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PORTABLE LITERATURE: READING, REACTING, WRITING, Eighth Edition, is the affordable, portable alternative to the full-length and compact versions of this popular introduction to literature text. This streamlined edition includes all of the essential classic and contemporary readings, along with brief introductions to the literary genres, useful study questions and prompts, and a down-to-earth, accessible guide to writing about literature.
Table of Contents
PART 1 A GUIDE TO WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE. 1. Reading and Writing about Literature. Reading Literature. Previewing. Highlighting. CHECKLIST: Using Highlighting Symbols. MAYA ANGELOU, "My Arkansas." Annotating. Writing about Literature. Planning an Essay. Drafting an Essay. Revising and Editing an Essay. CHECKLIST: Using Sources. CHECKLIST: Conventions of Writing about Literature. Three Model Student Papers. Student Paper: "The Secret Lion": Everything Changes. Student Paper: Digging for Memories. Student Paper: Desperate Measures: Acts of Defiance in "Trifles." 2. Writing Literary Arguments. Planning a Literary Argument. Choosing a Topic. Developing an Argumentative Thesis. CHECKLIST: Developing an Argumentative Thesis. Defining Your Terms. Considering Your Audience. Refuting Opposing Arguments. Using Evidence Effectively. Supporting Your Literary Argument. Establishing Credibility. Being Fair. CHECKLIST: Being Fair. Using Visuals as Evidence. Organizing a Literary Argument. Writing a Literary Argument. Student Paper: The Politics of "Everyday Use." Student Paper: The Literary Merit of Video Games. 3. Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism. Avoiding Plagiarism. Document All Material That Requires Documentation. Enclose Borrowed Words in Quotation Marks. Do Not Imitate a Source's Syntax and Phrasing. Differentiate Your Words from Those of Your Source. CHECKLIST: Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism. Documenting Sources. Parenthetical References in the Text. CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Punctuating Parenthetical References. The Works-Cited List. Content Notes. PART 2 FICTION. 4. Understanding Fiction. Origins of Modern Fiction. The History of the Novel. The History of the Short Story. Defining the Short Story. ERNEST HEMINGWAY, "Hills Like White Elephants." The Boundaries of Fiction. 5. Fiction Sampler: The Short-Short Story. JULIA ALVAREZ, "Snow." *BONNIE JO CAMPBELL, "Sleep-over." *SANDRA CISNEROS, "Pilon." AMANDA HOLZER, "Love and Other Catastrophes: A Mix Tape." JAMAICA KINCAID, "Girl." *AUGUSTO MONTERROSO, "The Eclipse." Writing Suggestions: The Short-Short Story. 6. Fiction Sampler: Graphic Fiction. *LYND WARD, "The Girl." *ART SPIEGELMAN, from "Maus." MARJANE SATRAPI, from "Persepolis." LYNDA BARRY, "Two Questions." Writing Suggestions: Graphic Fiction. 7. Plot. Conflict. Stages of Plot. Order and Sequence. CHECKLIST: Writing about Plot. KATE CHOPIN, "The Story of an Hour." *NEIL GAIMAN, "How to Talk to Girls at Parties." WILLIAM FAULKNER, "A Rose for Emily." Writing Suggestions: Plot. DICK POTHIER AND THOMAS J. GIBBONS JR., "A Woman's Wintry Death Leads to a Long-Dead Friend." 8. Character. Round and Flat Characters. Dynamic and Static Characters. Motivation. CHECKLIST: Writing about Character. JOHN UPDIKE, "A&P." KATHERINE MANSFIELD, "Miss Brill." CHARLES BAXTER, "Gryphon." *LAN SAMANTHA CHANG, "Hangzhou 1925." Writing Suggestions: Character. 9. Setting. Historical Setting. Geographical Setting. Physical Setting. CHECKLIST: Writing about Setting. KATE CHOPIN, "The Storm." SHERMAN J. ALEXIE, "This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona." TILLIE OLSEN, "I Stand Here Ironing." Writing Suggestions: Setting. 10. Point of View. First-Person Narrators. Unreliable Narrators. Third-Person Narrators. Omniscient Narrators. Limited Omniscient Narrators. Objective Narrators. Selecting an Appropriate Point of View. CHECKLIST: Selecting an Appropriate Point of View: Review. CHECKLIST: Writing about Point of View. RICHARD WRIGHT, "Big Black Good Man." EDGAR ALLAN POE, "The Cask of Amontillado." WILLIAM FAULKNER, "Barn Burning." EDWIDGE DANTICAT, "New York Day Women."Writing Suggestions: Point of View. 11. Style, Tone, and Language. Style and Tone. The Uses of Language. Formal and Informal Diction. Imagery. Figures of Speech. CHECKLIST: Writing about Style, Tone, and Language. JAMES JOYCE, "Araby." (MARY) FLANNERY O'CONNOR, "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." TIM O'BRIEN, "The Things They Carried." Writing Suggestions: Style, Tone, and Language. 12. Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. Symbol. Literary Symbols. Symbols. Allegory. Myth. CHECKLIST: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. SHIRLEY JACKSON, "The Lottery." ALICE WALKER, "Everyday Use." RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, "Young Goodman Brown." Writing Suggestions: Symbol, Allegory, and Myth. 13. Theme. Interpreting Themes. Identifying Themes. CHECKLIST: Writing about Theme. EUDORA WELTY, "A Worn Path." DAVID MICHAEL KAPLAN, "Doe Season." D(AVID) H(ERBERT) LAWRENCE, "The Rocking-Horse Winner ." Writing Suggestions: Theme. ROBERT HUFF, "Rainbow." 14. Fiction for Further Reading. T. CORAGHESSAN BOYLE, "Greasy Lake." *JUNOT DÍAZ, "No Face." CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, "The Yellow Wallpaper." JOYCE CAROL OATES, "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS, "The Secret Lion." AMY TAN, "Two Kinds." PART 3 POETRY. 15. Understanding Poetry. MARIANNE MOORE, "Poetry." ADAM ZAGAJEWSKI, "Poetry Searches for Radiance." Origins of Modern Poetry. Defining Poetry. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "That time of year thou mayst in me behold." E. E. CUMMINGS, "l(a." Recognizing Kinds of Poetry. Narrative Poetry. Lyric Poetry. 16. Voice. EMILY DICKINSON, "I'm nobody! Who are you?" The Speaker in the Poem. LOUISE GLÜCK, "Gretel in Darkness." LANGSTON HUGHES, "Negro." ROBERT BROWNING, "My Last Duchess." Further Reading: The Speaker in the Poem. LESLIE MARMON SILKO, "Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer." JANICE MIRIKITANI, "Suicide Note." The Tone of the Poem. ROBERT FROST, "Fire and Ice." THOMAS HARDY, "The Man He Killed." AMY LOWELL, "Patterns." Further Reading: The Tone of the Poem. *GARY SOTO, "How Things Work." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "The World Is Too Much with Us." ROBERT HERRICK, "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time." Irony. ROBERT BROWNING, "Porphyria's Lover." PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, "Ozymandias." ARIEL DORFMAN, "Hope." Further Reading: Irony. *SHERMAN ALEXIE, "Evolution." *TOM WAYMAN, "Did I Miss Anything?" DUDLEY RANDALL, "Ballad of Birmingham." *WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, "Hitler's First Photograph." CHECKLIST: Writing about Voice. Writing Suggestions: Voice. EMILY DICKINSON, "'Hope' is the thing with feathers--." 17. Word Choice, Word Order. *BOB HOLMAN, Beautiful. Word Choice. WALT WHITMAN, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer. Further Reading: Word Choice. RHINA ESPAILLAT, Bilingual/Bilingue .*MARTÍN ESPADA, The Saint Vincent de Paul Food Pantry Stomp. ADRIENNE RICH, Living in Sin. E. E. CUMMINGS, in Just-. *THOMAS LUX, Pedestrian. *KAY RYAN, Blandeur. Levels of Diction. MARGARET ATWOOD, The City Planners. JIM SAGEL, "Baca Grande." Further Reading: Levels of Diction. ADRIENNE SU, "The English Canon." MARK HALLIDAY, "The Value of Education." *ANTHONY HECHT, "More Light! More Light!" GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "We Real Cool." GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "What Shall I Give My Children?" Word Order. EDMUND SPENSER, "One day I wrote her name upon the strand." E. E. CUMMINGS, "anyone lived in a pretty how town." Further Reading: Word Order. A. E. HOUSMAN, "To an Athlete Dying Young." CHECKLIST: Writing about Word Choice and Word Order. Writing Suggestions: Word Choice, Word Order. 18. Imagery . JANE FLANDERS, "Cloud Painter." WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, "Red Wheelbarrow." EZRA POUND, "In a Station of the Metro." GARY SNYDER, "Some Good Things to Be Said for the Iron Age." WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, "The Great Figure." Further Reading: Imagery. *F. J. BERGMANN, "An Apology." *GEORGE BRADLEY, "The Sound of the Sun." *SARAH HANNAH, "The Colors Are Off This Season." *EAVAN BOLAND, "This Moment." *VERA PAVLOVA, "I think it will be winter." ROBERT FROST, "Nothing Gold Can Stay." *SONIA SANCHEZ, "Haiku." *FREDERICK MORGAN, "The Busses." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun." CHECKLIST: Writing about Imagery. Writing Suggestions: Imagery. 19. Figures of Speech. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. LANGSTON HUGHES, "Harlem." LAWRENCE FERLINGHETTI, "Constantly Risking Absurdity." AUDRE LORDE, "Rooming houses are old women." Further Reading: Simile, Metaphor, and Personification. ROBERT BURNS, "Oh, my love is like a red, red rose." N. SCOTT MOMADAY, "Simile." SYLVIA PLATH, "Metaphors." *LAWRENCE RAAB, "The Poem That Can't Be Written." RANDALL JARRELL, "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner." MARGE PIERCY, "The secretary chant." JOHN DONNE, "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning." Hyperbole and Understatement. SYLVIA PLATH, "Daddy." *EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, "If I should learn, in some quite casual way." Further Reading: Hyperbole and Understatement. ANNE BRADSTREET, "To My Dear and Loving Husband." ANDREW MARVELL, "To His Coy Mistress." ROBERT FROST, "Out, Out--." *COUNTEE CULLEN, "Incident." MARGARET ATWOOD, "You fit into me." Metonymy and Synecdoche. RICHARD LOVELACE, "To Lucasta Going to the Wars." Apostrophe. SONIA SANCHEZ, "On Passing thru Morgantown, Pa." Further Reading: Apostrophe. JOHN KEATS, "Ode to a Nightingale." ALLEN GINSBERG, "A Supermarket in California." CHECKLIST: Writing about Figures of Speech. Writing Suggestions: Figures of Speech. 20. Sound. WALT WHITMAN, "Had I the Choice." Rhythm. GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "Sadie and Maud." Meter. EMILY DICKINSON, "I like to see it lap the Miles--." Further Reading: Rhythm and Meter." ADRIENNE RICH, "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers." *THOMAS LUX, "A Little Tooth." *ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON, "I will make you brooches." Alliteration and Assonance. ROBERT HERRICK, "Delight in Disorder." Rhyme. OGDEN NASH, "The Lama." ROBERT FROST, "The Road Not Taken." Further Reading: Alliteration, Assonance, and Rhyme. GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, "Pied Beauty." *SHEL SILVERSTEIN, "Where the Sidewalk Ends." *KAY RYAN, "Masterworks of Ming." LEWIS CARROLL, "Jabberwocky." CHECKLIST: Writing about Sound. Writing Suggestions: Sound. 21. Form. JOHN KEATS, "On the Sonnet." BILLY COLLINS, "Sonnet." Closed Form. Blank Verse. Stanza. The Sonnet. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes." Further Reading: The Sonnet. JOHN KEATS, "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer." *EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, "Love is not all." *LYNN AARTI CHANDHOK, "The Carpet Factory." GWENDOLYN BROOKS, "First Fight. Then Fiddle." The Sestina. ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS, "Nani." Further Reading: The Sestina. ELIZABETH BISHOP, "Sestina." *PATRICIA SMITH, "Ethel's Sestina." The Villanelle. THEODORE ROETHKE, "The Waking." The Epigram. Further Reading: The Epigram. SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, "What Is an Epigram?" *DOROTHY PARKER, "News Item." MARTÍN ESPADA, "Why I Went to College." *A. R. AMMONS, "One can't have it both ways." *WANG PING, "Syntax." Haiku. Further Reading: Haiku. MATSUO BASH?, "Four Haiku." CAROLYN KIZER, "After Bash?. JACK KEROUAC, "American Haiku." Open Form. CARL SANDBURG, "Chicago." E. E. CUMMINGS, "the sky was can dy." Further Reading: Open Form. WALT WHITMAN, from "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking." WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, "Spring and All." *YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, "Nude Interrogation." *DIONISIO MARTÍNEZ, "The Prodigal Son Catches up with the Bounty Hunters." *DIONISIO MARTÍNEZ, "The Prodigal Son Jumps Bail." CHECKLIST: Writing about Form. Writing Suggestions: Form. MAY SWENSON, "Women Should Be Pedestals." 22. Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. WILLIAM BLAKE, "The Sick Rose." Symbol. ROBERT FROST, "For Once, Then, Something." EMILY DICKINSON, "Volcanoes be in Sicily." Further Reading: Symbol. EDGAR ALLAN POE, "The Raven." Allegory. CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, "Uphill." Further Reading: Allegory. *CARL DENNIS, "At the Border." Allusion. WILLIAM MEREDITH, "Dreams of Suicide." Further Reading: Allusion. *BILLY COLLINS, "Aristotle." *R. S. GWYNN, "Shakespearean Sonnet." Myth. COUNTEE CULLEN, "Yet Do I Marvel." Further Reading: Myth. *CHARLES SIMIC, "Charon's Cosmology." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "Leda and the Swan." W. H. AUDEN, "Musee des Beaux Arts." T. S. ELIOT, "Journey of the Magi." CHECKLIST: Writing about Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. Writing Suggestions: Symbol, Allegory, Allusion, Myth. 23. Discovering Themes in Poetry. ROBERT HERRICK, "The Argument of His Book." Poems about Parents. THEODORE ROETHKE, "My Papa's Waltz." ROBERT HAYDEN, "Those Winter Sundays." *JULIA ALVAREZ, "Dusting." SEAMUS HEANEY, "Digging." RAYMOND CARVER, "Photograph of My Father in His Twenty-Second Year." JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, "My Father in the Navy: A Childhood Memory." MITSUYE YAMADA, "The Night Before Goodbye." ADRIENNE RICH, "A Woman Mourned by Daughters." *W. S. MERWIN, "A Single Autumn." DYLAN THOMAS, "Do not go gentle into that good night." Poems about Nature. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "I wandered lonely as a cloud." GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, "The Windhover." *A. E. HOUSMAN, "Loveliest of Trees." CARL SANDBURG, "Fog." ROBERT FROST, "Birches." *MARY OLIVER, "Wild Geese." *DENISE LEVERTOV, "Living." WILLIAM STAFFORD, "Traveling through the Dark." *ANONYMOUS, "Home on the Range." Poems about Love. ROBERT BROWNING, "Meeting at Night." ROBERT BROWNING, "Parting at Morning." ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, "How Do I Love Thee?" EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, "What Lips My Lips Have Kissed." *WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "The Song of Wandering Aengus." *LEIGH HUNT, "Jenny Kissed Me." DOROTHY PARKER, "General Review of the Sex Situation." Poems about War. Wilfred Owen, "Dulce et Decorum Est." *SIEGFRIED SASSOON, "Atrocities." RUPERT BROOKE, "The Soldier." *JOHN McCRAE, "In Flanders Fields." *RADIOHEAD, "Harry Patch (in Memory of)." *LOUIS SIMPSON, "I dreamed that in a city dark as Paris." *W. H. AUDEN, from "In Time of War." YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, "Facing It." *BRIAN TURNER, "Here, Bullet." *RICHARD WILBUR, "Terza Rima." WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, "The End and the Beginning." Writing Suggestions: Discovering Themes in Poetry. 24. Poetry for Further Reading . *ELIZABETH ALEXANDER, "West Indian Primer." SHERMAN J. ALEXIE, "Defending Walt Whitman." ANONYMOUS, "Bonny Barbara Allan." ANONYMOUS, "Go Down, Moses." ANONYMOUS, "Western Wind." MATTHEW ARNOLD, "Dover Beach." *JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA, "Family Ties." ELIZABETH BISHOP, "One Art." WILLIAM BLAKE, "The Lamb." WILLIAM BLAKE, "To see a World in a Grain of Sand." WILLIAM BLAKE, "The Tyger." ANNE BRADSTREET, "The Author to Her Book." GEORGE GORDON, LORD BYRON, "She Walks in Beauty." *ROSEMARY CATACALOS, "Morning Geograph." *LUCILLE CLIFTON, "At the Cemetery, Walnut Grove Plantation, South Carolina, 1989." SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, "Kubla Khan." BILLY COLLINS, "Introduction to Poetry." *WENDY COPE, "Bloody Men." *BILL COYLE, "Aubade." E. E. CUMMINGS, "Buffalo Bill's." E. E. CUMMINGS, "next to of course god america i." *SILVIA CURBELO, "If You Need a Reason." *JIM DANIELS, "Short-Order Cook." *ANGELA DE HOYOS, "Woman, Woman." EMILY DICKINSON, "Because I could not stop for Death--." EMILY DICKINSON, "'Faith' is a fine invention." EMILY DICKINSON, "I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--."JOHN DONNE, "Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God." JOHN DONNE, "Death Be Not Proud." JOHN DONNE, "The Flea." *CAROL ANN DUFFY, "Mrs. Darwin." PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, "We Wear the Mask." T. S. ELIOT, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." LOUISE ERDRICH, "Indian Boarding School: The Runaways." *MARTÍN ESPADA, "The Community College Revises Its Curriculum in Response to Changing Demographics." ROBERT FROST, "Mending Wall." ROBERT FROST, "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening." THOMAS HARDY, "The Convergence of the Twain." *JOY HARJO, "Perhaps the World Ends Here." H. D. (HILDA DOOLITTLE), "Helen." SEAMUS HEANEY, "Mid-Term Break." *WILLIAM ERNEST HENLEY, "Invictus." GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, "God's Grandeur." *ANDREW HUDGINS, "Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead." LANGSTON HUGHES, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." LANGSTON HUGHES, "Theme for English B." JOHN KEATS, "La Belle Dame sans Merci: A Ballad." JOHN KEATS, "Ode on a Grecian Urn." JOHN KEATS, "When I Have Fears." *HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, "A Psalm of Life." ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, "Ars Poetica." CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love." CLAUDE MCKAY, "If We Must Die." *PAT MORA, "La Migra." *PABLO NERUDA, "Tonight I Can Write." SHARON OLDS, "The One Girl at the Boys' Party." LINDA PASTAN, "Ethics." *LINDA PASTAN, "Reading the Obituary Page." MARGE PIERCY, "Barbie doll." *LEROY V. QUINTANA, "Taps." SIR WALTER RALEIGH, "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd." HENRY REED, "Naming of Parts." EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, "Richard Cory." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Let me not to the marriage of true minds." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Not marble, nor the gilded monuments." PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, "Ode to the West Wind." STEVIE SMITH, "Not Waving but Drowning." *CATHY SONG, "Picture Bride." WALLACE STEVENS, "Anecdote of the Jar." WALLACE STEVENS, "The Emperor of Ice-Cream." *VIRGIL SUÁREZ, "Aguacero." *ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, "Break, Break, Break." ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, "Ulysses." DYLAN THOMAS, "Fern Hill." PHILLIS WHEATLEY, "On Being Brought from Africa to America." WALT WHITMAN, "A Noiseless Patient Spider." WALT WHITMAN, from "Song of Myself." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "London, 1802." WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, "My heart leaps up when I behold." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "Sailing to Byzantium." WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, "The Second Coming." Poetry Sampler: Poetry and Art. RITA DOVE, "Sonnet in Primary Colors." ALLEN GINSBERG, "Cezanne's Ports." ROBERT HAYDEN, "Monet's 'Waterlilies.'" CATHY SONG, "Girl Powdering Her Neck." MAY SWENSON, "The Tall Figures of Giacometti." KEVIN YOUNG, "The Fun Gallery." Writing Suggestions: Poetry and Art. PART 4 DRAMA. 25. Understanding Drama. Dramatic Literature. Origins of Modern Drama. The Ancient Greek Theater. The Elizabethan Theater. The Modern Theater. Defining Drama. ANTON CHEKHOV, "The Brute." A Note on Translations. Recognizing Kinds of Drama. 26. Drama Sampler: Ten-Minute Plays. *LAUREN FELDMAN, "Asteroid Belt." JANE MARTIN, "Beauty." *HAROLD PINTER, "Applicant." JOSÉ RIVERA, "Tape." Writing Suggestions: Ten-Minute Plays. 27. Plot. Plot Structure. Plot and Subplot. Plot Development. Flashbacks. Foreshadowing. CHECKLIST: Writing about Plot. WARREN LEIGHT, "Nine Ten." SUSAN GLASPELL, "Trifles." HENRIK IBSEN, "A Doll House." Writing Suggestions: Plot. 28. Character . Characters' Words. Formal and Informal Language. Plain and Elaborate Language. Tone. Irony. Characters' Actions. Stage Directions. Actors' Interpretations. CHECKLIST: Writing about Character. *PAUL DOOLEY AND WINNIE HOLZMAN, "Post-its." ARTHUR MILLER, "Death of a Salesman." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, "Hamlet." Writing Suggestions: Character. 29. Staging. Stage Directions. The Uses of Staging. Costumes. Props and Furnishings. Scenery and Lighting. Music and Sound Effects. A Final Note. CHECKLIST: Writing about Staging. *GINA BARNETT, "Alone at Last!" DAVID IVES, "Words, Words, Words." MILCHA SANCHEZ-SCOTT, "The Cuban Swimmer." SOPHOCLES, "Oedipus the King." Writing Suggestions: Staging. 30. Theme. Titles. Conflicts. Dialogue. Characters. Staging. A Final Note. CHECKLIST: Writing about Theme. AUGUST WILSON, "Fences." Tennessee Williams, "The Glass Menagerie." Writing Suggestions: Theme. Appendix. Using Literary Criticism in Your Writing. Formalism and New Criticism. A New Critical Reading: Kate Chopin's "The Storm." For Further Reading: Formalism and New Criticism. Reader-Response Criticism. Reader-Response Readings: Kate Chopin's "The Storm." For Further Reading: Reader-Response Criticism. Feminist Criticism. A Feminist Reading: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing." For Further Reading: Feminist Criticism. Marxist Criticism. A Marxist Reading: Tillie Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing." For Further Reading: Marxist Criticism. Psychoanalytic Criticism. A Psychoanalytic Reading: Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado." For Further Reading: Psychoanalytic Criticism. Structuralism. A Structuralist Reading: William Faulkner's "Barn Burning." For Further Reading: Structuralism. Deconstruction. A Deconstructionist Reading: Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." For Further Reading: Deconstruction. Cultural Studies. New Historicism. A New Historicist Reading: Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper." For Further Reading: New Historicist Criticism. Queer Theory. A Queer Theory Reading: Zadie Smith's "The Girl with Bangs." For Further Reading: Queer Theory. Postcolonial Studies. A Postcolonial Reading: Jhumpa Lahiri's "The Third and Final Continent." For Further Reading: Postcolonial Studies. American Multiculturalism. An American Multicultural Reading: Alice Walker's "Everyday Use." For Further Reading: American Multiculturalism. Credits. Index of First Lines of Poetry. Index of Authors and Titles. Index of Literary Terms.