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Positive Child Guidance,9781401812560
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Positive Child Guidance

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9781401812560

ISBN10:
1401812562
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/19/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 6/19/2003.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

Parents, caregivers and educators can turn to Positive Child Guidance when they wonder "How can I manage my own feelings of anger and frustration when children misbehave?" "Am I being too strict?" "Am I being too lenient?" This book explains that child guidance is the very challenging process of establishing and maintaining responsible, productive and cooperative behavior in children. And it outlines practical, workable steps for creating a community of cooperative, respectful children and adults. It identifies typical childhood characteristics and needs as children proceed through various stages of development. And, it offers a broad range of effective and flexible guidance strategies based on principles of straightforward communication and assertiveness.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction
1(22)
Child Rearing in Today's World
1(6)
Why Parent and Professional Training in Child Guidance Is Important
2(3)
Who Should Be Responsible for the Well-being and Guidance of Children?
5(2)
Short-term Objectives for Child Guidance
7(5)
What Are the Rights of Children?
8(2)
How Do We Tell the Difference Between Enforcing Reasonable Safety Rules and Being Overprotective?
10(1)
Why Should Children Be Involved in Maintaining and Protecting Their Environment?
11(1)
Long-Term Goals for Child Guidance
12(3)
The Nurturing Environment and Long-term Development
13(2)
Points to Remember
15(1)
Practical Application---The Spoiled Child---Myth or Reality?
16(1)
Discussion Questions
16(1)
Related Readings
17(5)
Helpful Web Sites
22(1)
Understanding Children's Behavior
23(60)
Typical Ages and Stages
23(3)
Infants (Birth-12 Months)
26(17)
Do Infants Intentionally Respond by Crying?
27(1)
Can Babies Misbehave on Purpose?
27(2)
What Are Reflex Responses, and What is Unconscious Conditioning?
29(1)
What is Classical Conditioning?
29(1)
What is Operant Conditioning?
29(1)
What is Metacognition?
30(1)
How Do Babies Develop Control of Their Actions?
30(2)
Why Do Babies Cry?
32(1)
How Does Trauma and Chronic Stress Affect the Infant's Brain Development?
33(1)
How Babies Develop Trust
34(1)
What Is Learned Helplessness?
34(3)
Which Is Best---Flexible Spontaneity or Predictable Routines?
37(1)
What Do We Mean by Secure Attachment to Caregivers?
38(2)
Why Do Babies Cling?
40(1)
Separation and Stranger Anxieties
40(1)
How Do Babies Perceive Themselves and Their Surroundings?
41(2)
Toddlers (12 Months to 3 Years)
43(12)
Can Toddlers Control Their Feelings and Actions?
43(1)
How Awareness of Cause and Effect Develops
44(1)
Toddlers Need to Explore Their Surroundings
44(1)
Safety Is a Major Issue in Toddler Care
44(2)
The Kinds of Surroundings Toddlers Need
46(1)
Can Toddlers Read Body Language?
46(2)
How Verbal Communication Begins
48(1)
What Kind of Language Experiences Are Good for Toddlers?
48(1)
Stranger Anxiety
49(1)
Separation Anxiety
49(1)
How Can I Make Friends with a Shy Toddler?
49(1)
Why Are Toddlers so Possessive?
50(1)
Why Do Some Toddlers Become so Attached to Security Blankets, Pacifiers, and so Forth?
51(1)
Why Are Toddlers Stubborn One Minute, Then Clingy the Next?
52(1)
Are Toddlers Aware of Themselves?
53(1)
Why Do Toddlers Get so Excited and Happy When They Imitate Each Other?
54(1)
Preschoolers (3 to 5 Years)
55(10)
Can Preschoolers Make Plans and Decisions?
55(2)
Meeting Preschoolers Needs for Communication
57(1)
Communicating Successfully with Preschoolers
57(1)
Teaching Preschoolers to Use Words to Express Their Feelings
58(2)
Friendships Are Important to Preschoolers
60(1)
How Do Preschoolers Learn to Accept Responsibility?
61(1)
Allow Preschoolers to do Things that Are Difficult
61(1)
Helping Preschoolers Follow Rules
62(1)
How Do Preschoolers Develop a Positive Sense of Self?
63(1)
Should Children be Encouraged to Compete?
64(1)
Early School-Agers (5 to 8 Years)
65(6)
Why Early School-Agers Ask so Many Questions
65(1)
Why Do They Get so Angry if They Do Not Always Win?
65(1)
How Can I Earn the Respect of School-Agers?
66(1)
Why Do Early School-Agers Resist Going to Child Care?
67(1)
Why Do early School-Agers Get so Upset About Fairness?
67(1)
Why Do They Insist on Picking Their Own Clothes?
68(1)
How We Can Help Early School-Agers Become Productive?
69(1)
How We Can Support Their Self-Esteem?
70(1)
Older School-Agers (9 to 12 Years)
71(3)
Why Do Older School-Aged Children Argue so Much?
71(1)
How Can I Get Older School-Agers to Trust and Respect Me?
72(1)
Why Do Older School-Agers Try so Hard to Be ``Popular?''
72(1)
Why Do Older School-Aged Children Love Pranks and Jokes?
73(1)
How We Can Support Older School-Agers' Self-Esteem?
73(1)
Points to Remember
74(1)
Practical Application---``I'm Never Gonna `Vite You to My Birth'ay!''
74(2)
Discussion Questions
76(1)
Related Readings
76(4)
Helpful Web Sites
80(3)
Understanding the Reasons for Problem Behavior
83(30)
Defining Problem Behavior
83(4)
What Do We Mean by Functional and Dysfunctional Behaviors?
85(1)
The Adult-centered Definition of Misbehavior
86(1)
The Child-centered Definition of Misbehavior
86(1)
Stages of Moral Development in Young Children
87(7)
How do Young Children Learn Right from Wrong?
90(4)
Underlying Causes of Problem Behavior
94(14)
Inappropriate Expectations
94(1)
Misunderstood Expectations
95(1)
Immature Self-control
96(1)
Gleeful Abandon, Group Contagion
97(2)
Boredom
99(1)
Fatigue and Discomfort
100(1)
Desire for Recognition
101(2)
Discouragement
103(1)
Frustration
104(2)
Rebellion
106(2)
Points to Remember
108(1)
Practical Application---Is a ``Really Good Spanking'' Really Good?
108(1)
Discussion Questions
108(1)
Related Readings
108(4)
Helpful Web Sites
112(1)
Guidelines for Effective Guidance
113(26)
Ignore Mildly Annoying Behavior That Is neither Harmful nor Unfair
113(4)
Focus Attention Elsewhere
114(1)
Discreetly Redirect Slightly Inappropriate Behavior to More Positive Substitute Behavior
114(1)
Assist the Child in Recognizing the General Effects of Positive Behaviors
115(2)
Immediately Interrupt Behavior That Is Harmful or Unfair
117(5)
Intervene as Firmly as Necessary But as Gently as Possible
117(2)
Maintain Objectivity
119(1)
Remove the Child from a Problem Situation
120(2)
Assertively Shape Positive Behavior
122(13)
Teach Ground Rules
123(1)
Clarify Expectations
124(1)
Maintain Consistency
125(2)
Adapt Objects, Events, and Attitudes to Remove Possible Causes of Problem Behavior
127(1)
Offer Assistance and Encouragement
128(1)
Give Undivided Attention
128(2)
Redirect Inappropriate Behavior Firmly and Respectfully
130(1)
Clearly Express Appropriate Feelings
131(1)
Explain the Potential Consequences of Unacceptable Behavior
131(1)
Provide Persistent Follow-up, and Enforce Logical Consequences Firmly and Respectfully
132(1)
Emphasize Unconditional Caring and Affection
133(1)
Maintain and Express Confidence That a Problem Will Be Resolved
134(1)
Protect the Child's Dignity and Privacy
134(1)
Be Willing to Start Over to Forgive and Forget
135(1)
Points to Remember
135(1)
Practical Application---Will and the Cream Cheese Won Ton
135(1)
Discussion Questions
136(1)
Related Readings
136(2)
Helpful Web Sites
138(1)
Planning the Prosocial Environment
139(28)
Prosocial Behavior
139(1)
Setting the Stage for Appropriate Behavior
140(4)
How Can the Physical Environment Support Prosocial Behavior?
140(1)
What Are Ineffective Child Care Environments Like?
141(1)
Recognizing a Developmentally Appropriate Environment
141(2)
What Effect Does the Environment Have on Child Guidance?
143(1)
How Do Schedules Support Positive Behavior?
144(1)
The Nurturing Social Environment
144(5)
How Relaxed, Playful Environments Encourage Prosocial Behavior
145(1)
Creating a Cooperative Setting
146(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Activities, Materials, and Routines
147(1)
Why Consistency Is so Important
147(1)
How Can I Support Cooperativeness?
148(1)
The Nurturing Adult
149(10)
How Can I Be More Nurturing and Patient?
149(2)
How Does a Nurturing Adult Respond to Aggression?
151(1)
Can Children Learn Appropriate Behavior through Imitation?
152(2)
How Can I Be More Attentive to Children's Individual Needs?
154(1)
How Can I Provide Affirmation, Affection, and Acceptance?
155(2)
How Can I Provide Positive Recognition and Encouragement?
157(1)
Am I Willing to Enforce Rules Even if It Would Be Easier to Look the Other Way?
158(1)
Am I Willing to Protect Individual Rights?
158(1)
Points to Remember
159(1)
Practical Application---William and the Nature Walk
160(1)
Discussion Questions
161(1)
Related Readings
161(4)
Helpful Web Sites
165(2)
Positive Communication
167(32)
Building a Foundation for Positive Communication
167(14)
When Does Communication Begin?
167(1)
How Adults Can Assist the Development of Early Communication Skills in Infants
168(1)
What Are Typical Characteristics of Early Speech?
169(1)
Why Positive, Mutual Communication Is Important for Child Guidance
169(2)
How Attentive Listening Can Nurture the Child's Developing Sense of Self
171(1)
Three Basic Human Needs Underlying Requests for Help
172(1)
Are These Listening and Helping Strategies Only Appropriate for Use with Young Children?
172(1)
Appropriate Responses to Requests for Action or Information
173(3)
Appropriate Responses to Requests for Understanding and Attention
176(2)
How Should Caregivers Respond to Requests for Dependency or Inappropriate Interaction?
178(3)
Are Listening and Helping Strategies Relevant to the Care of Babies and Toddlers?
181(1)
Addressing Underlying Feelings
181(4)
When and How Should Adults Express Their Feelings to Children?
182(2)
How Can Children Be Helped to Understand Their Feelings?
184(1)
How Can Children Be Helped to Confront Troublesome Feelings?
184(1)
Positive Instructions Versus Negative Commands
185(2)
Characteristics of Assertive Communication
187(3)
Key Factors in Assertive Communication
187(3)
Characteristics of Nonproductive Communication
190(2)
How Do People Behaving Like These Stereotypes Respond to Problem Situations Involving Children and Adults?
190(2)
If These Stereotypical Communication Styles Are Ineffective, What Will Work?
192(1)
Managing the Positive Confrontation
192(3)
When Is Confrontation Appropriate?
192(1)
How Confrontations with Children Can Be Made Positive and Assertive
193(1)
How Attention Can Be Kept Focused on Confronting the Issues at Hand
194(1)
How Children Can Be Taught Responsibility
194(1)
Points to Remember
195(1)
Practical Application---``I'll Leave You Here Forever''
195(1)
Discussion Questions
196(1)
Related Readings
196(1)
Helpful Web Sites
197(2)
Positive Action
199(24)
Nonverbal Cues and Body Language
199(3)
What Is the Significance of Nonverbal Cues for Young Children?
199(1)
Why Should Nonverbal Cues be Consistent with Verbal Communication?
200(1)
Focus Attention at the Child's Eye Level
201(1)
Helping Children Resolve Problems Independently
202(4)
Help Children Learn to Use Words to Express Themselves to Each Other
203(1)
Should We Force Children to Apologize?
204(1)
How Can We Encourage Voluntary Sharing?
205(1)
How Can We Recognize and Encourage Internal Control?
206(1)
Logical and Natural Consequences
206(8)
Should Children Be Rescued from the Consequences of Their Actions?
206(1)
What is the Difference Between Punishment and Guidance?
207(3)
How Can I Be Firm without Seeming Angry?
210(2)
Avoid Overindulging and Overprotecting Children
212(1)
Help Children Learn to Make Choices within Limits
213(1)
External Reinforcement
214(3)
External Conditions that Support Appropriate Behavior
214(1)
What is Behavior Modification and How Should It Be Used?
215(1)
Why Behavior Modification Does Not Work All the Time
216(1)
Points to Remember
217(1)
Practical Application---The Big Boys and the Very Muddy Day
218(1)
Discussion Questions
219(1)
Related Readings
220(1)
Helpful Web Sites
221(2)
Addressing Persistent, Unproductive Patterns of Behavior
223(32)
Reacting to Needs---Maslow's Hierarchy
223(3)
What is the Role of Self-esteem in Repeated Misbehavior?
224(1)
How Can I Support the Child's Development of Self-esteem?
225(1)
The No-Lose Method of Conflict Resolution
226(1)
Dreikurs' Mistaken Goals
227(2)
Attention-seeking Behavior
229(3)
Clinging, Feigning Ineptness
229(1)
Artificial Charm, Competitiveness
230(1)
Clowning, Acting Out, Silliness
230(1)
Laziness, Compulsiveness, Obnoxiousness
231(1)
Controlling Behavior
232(4)
Manipulativeness, Vengefulness
232(1)
Pouting, Stubbornness
232(1)
Bullying, Rebelling
233(3)
Disruptive Behavior
236(3)
Destructiveness, Aggressiveness
236(1)
Contempt, Mistrust
237(1)
Fits of Anger, Tantrums, Defiance
238(1)
Withdrawn, Passive Behavior
239(1)
Cyclical Self-stimulation
239(1)
Rejection of Social Interchange
239(1)
Internalization of Stress
239(1)
Display of Ineptness and Hopelessness
240(1)
Screening for Developmental ``Red Flags''
240(3)
Can Hearing Problems Affect Behavior?
241(1)
Other Physical Conditions that Affect Behavior
241(1)
Can the Presence of Behavioral Problems Signal the Possibility of Child Abuse or Neglect?
241(2)
Locating Community Resources
243(1)
Meeting Adult Needs
244(1)
Points to Remember
245(1)
Practical Application---``Thank Heaven for Sarah''
246(1)
Discussion Questions
247(1)
Related Readings
248(4)
Helpful Web Sites
252(3)
Taking a New Look at Children
255(16)
Identifying Personal Biases
255(3)
Responding More Objectively to Individual Children
256(2)
The Observation Sequence
258(3)
How Observation Supports Positive Guidance
258(1)
What Do I Need to Get Started?
259(1)
How Will I Use My Observations?
259(1)
How Does My Observation Become a Plan?
260(1)
What if My Plan Does Not Work?
260(1)
How Can I Be Sure My Plan Is Working?
261(1)
Observation Strategies
261(5)
What Is an Anecdotal Record?
261(1)
What Is a Running Account?
262(1)
What Is Time Sampling?
263(2)
What Is Event Sampling?
265(1)
Which Method of Recording Observations Works Best?
265(1)
Points to Remember
266(1)
Practical Application---The Mysterious Case of the Spinning Peg
266(1)
Discussion Questions
267(1)
Related Readings
267(1)
Helpful Web Sites
268(3)
Serving Diverse Children and Families
271(64)
Historical Perspectives and Guidance Theories
271(11)
How the Modern World Has Influenced Thinking About Child Guidance
273(4)
The Child in Society
277(1)
How Life Is Different for Contemporary Children in Today's Changing World
278(1)
Preparation for Participation in a Democracy
279(1)
How Early Influences Affect Children's Growth and Development in Terms of Their Learning Appropriate Behavior
280(1)
The Strain of Changing Disciplinary Traditions
281(1)
Cultural Influences on Child Guidance
282(3)
Preparing Children for the Realities of an Adult World
284(1)
How Do Young Children Learn about Their Role in the World?
285(10)
When Does Cultural Learning Begin?
288(1)
Parent Expectations Related to Social and Economic Settings
289(3)
Understanding Cultural Differences
292(3)
Philosophies of Guidance
295(2)
Is a Child's Personality Mostly the Result of Nature or Nurture?
296(1)
What Do Current Experts Say about the Origin of Intelligence and Personality?
297(6)
The Nature Versus Nurture Controversy
297(4)
If There Are Different Views about How Children Develop, How Do I Know which Philosophy Is Right?
301(2)
Points to Remember
303(1)
Practical Application---Bringing Home a Baby Bumblebee
303(1)
Discussion Questions
304(1)
Related Readings
304(4)
Helpful Web Sites
308(3)
Appendices
A Children's Books Addressing Values and Feelings
311(12)
B Resources for Responding to Special Needs and Interests
323(8)
C Bilingual Children's Books Affirming Cultural Differences
331(4)
Glossary 335(4)
References 339(20)
Index 359


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