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Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications,9783527332465
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Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications

by ; ; ; ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9783527332465

ISBN10:
3527332464
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/28/2012
Publisher(s):
Wiley-VCH
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Summary

Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, discussing the potential of polymeric materials in solar thermal applications, as well as demands on durability, design and building integration. With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial labs.

Author Biography

Dr.-Ing. Michael K?hl, physicist, has been actively involved in the field of solar energy conversion since 1977. He presently works on service-life analysis of solar collectors and photovoltaic modules in the department Weathering and Reliability at Fraunhofer ISE. He was the coordinator
of the EU projects SUNFACE and SOLABS and leader of Subtask 5 of the IP PERFORMANCE. In 2011, he broadened this range with the EU project SCOOP. Dr. K?hl is the current Operating Agent of the Task 39 "Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications" of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IE.

Dr. scient. Michaela Meir, physicist, has been working with R&D on solar thermal and energy systems for more than 15 years, with particular focus on the development of solar collectors using polymeric materials. She is presently employed part-time by the University of Oslo and by Aventa AS. She is Chairman of the Norwegian Solar Energy Society board and leader of Subtask A "Information" of IEA SHC Task 39.

Sandrin Saile, M.A. received her M.A. in British and North American Cultural Studies from the University of Freiburg. She joined the Fraunhofer ISE's department "Weathering and Reliability". in 2009 where she is responsible for the management and dissemination of the department's solar thermal activities, in particular the projects SCOOP and SpeedColl. Within IEA SHC Task 39 she is mainly active in Subtask A "Information" and played an active role in establishing the Solar Heating and Cooling Series.

Prof. Dr. mont. Gernot M. Wallner, graduated with a "Diplomingenieur'' degree in Polymer Engineering and Science at the University of Leoben (Austria) in 1994, and he obtained a PhD degree in the same field at the University of Leoben in 2000. In 2008 Prof. Wallner obtained a Venia Docendi in the field of "Functional Polymeric Materials'' with special focus on solar energy applications. Since 2010, Prof. Wallner has been Deputy Head at the Institute of Polymeric Materials and Testing (IPMT) at the Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU, Austria). Prof.Wallner is a member and leading person in several solar related working groups and committees. Since the establishment of IEA SHC Task 39 in 2006, he has been leader of the Subtask C "Materials".

Dr.-Ing. Philippe Papillon has been a senior expert in the field of solar thermal energy at INES (Institut National de l'Energie Solaire - CEA) since December 2005.He has been active in the field of thermal solar energy for more than 20 years, and has experience as coordinator as well as WP leader in European projects and also large national research projects. Beyond his research activities within INES, he is also an expert in European and French standardization committees, and is a member of the European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling board. From 2006?2010 he acted as leader of the IEA SHC Task 39 Subtask B "Collectors".

Table of Contents

About the Editors XV

List of Contributors XVII

IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme XXI

Acknowledgments XXIII

Part I 1

1 Principles 3
Markus Peter

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Solar Irradiance in Technical Applications 6

1.3 Quantifying Useful Solar Irradiation 6

1.4 Solar Thermal Applications 7

1.5 Calculating the Solar Contribution 10

1.6 Conclusions 10

2 Solar Thermal Market 13
Karl-Anders Weiß, Christoph Zauner, Jay Burch, and Sandrin Saile

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Collector Types 14

2.2.1 Unglazed Collectors 14

2.2.2 Flat Plate Collectors (FPC) 15

2.2.3 Evacuated Flat Plate Collector (EFPC) 16

2.2.4 Evacuated Tube Collectors (ETC) 16

2.2.5 Concentrating Collectors 16

2.2.6 Air Collectors 18

2.2.7 Market Share of Different Collector Types 18

2.3 Regional Markets 19

2.4 Market Trends 22

2.4.1 Global Market Development 22

2.4.2 Global Market Forecast 25

2.4.3 Focus on Europe 25

Links Providing Updated Market Data and Forecasts 26

References 26

3 Thermal Solar Energy for Polymer Experts 29
Philippe Papillon and Claudius Wilhelms

3.1 Solar Thermal Systems and Technical Requirements 29

3.2 Overview of Solar Thermal Applications 29

3.2.1 Swimming Pool Heating Applications 31

3.2.2 Domestic Hot Water Preparation for Single Family Houses 33

3.2.3 Domestic Hot Water Preparation for Multi-family Houses 39

3.2.4 Space Heating and DHW Preparation 40

3.2.5 Solar Cooling Applications 44

3.2.6 Solar Assisted District Heating 47

3.2.7 Process Heat Applications 49

3.3 Solar Thermal Collectors 50

3.3.1 Basic Principle of a Solar Thermal Collector 50

3.3.2 Unglazed Collector 53

3.3.3 Glazed Flat Plate Collector 56

3.3.4 Evacuated Tubes 58

3.3.5 Other Types of Collectors 60

3.3.6 Selective Coatings for Solar Absorbers 62

3.4 Small to Medium Size Storages 63

3.4.1 Classification of Heat Storages 64

3.4.2 Domestic Hot Water Storages 65

3.4.3 Non-domestic Hot Water Storages 67

3.4.4 Non-water Based Storage 68

3.5 Sources of Further Information 70

3.5.1 Related International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Tasks 70

3.5.2 Web Sites and Projects Related to Solar Thermal Systems 70

References 70

4 Conventional Collectors, Heat Stores, and Coatings 73
Stephan Fischer, Harald Drück, Stephan Bachmann, Elke Streicher, Jens Ullmann, and Beate Traub

4.1 Collectors 73

4.1.1 Transparent Covers 75

4.1.2 Absorber Plate Risers and Manifolds 75

4.1.3 Absorber Coatings 76

4.1.4 Thermal Insulation 77

4.2 Material Properties of Insulations 79

4.2.1 Casing 80

4.2.2 Sealing 80

4.2.3 Collector Mounting Structures 80

4.3 Heat Store 81

4.4 Other Components 84

4.5 Analysis of Typical Combisystems 86

4.5.1 Combisystems Analyzed 86

4.5.2 Weight of the Components 86

4.5.3 Materials Used in the Systems 86

4.5.4 Materials Used in the Components 88

4.6 Definition of Polymeric Based Solar Thermal Systems 92

4.7 Life Cycle Assessment Based on Cumulated Energy Demand, Energy Payback Time, and Overall Energy Savings 97

4.8 Cumulated Energy Demand, Energy Payback Time, and Overall Energy Savings for Conventional and Polymeric Based Domestic Hot Water Systems 98

4.8.1 System Boundary 100

4.8.2 Cumulative Energy Demand 100

4.8.2.1 Cumulative Energy Demand for Production 100

4.8.3 Conventional Reference System for the Determination of the Primary Energy Saved by the Solar Thermal System 101

4.8.4 Fractional Energy Savings 102

4.8.5 Lifetime 102

4.8.6 Calculation for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems 102

4.8.6.1 Materials and Masses of the Systems Used for the Reference System (DHW1) 102

4.8.6.2 Materials and Masses of the Systems Used for the Polymeric System (DHW2) 102

4.8.6.3 Input Values and Results for Determination of the CED 102

4.8.6.4 Overall Energy Savings and Energy Payback Time 104

References 106

5 Thermal Loads on Solar Collectors and Options for their Reduction 107
Christoph Reiter, Christoph Trinkl, and Wilfried Zörner

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Results of Monitoring Temperature Loads 107

5.3 Measures for Reduction of the Temperature Loads 114

References 117

6 Standards, Performance Tests of Solar Thermal Systems 119
Stephan Fischer and Christoph Zimmermann

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Collectors 119

6.2.1 Testing of Solar Collectors for Durability and Reliability 120

6.2.2 Testing of Solar Collectors for Thermal Performance 120

6.3 Solar Thermal Systems 121

6.3.1 Testing of Solar Thermal Products 124

6.3.1.1 CSTG Method 125

6.3.1.2 DST Method 125

6.3.2 CTSS Method 125

6.4 Conclusion 125

Part II 127

7 Plastics Market 129
Katharina Resch and Gernot M. Wallner

References 134

8 Polymeric Materials 135
Gernot M. Wallner, Reinhold W. Lang, and Karl Schnetzinger

8.1 Introduction 135

8.2 Material Structure and Morphology of Polymers 136

8.3 Inner Mobility and Thermal Transitions of Polymers 143

8.4 Polymer Additives and Compounds 146

8.4.1 Stabilizing Additives 147

8.4.2 Antioxidants 147

8.4.3 Light Stabilizers 148

8.4.4 Modifying Additives 148

References 149

9 Processing 151

9.1 Structural Polymeric Materials 151
Helmut Vogel

9.1.1 Introduction to Polymer Processing 151

9.1.2 Extrusion Based Processes 152

9.1.2.1 Profile Extrusion 152

9.1.2.2 Film Blowing 154

9.1.2.2.1 Cast Film Extrusion 154

9.1.2.3 Calender Stack Process for Plates 155

9.1.2.4 Blow Molding 157

9.1.2.4.1 Extrusion Blow Molding 159

9.1.2.4.2 Injection Blow Molding 160

9.1.3 Injection Molding 161

9.1.3.1 Injection Molding Cycle 162

9.1.4 Thermoforming 164

9.1.5 Fiber Reinforced Polymer 165

9.1.5.1 Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) 165

9.1.5.2 Glass Mat Thermoplastics (GMT) 165

References 166

9.2 Paint Coatings for Polymeric Solar Absorbers and Their Applications 167
Ivan Jerman, Matjaz Kozelj, Lidija Slemenik Per4se, and Boris Orel

9.2.1 Outline of Content 167

9.2.2 General Remarks about Selective Paint Coatings 168

9.2.3 Preparation of Selective Paints 169

9.2.3.1 Effect of Dispersants on Pigment Dispersions 170

9.2.3.2 Dispersants 171

9.2.3.3 Trisilanol T7 POSS Dispersants for Colored TISS Paint Coatings 174

9.2.4 Application Techniques for Spectrally Selective Paints 175

9.2.4.1 Brush and Hand Roller Application 175

9.2.4.2 Spray Application 176

9.2.4.3 Case Study: Application of TISS Paint on a Polymeric Substrate by Using Simple Silane Dispersants 178

9.2.4.4 Direct Coating Application Techniques 179

9.2.4.5 Dip Coating 180

9.2.4.6 Dip and Flow Coating 180

9.2.4.7 Roll Coating 182

9.2.4.8 Coil Coating 182

9.2.5 Conclusions 185

References 185

10 Polymer Durability for Solar Thermal Applications 187
Susan C. Mantell and Jane H. Davidson

10.1 Introduction 187

10.2 Polymeric Glazing 188

10.3 Polymeric Absorbers and Heat Exchangers 189

10.3.1 Overview of Relevant Polymer Material Properties and Requirements 191

10.3.2 Additional Material Considerations 196

10.3.2.1 Fillers to Improve Thermal Conductivity and Strength 196

10.3.2.2 Scaling 198

10.3.2.3 Oxidation 199

10.3.3 Absorbers 201

10.3.3.1 Material Selection 201

10.3.3.2 Polymer Absorber Applications 203

10.3.4 Heat Exchangers 204

10.3.4.1 Material Selection 205

10.3.4.2 Polymer Heat Exchanger Applications 205

10.4 Conclusion 206

References 207

11 Plastics Properties and Material Selection 211
Ulrich Endemann and Andreas Mägerlein

11.1 Introduction 211

11.2 How to Select the Right Material 211

11.3 Material Databases 212

11.4 Selection Criteria 213

11.5 Real Life Example: Standard Collector in Plastic (1:1 Substitution) 213

11.5.1 Preselection 214

11.5.1.1 Housing 215

11.5.1.2 Absorber 216

11.5.1.3 Sealing 217

11.5.1.4 Glazing 217

11.5.1.5 Insulation 217

11.6 Summary 218

Part III 219

12 State of the Art: Polymeric Materials in Solar Thermal Applications 221
Michaela Meir, Fabian Ochs, Claudius Wilhelms, and Gernot Wallner

12.1 Solar Collectors 221

12.1.1 Pool Absorbers 221

12.1.2 Material Substitution in Conventional Collector Designs 222

12.1.3 Glazed Flat-Plate Collectors with Polymeric Absorbers 224

12.1.4 Air Collector Systems 224

12.1.5 Integrated Storage Collectors and Thermosiphon Systems 225

12.1.6 Collector Glazing 227

12.1.7 Integrated and Multifunctional Applications 228

12.1.8 Absorber Designs from a Polymer Engineering Point of View 229

12.1.9 Summary 231

12.2 Small to Mid-Sized Polymeric Heat Stores 231

12.2.1 Introduction 231

12.2.2 Challenges 235

12.3 Polymeric Liners for Seasonal Thermal Energy Stores 235

12.3.1 Envelope Design of Thermal Energy Stores 236

12.3.2 Liner of Pilot and Research Thermal Energy Stores 237

12.3.3 Summary 239

References 241

13.1 Structural Polymeric Materials – Aging Behavior of Solar Absorber Materials 243
Suanne Kahlen, Gernot M. Wallner, and Reinhold W. Lang

13.1.1 Introduction and Scope 243

13.1.2 Methodology 244

13.1.3 Results, Discussion, and Outlook 246

13.1.3.1 Characterization of Physical and Chemical Aging of Polymeric Solar Materials by Mechanical Testing 246

13.1.3.2 Aging Behavior of Polymeric Solar Absorber Materials – Part 1: Engineering Plastics 247

13.1.3.3 Aging Behavior of Polymeric Solar Absorber Materials – Part 2: Commodity Plastics 248

13.1.3.4 Aging Behavior and Lifetime Modeling for Polymeric Solar Absorber Materials 249

13.1.3.5 Aging Behavior of Polymeric Solar Absorber Materials: Aging on Component Level 250

References 252

13.2 Thermotropic Layers for Overheating Protection of all-Polymeric Flat Plate Solar Collectors 255
Katharina Resch, Robert Hausner, Gernot M. Wallner, and Reinhold W. Lang

13.2.1 Introduction 255

13.2.2 Materials and Sample Preparation 256

13.2.3 Physical Characterization of the Polymers 257

13.2.4 Results and Discussion 258

13.2.5 Effect of Thermotropic Layers on Collector Efficiency and Stagnation Temperatures 262

13.2.6 Outlook 263

References 264

13.3 Application of POSS Compounds for Modification of the Wetting Properties of TISS Paint Coatings 267
Ivan Jerman, Boris Orel, and Matjaz Kozelj

13.3.1 Introduction 267

13.3.2 Wetting of Surfaces 270

13.3.2.1 Basic Principles – Learning from Nature 270

13.3.2.2 Surface Energy 272

13.3.2.3 Surface Roughness 273

13.3.2.4 Morphology of TISS Paint Coatings 275

13.3.3 POSS Nanocomposites as Low Surface Energy Additives for Coatings 276

13.3.3.1 Synthesis and Structural Characteristics of POSS Molecules 276

13.3.4 Anti-wetting Properties of Coatings with Smooth Surfaces – Lacquers for Polymeric Glazing 278

13.3.4.1 Structure of Fluoropolymer Resin Binders – General Remarks 279

13.3.4.2 Contact Angles and Surface Properties of Lumiflon Resin Binders 280

13.3.4.3 Interaction of POSS – SEM Micrographs and Optical Transmission 281

13.3.5 Anti-wetting Properties of Coatings on Rough Surfaces – TISS Paint Coatings 282

13.3.5.1 Wetting Properties of TISS Coatings 282

13.3.6 Conclusions 284

References 284

14 Conceptual Design of Collectors 287
Karl-Anders Weiss, Steffen Jack, Axel Müller, and John Rekstad

14.1 Introduction 287

14.2 Calculation of Collector Efficiency 287

14.3 Flow Optimization 291

14.4 Optimization of the Fluid Dynamics in Polymeric Collectors 291

14.4.1 Optimization of the Absorber 291

14.4.2 Optimization of the Fluid Dynamics in the Header 292

14.4.3 Optimization of the Fluid Dynamics Non-rectangular Collectors 292

14.5 Collector Mechanics 295

14.6 Conclusion 297

References 299

15 Collectors and Heat Stores 301
Stefan Brunold, Philippe Papillon, Micha Plaschkes, John Rekstad, and Claudius Wilhelms

15.1 Introduction 301

15.2 Solar Absorber Made of High-Performance Plastics 301

15.2.1 General Presentation 301

15.2.2 Detailed Description 302

15.2.3 Experiences with Development of the Products 307

15.3 Flate Plate Collector with Overheating Protection 307

15.3.1 General Presentation 307

15.3.2 Detailed Description 307

15.3.3 Experience Gained with Development of the Products 309

15.4 Flat Plate Collectors with a Thermotropic Layer 310

15.4.1 General Presentation 310

15.4.2 Detailed Description 310

15.4.3 Experience Gained with Development of the Products 313

15.5 Solar Storage Tank with Polymeric Sealing Technology with Storage Volumes from 2 to 100 m3 313

15.5.1 General Presentation 313

15.5.2 Detailed Description 314

15.5.3 Experience Gained with Development of the Products 314

References 317

16 Durability Tests of Polymeric Components 319
Stefan Brunold,Florian Ruesch,Roman Kunic, John Rekstad Michaela Meir, and Claudius Wilhelms

16.1 Introduction 319

16.2 Twenty Years Outdoor Weathering of Polymeric Materials for use as Collector Glazing 320

16.2.1 Introduction 320

16.2.2 Material Selection 320

16.2.3 Exposure 321

16.2.4 Evaluation of Optical Properties 322

16.2.5 Results 323

16.2.5.1 PMMA 323

16.2.5.2 PC 325

16.2.5.3 Fluoropolymers 326

16.2.5.4 UP 329

16.2.5.5 PET and PVC 330

16.2.6 Conclusion 330

16.3 Accelerated Lifetime Testing of a Polymeric Absorber Coating 332

16.3.1 Introduction 332

16.3.2 Application of the ALT Test Procedure on the TISS Painted Absorber 333

16.3.3 Adaption of the ALT Procedure to the TISS Painted Absorber 333

16.3.4 Conclusions 337

16.4 Evaluation of Temperature Resistance of a Polymer Absorber in a Solar Collector 337

16.4.1 Background 337

16.4.2 Method 338

16.4.3 Experiments 339

16.4.4 Service Life for a Plastics Absorber Made in PPS 341

16.4.5 Conclusion 343

16.5 Determination of Water Vapor Transport through Polymeric Materials at Raised Temperatures 343

16.5.1 Measurement Setup/Testing Rig 344

16.5.2 Results 346

16.5.3 Conclusion 347

References 347

17 Architecturally Appealing Solar Thermal Systems – A Marketing Tool in Order to Attract New Customers and Market Segments 351
Ingvild Skjelland, John Rekstad, Karl-Anders Weiss, and Maria Christina Munari Probst

17.1 Introduction 351

17.2 Architectural Integration as a Marketing Tool 351

17.3 Web Database 353

17.4 Examples 354

References 357

18 Obstacles for the Application of Current Standards 359
Stephan Fischer, Christoph Zauner, Philippe Papillon, Andreas Bohren, Stefan Brunold, and Robert Hausner

18.1 Introduction 359

18.2 Internal Absorber Pressure Test 359

18.2.1 Description of the Specific Test and Test Procedure 359

18.2.2 Why this is a Problem for Polymeric Collectors or Why this Test Does not Reflect the Requirements for Polymeric Collectors 360

18.2.3 Possible Alternative Procedure 360

18.3 High-Temperature Resistance and Exposure Tests 360

18.3.1 Description of the Specific Test and Test Procedure 360

18.3.2 Why this is a Problem for Polymeric Collectors or Why this Test does not Reflect the Requirements for Polymeric Collectors 361

18.3.3 Possible Alternative Procedure 361

18.3.3.1 General Comments 361

18.3.3.2 Comments on Overheating Protection 362

18.3.3.3 Passive Devices 362

18.3.3.4 Active Devices 363

18.4 Mechanical Load Test 363

18.4.1 Description of the Specific Test and Test Procedure 363

18.4.2 Why this is a Problem for Polymeric Collectors or Why this Test does not Reflect the Requirements for Polymeric Collectors 364

18.4.2.1 Typical Data for Snow Load (According to EN12975 and to PV Norms such as EN61646 etc.) 364

18.4.2.2 Typical Data for Wind Load (According to EN12975 and to PV Norms such as EN61646 etc.) 364

18.4.2.3 Typical Normative Requirements 364

18.4.3 Possible Alternative Procedure 365

18.5 Impact Resistance Test 365

18.5.1 Description of the Specific Test and Test Procedure 365

18.5.2 Why this is a Problem for Polymeric Collectors or Why this Test does not Reflect the Requirements for Polymeric Collectors 365

18.5.2.1 Typical Data for Steel Ball Test of 150 g (According to EN12975) 366

18.5.2.2 Typical Data for Ice Stones Test of Different Sizes (According to EN12975 and to PV Norms such as EN61646 etc.) 366

18.5.2.3 Typical Normative Requirements 366

18.5.3 Possible Alternative Procedure 366

18.6 Discontinuous Efficiency Curves 366

18.6.1 Description of the Specific Test and Test Procedure 366

18.6.2 Problems Regarding Polymeric Collectors 367

18.6.2.1 The Limit is Dependent Mainly on the Absorber Temperature 367

18.6.2.2 The Limit is Dependent on the Absorber Temperature and on the Ambient Temperature 367

18.6.3 Possible Alternative Procedures 368

18.6.3.1 Determination of the Validity Limit for the Standard Procedures 368

18.6.3.2 Determination of Stagnation Temperature 369

Reference 370

Glossary 371

Polymeric Materials 371

Abbreviations 371

Terms and Definitions 372

Solar Thermal Systems 379

Abbreviations 379

Terms and Definitions 379

Index 385



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