Objectives For Chapter 8
179(1)
The Roles of Political Parties
180(3)
Responsible Parties
180(1)
Electoral Parties
181(2)
Party Organization
183(3)
Formal Organization
183(1)
Committee Structures
183(1)
Resources
184(1)
Conventions
185(1)
Informal Organizations
186(2)
Candidate-Centered Organizations
186(1)
Factions
186(1)
Party Substitutes
187(1)
Party Nominations
188(1)
Campaigns
189(4)
Campaign Techniques
189(2)
Media
191(1)
Negative Campaigning
191(2)
Campaingn Finances
193(4)
Term Limitations
197(2)
Party Competition
199(3)
Summary and Conclusions
202(1)
Discussion Questions
203(1)
Glossary
204(1)
Notes
204(2)
SECTION IV THE INSTITUTIONS OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Governors
206(20)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 9
207(1)
Historical Developments
207(1)
Formal Powers
208(11)
Term of Office
208(1)
Appointment Powers
209(1)
Budget and Fiscal Management
210(2)
Veto
212(2)
Judicial Powers
214(1)
Staff
215(1)
National Governors' Association
216(2)
Lieutenant Governor
218(1)
Transition
218(1)
Roles
219(3)
Agenda Setting
219(1)
Ceremonial
220(1)
Party Leader
220(1)
Manager
221(1)
Governors as Individuals
222(1)
Governors and Mobility
223(1)
Summary and Conclusions
223(1)
Discussion Questions
224(1)
Glossary
224(1)
Notes
225(1)
State Legislatures
226(29)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 10
230(1)
What Legislatures
230(1)
Legislative Organization
231(2)
Legislative Leadership
233(6)
Legislative Committees
238(1)
Members
239(3)
Legislative Reform
242(4)
Length of Session
244(1)
Compensation
244(1)
Facilities
244(1)
Staff
245(1)
Information
245(1)
Calls for Term Limits
246(1)
The Changing Executive-Legislative Balance
247(4)
Legislative Budgeting
247(1)
Legislative Review of Administrative Rules
248(1)
Sunset Laws
248(1)
The Legislative Audit
249(1)
The Clash of Gubernatorial-Legislative Perspectives
250(1)
Legislative Decision Making
251(1)
Summary and Conclusions
252(1)
Discussion Questions
252(1)
Glossary
252(1)
Notes
253(2)
Local Government Executives and Legislatures
255(22)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 11
257(1)
Community Power
257(2)
Elite Theory
257(1)
Pluralist Theory
258(1)
The Disenfranchised
258(1)
Executive and Legislative Institutions in Municipal Government
259(3)
Elected Executives
259(1)
Managers
259(1)
Councils
260(2)
Patterns of Executive and Legislative Relations in Municipal Government
262(6)
Historical Developments
262(3)
Types of Municipal Governments
265(2)
Significance of Formal Structures
267(1)
County Governments
268(2)
Townships
270(1)
School Districts
271(2)
Other Special Districts
273(1)
Summary and Conclusions
274(1)
Discussion Questions
274(1)
Glossary
274(1)
Notes
275(2)
Bureaucracies
277(27)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 12
278(1)
The Nature of Bureaucracy
279(5)
Profile of Public Employees
281(3)
Personnel Management
284(6)
Anti-machines: the Merit System
285(1)
Anti Discirimination: Job-Related Personnel Management
286(2)
Employee Participation
288(2)
Agency Discretion and Accountability
290(3)
Accountability to Chief Executives
291(1)
Accountability of Legislatures
292(1)
Independent Regulatory Agencies
293(1)
Development of State Governments as Regulators
293(1)
Reasons for Regulation
294(2)
Surrogate for Market Forces
294(1)
Protection
295(1)
Externalities
295(1)
Safety
295(1)
Equity
296(1)
Regulation and Federalism
296(1)
Sole Responsibility: State Governments
296(1)
Sole Responsibility: Federal Government
296(1)
Parallel: Federal Preemption
296(1)
Parallel: Federal Partial Preemption
296(1)
State Veto
297(1)
The Regulatory Process
297(3)
Capture Theory
299(1)
Interest Group Theory
299(1)
Representation Theory
300(1)
Summary and Conclusions
300(1)
Discussion Questions
301(1)
Glossary
301(1)
Notes
302(2)
Courts
304(23)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 13
305(1)
State and Federal Courts
305(3)
State, Tribal, and Federal Courts
308(1)
Structures
309(3)
Specialized and Lower Courts
310(2)
Appeals Courts
312(1)
Supreme Courts
312(1)
Role of State's Attorney or Attorney General
312(1)
Process
313(6)
Grand Jury
316(1)
Plea Bargaining and Out-Of-Court Settlements
316(1)
Sharing Evidence
317(1)
Exchanging Lists of Witnesses and Taking Depositions
318(1)
Amicus Curiae
319(1)
Judicial Actions
319(1)
Selection of Judges
320(2)
Discipline and Removal of Judges
322(1)
Juries
323(1)
Summary and Conclusions
324(1)
Discussion Questions
324(1)
Glossary
325(1)
Notes
326(1)
SECTION V PUBLIC POLICIES
Crime and Corrections
327(21)
Learning Objectives For Chapter 14
328(1)
The Nature and Incidence of Crime
328(5)
Approaches to Crime
333(2)
Incarceration
335(6)
Characteristics of Prisoners
336(1)
Women in Prison
337(1)
Youth in Prison
337(1)
Costs of Imprisonment
337(1)
Overcrowded Cells
338(1)
Alternatives to Prison
338(3)
Crime Prevention
341(1)
Crime and the Constitution
342(3)
Gun Control
342(1)
Rights of the Accused
343(2)
Summary and Conclusions
345(1)
Discussion Questions
345(1)
Glossary
345(1)
Notes
346(2)
Educational Policy
348(29)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 15
349(1)
Primary and Secondary Education
349(11)
Changing Financial Arrangement
350(1)
Changing Orientations Toward Educational Policy
351(9)
Educational Alternatives
360(7)
Charter Schools
360(2)
School Choice
362(1)
Privatization
362(2)
Takeovers
364(1)
The Equity or Excellence Debate
364(2)
The Courts Renewed Interest in Fiscal Equity
366(1)
Higher Education
367(6)
The Growing Politicization of Higher Education Policy Making
369(4)
Summary and Conclusions
373(1)
Discussion Questions
374(1)
Glossary
374(1)
Notes
374(3)
Social Welfare and Health Policy
377(33)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 16
377(1)
Social Welfare Policy
378(5)
Social Insurance Programs
378(3)
Public Assistance Programs
381(2)
Who Are the Poor?
383(3)
Two Contrasting Views of Poverty and Welfare
384(2)
Welfare Reform
386(10)
The Work Incentive Program
386(1)
Workfare
387(1)
The Family Support Act
388(1)
State Experimentation with Reform
389(2)
Welfare Devolution: The End of an Entitlement
391(4)
Other Options for Reform
395(1)
Health Policy
396(6)
Public Health Care in America
397(2)
Measures to Contain Rising Health Care Costs
399(2)
Rationing Medical Care: The Case of Oregon
401(1)
The National Debate over Health Care Reform
402(3)
Implications for the States
405(1)
Summary and Conclusions
405(1)
Discussion Questions
406(1)
Glossary
407(1)
Notes
408(2)
Environmental Policy and Economic Development
410(25)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 17
413(1)
Federalism and Environmental Policy Making
413(1)
Federal Initiatives in the Environmental Decade
414(3)
Early Federal Leadership in Cleaning Up the Air
415(1)
Early Federal Leadership in Improving Water Quality
416(1)
Reagan's Redirection of Environmental Regulation
417(2)
Bush and Clinton: More Environmentally Friendly Administrations
419(4)
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
419(2)
The Introduction of Market-Based Incentives
421(1)
The Clinton Administration Toughens Compliance Standards
422(1)
The Environmental Challenges Lying Ahead
423(1)
The Allure of Economic Development
424(6)
Environmental Protection and Economic Development: A Strained Relationship?
430(1)
Summary and Conclusions
430(2)
Discussion Questions
432(1)
Glossary
432(1)
Notes
433(2)
Fiscal Policy and Financial Management
435(25)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 18
438(1)
The Economy and Taxing and Spending
438(2)
Taxing and Spending Comparisons Among the States
440(4)
Financing State and Local Governments
444(5)
Evaluating State and Local Taxes
449(2)
Executive and Legislative Balance in Fiscal Policy Making
451(2)
State and Local Financial Management
453(4)
Estimating Revenues and Expenditures
453(1)
Managing Cash Flow
454(1)
Capital Finance and Debt Management
455(2)
Summary and Conclusions
457(1)
Discussion Questions
457(1)
Glossary
458(1)
Notes
458(2)
SECTION VI CONCLUSION
Responding to Pressing Public Problems
460(11)
Learning Objectives for Chapter 19
462(1)
The Individual Citizen's Perspective
462(1)
Perspectives of Organized Interest Groups
462(1)
The Perspective of Local Government Policy Makers
463(1)
The Perspective of State Policy Makers
464(1)
Perspectives and Politics
465(1)
Government Responses
466(3)
Scope of Responsibility and Authority
466(2)
Capacity
468(1)
Responding with Solutions
469(1)
Discussion Questions
470(1)
Index 471


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