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Positive Child Guidance

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9781418030926

ISBN10:
1418030929
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/17/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 8/17/2006.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

Positive Child Guidance 5E includes numerous revisions to make this practical, readable text even more developmentally appropriate, culturally sensitive, and academically sound than its predecessor. Intended to equip adults with information for guiding, managing, and coping with children’s behavior, Positive Child Guidance 5E also helps to make sense of children’s efforts to understand their own emerging needs and feelings while handling adult expectations. Open-ended solutions are presented to encourage students to engage in higher levels of thinking, analyzing, and synthesizing. The text addresses the rightful positioning of both behavior modification and maturation within an overall effective guidance strategy. Positive Child Guidance 5E outlines workable methods for preventing or redirecting inappropriate behaviors and helping children grow up to be useful citizens in a democratic social structure. Innovative strategies include detailed information on using American Sign Language as a tool to empower young children in expressing themselves to support guidance. Inclusion of children with special needs is addressed in terms of guidance issues. In addition, this revised text addresses how the cultural differences of children, parents, and early childhood educators affect day-to-day guidance. Because no single guidance strategy is appropriate for all children at all ages, this book addresses typical characteristics and needs of children as they proceed through chronological and developmental stages. It provides a range of practical, effective, and flexible guidance strategies based on principles of straightforward communication and assertiveness. This book outlines practical, workable steps for creating a cooperative, respectful community of children and adults with special emphasis on sensitivity to cultural and gender-based needs and differences.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxx
Introduction
1(30)
Overview
1(4)
Child-Rearing in Today's World
5(5)
Why Is Parent and Professional Training in Child Guidance Important?
7(2)
Who Should Be Responsible for the Well-Being and Guidance of Children?
9(1)
Short-Term Objectives for Child Guidance
10(7)
What Are the Rights of Children?
13(2)
How Do We Tell the Difference between Enforcing Reasonable Safety Rules and Being Overprotective?
15(1)
Why Should Children Be Involved in Maintaining and Protecting Their Environment?
16(1)
Long-Term Goals for Child Guidance
17(4)
The Nurturing Environment and Long-Term Development
19(2)
Children---Our Investment in the Future
21(2)
Key Terms
23(1)
Points to Remember
23(1)
Practical Application
23(1)
The Spoiled Child---Myth or Reality?
23(1)
Discussion Questions
24(1)
Related Readings
24(5)
Helpful Web Sites
29(2)
Understanding Children's Behavior
31(66)
Typical Ages and Stages
31(5)
Infants (Birth to Twelve Months)
36(16)
Do Infants Intentionally Respond By Crying?
36(1)
Can Babies Misbehave On Purpose?
37(1)
Infant Brain Development
37(2)
What Are Reflex Responses, and What Is Unconscious Conditioning?
39(1)
What Is Classical Conditioning?
39(1)
What Is Operant Conditioning?
40(1)
What Is Metacognition?
40(1)
How Do Babies Develop Control of Their Actions?
41(1)
Why Do Babies Cry?
41(1)
How Does Trauma and Chronic Stress Affect an Infant's Brain Development?
42(1)
How Do Babies Develop Trust?
43(1)
What Is Learned Helplessness?
43(1)
How Do I Answer Parents' Sleep Questions?
44(1)
Which Is Best: Flexible Spontaneity or Predictable Routines?
45(1)
What Are Interaction Styles?
46(2)
What Do We Mean by Secure Attachment to Caregivers?
48(1)
Why Do Babies Cling?
49(1)
Separation and Stranger Anxieties
50(1)
How Do Babies Perceive Themselves and Their Surroundings?
51(1)
Toddlers (Twelve Months to Three Years)
52(15)
Can Toddlers Control Their Feelings and Actions?
52(1)
How Does Awareness of Cause and Effect Develop?
53(1)
Toddlers Need to Explore Their Surroundings
54(1)
Safety Is a Major Issue in Toddler Care
54(2)
Learning Environments for Toddlers
56(1)
Can Toddlers Read Body Language?
57(1)
How Does Verbal Communication Begin?
58(1)
What Kind of Language Experiences Are Good for Toddlers?
59(1)
Stranger Anxiety
60(1)
Separation Anxiety
60(1)
How Can I Make Friends with a Shy Toddler?
60(2)
Why Are Toddlers so Possessive?
62(1)
Why Do Some Toddlers Become so Attached to Security Blankets, Pacifiers, and so Forth?
63(1)
Why Are Toddlers Stubborn One Minute, Then Clingy the Next?
64(1)
Are Toddlers Aware of Themselves?
65(1)
Why Do Toddlers Get so Excited and Happy When They Imitate Each Other?
66(1)
Preschoolers (Three to Five Years)
67(11)
Can Preschoolers Make Plans and Decisions?
67(1)
Meeting Preschoolers' Needs for Communication
68(1)
Communicating Successfully with Preschoolers
69(1)
Teaching Preschoolers to Use Words to Express Their Feelings
69(1)
Does Stress Strain Your Patience with Children?
70(2)
Friendships Are Important to Preschoolers
72(2)
How Do Preschoolers Learn to Accept Responsibility?
74(1)
Allow Preschoolers to Do Things That Are Difficult
74(1)
Helping Preschoolers Follow Rules
74(2)
How Do Preschoolers Develop a Positive Sense of Self?
76(1)
Should Children Be Encouraged to Compete?
77(1)
Early School-Agers (Five to Eight Years)
78(7)
Why Do Early School-Agers Ask so Many Questions?
78(1)
Why Do They Get so Angry If They Do Not Always Win?
79(1)
How Can I Earn the Respect of School-Agers?
80(1)
Why Do Early School-Agers Resist Going to Child Care?
81(1)
Why Do Early School-Agers Get so Upset about Fairness?
82(1)
Why Do They Insist on Picking Their Own Clothes?
82(1)
How Can We Help Early School-Agers Become Productive?
83(1)
How Can We Support Their Self-Esteem?
84(1)
Older School-Agers (Nine to Twelve Years)
85(5)
Why Do Older School-Aged Children Argue so Much?
85(1)
How Can I Get Older School-Agers to Trust and Respect Me?
86(1)
Why Do Older School-Agers Try so Hard to Be ``Popular''?
86(1)
Why Do Older School-Aged Children Love Pranks and Jokes?
87(1)
How Can We Support Older School-Agers' Self-Esteem?
87(3)
Key Terms
90(1)
Points to Remember
90(1)
Practical Application
91(1)
``I'm Never Gonna `Vite You to My Birth'ay!''
91(1)
Discussion Questions
91(1)
Related Readings
91(5)
Helpful Web Sites
96(1)
Serving Culturally Diverse Children and Families
97(74)
Understanding the Dynamic Nature of Culture
97(3)
What Is Ordinary Culture?
98(1)
Does Everyone Have Culture?
99(1)
Understanding Children and Families in the Context of Their Communities
100(5)
How Did Bronfenbrenner Suggest Visualizing a Person's Inner Self?
101(1)
What Is Unconditional Acceptance?
102(1)
What Is Ethical Responsibility?
103(2)
Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination
105(5)
Where Did Prejudice Come From?
105(1)
When Does Discrimination Begin in Children?
106(1)
What Are Other Early Signs of Prejudice in Young Children?
107(1)
What Is Multicultural Education?
108(1)
How Can We Teach Young Children to Resist Bias?
108(2)
How Can I Spot Bias, Stereotypes, and Myths About Underrepresented Groups in Books and Other Media?
110(2)
What Things Should I Know So I Can be More Considerate to People from Other Cultures?
112(8)
Are There Some Things I Can Easily Do to Help Parents from Other Cultures Feel More Comfortable?
113(2)
Will These Tips Keep Me from Ever Culturally Offending Anyone?
115(2)
Are There Some Things I Can Easily Do to Help Children from Other Cultures Feel More Comfortable?
117(3)
How Can I Learn to be More Culturally Sensitive?
120(2)
Cultural Differences
122(7)
How Does Culture Affect Adults' Styles of Interaction?
122(1)
How Does Culture Affect a Person's Learning Approach?
122(1)
How Does Culture Affect Social Role Expectations?
123(2)
How Does Culture Shape Our Use of Language?
125(1)
How Does Culture Shape Our Intellectual Approach?
126(3)
How Can We Expand Children's Emotional-Social Intelligence?
129(1)
Key Terms
129(1)
Points to Remember
130(1)
Practical Application
130(2)
Baba Rebear and Salty Green Paper
130(2)
Discussion Questions
132(1)
Related Readings
132(38)
Helpful Web Sites
170(1)
Understanding the Reasons for Problem Behavior
171(43)
Defining Problem Behavior
171(5)
What Do We Mean by Functional and Dysfunctional Behaviors?
174(1)
The Adult-Centered Definition of Misbehavior
174(1)
The Child-Centered Definition of Misbehavior
175(1)
Stages of Moral Development in Young Children
176(2)
Components of Moral Development
178(5)
Empathy
178(1)
Conscience
178(1)
Altruism
179(1)
Moral Reasoning
179(1)
How Do Young Children Learn Right from Wrong?
180(3)
Methods to Support Children's Moral Development
183(2)
Provide Nurturing and Support
183(1)
Set Limits
184(1)
Model Appropriate Behavior
184(1)
Teach Democratic Decision-Making and Discussion
185(1)
Temperament
185(8)
What Is Temperament?
185(2)
How Do Infants Show Differences in Temperament?
187(1)
What Has Jerome Kagan's Research Taught Us about Temperament?
188(1)
How Can We Support the Spirited Child?
189(4)
Underlying Causes of Problem Behavior
193(14)
Inappropriate Expectations
194(1)
Misunderstanding Expectations
195(1)
Immature Self-Control
195(2)
Gleeful Abandon, Group Contagion
197(1)
Boredom
198(1)
Fatigue and Discomfort
199(2)
Desire for Recognition
201(1)
Discouragement
202(1)
Frustration
203(2)
Rebellion
205(2)
Key Terms
207(1)
Points to Remember
207(1)
Practical Application
207(1)
Is a ``Really Good Spanking'' Really Good?
207(1)
Discussion Questions
208(1)
Related Readings
208(4)
Helpful Web Sites
212(2)
Guidelines for Effective Guidance
214(29)
Ignore Mildly Annoying Behavior That is Neither Harmful Nor Unfair
214(2)
Focus Attention Elsewhere
215(1)
Discreetly Redirect Slightly Inappropriate Behavior to More Positive Substitute Behavior
215(1)
Assist the Child In Recognizing the General Effects of Positive Behaviors
216(1)
Immediately Interrupt Behavior That is Harmful or Unfair
216(1)
What Do I Do About Biting?
217(6)
Intervene as Firmly as Necessary but as Gently as Possible
219(2)
Maintain Objectivity
221(1)
Remove the Child from a Problem Situation
222(1)
Questions About Sex-Related Issues
223(2)
Assertively Shape Positive Behavior
225(14)
Teach Ground Rules
226(1)
Clarify Expectations
227(1)
Maintain Consistency
228(2)
Adapt Objects, Events, and Attitudes to Remove Possible Causes of Problem Behavior
230(1)
Offer Assistance and Encouragement
231(1)
Give Undivided Attention
231(2)
Redirect Inappropriate Behavior Firmly and Respectfully
233(1)
Clearly Express Appropriate Feelings
234(1)
Explain the Potential Consequences of Unacceptable Behavior
235(1)
Provide Persistent Follow-Up and Enforce Logical Consequences Firmly and Respectfully
236(1)
Emphasize Unconditional Caring and Affection
236(1)
Maintain and Express Confidence that a Problem Will Be Resolved
237(1)
Protect Children's Dignity and Privacy
237(1)
Be Willing to Start Over to Forgive and Forget
237(2)
Key Terms
239(1)
Points to Remember
239(1)
Practical Application
239(1)
Will and the Cream Cheese Won Ton
239(1)
Discussion Questions
240(1)
Related Readings
240(2)
Helpful Web Sites
242(1)
Planning the Prosocial Environment
243(35)
Prosocial Behavior
243(1)
Three Key Elements of Prosocial Behavior
244(1)
Setting the Stage for Appropriate Behavior
244(10)
How Can the Physical Environment Support Prosocial Behavior?
244(1)
What Are Ineffective Child Care Environments Like?
245(2)
What is a Developmentally Appropariate Environment?
247(3)
What Effect Does the Environment Have on Child Guidance?
250(1)
How Do Schedules Support Positive Behavior?
251(3)
The Nurturing Social Environment
254(6)
How Relaxed, Playful Environments Encourage Prosocial Behavior
254(2)
Creating a Cooperative Setting
256(1)
Developmental Appropriate Activities, Materials, and Routines
256(1)
Why Consistency Is so Important
257(2)
How Can I Support Cooperativeness?
259(1)
The Nurturing Adult
260(11)
How Can I Be More Nurturing and Patient?
260(2)
How Does a Nurturing Adult Respond to Aggression?
262(1)
Can Children Learn Appropriate Behavior through Imitation?
263(3)
How Can I Provide Affirmation, Affection, and Acceptance?
266(2)
How Can I Provide Positive Recognition and Encouragement?
268(1)
Am I Willing to Enforce Rules Even if it Would Be Easier to Look the Other Way?
269(1)
Am I Willing to Protect Individual Rights?
270(1)
Key Terms
271(1)
Points to Remember
271(1)
Practical Application
271(1)
William and the Nature Walk
271(1)
Discussion Questions
272(1)
Related Readings
273(3)
Helpful Web Sites
276(2)
Positive Communication
278(39)
Building a Foundation for Positive Communication
278(17)
When Does Communication Begin?
279(1)
How Can Adults Assist the Development of Early Communication Skills in Infants?
279(1)
What Are Typical Characteristics of Early Communication?
280(1)
Why Positive, Mutual Communication Is Important for Child Guidance
281(2)
How Attentive Listening Can Nurture the Child's Developing Sense of Self
283(1)
Three Basic Human Needs Underlying Requests for Help
283(1)
Are These Listening and Helping Strategies Only Appropriate for Use with Young Children?
284(1)
Appropriate Responses to Requests for Action or Information
285(3)
Appropriate Responses to Requests for Understanding and Attention
288(4)
How Should Caregivers Respond to Requests for Dependency or Inappropriate Interaction?
292(2)
Are Listening and Helping Strategies Relevant to the Care of Babies and Toddlers?
294(1)
Addressing Underlying Feelings
295(5)
When and How Should Adults Express Their Feelings to Children?
296(1)
How Can Children Be Helped to Understand Their Feelings?
297(2)
How Can Children Be Helped to Confront Troublesome Feelings?
299(1)
Positive Instructions Versus Negative Commands
300(2)
Characteristics of Assertive Communication
302(5)
Key Factors in Assertive Communication
303(4)
Characteristics of Nonproductive Communication
307(2)
How Do These Stereotypes Show Up as Problems?
307(2)
If These Stereotypical Communication Styles Are Ineffective, What Will Work?
309(1)
Managing the Positive Confrontation
309(4)
When Is Confrontation Appropriate?
310(1)
How Confrontations with Children Can Be Made Positive and Assertive
311(1)
How Attention Can Be Kept Focused on Confronting the Issues at Hand
311(1)
How Children Can Be Taught Responsibility
312(1)
Key Terms
313(1)
Points to Remember
313(1)
Practical Application
314(1)
``I'll Leave You Here Forever''
314(1)
Discussion Questions
314(1)
Related Readings
314(1)
Helpful Web Sites
315(2)
Nonverbal Cues and Appropriate Consequences
317(46)
Nonverbal Cues and Body Language
317(4)
What Is the Significance of Nonverbal Cues for Young Children?
318(1)
Why Should Nonverbal Cues Be Consistent with Verbal Communication?
318(1)
Focus Attention at the Child's Eye Level
319(2)
Helping Children Resolve Problems Independently
321(17)
What Is Bibliotherapy?
322(1)
Help Children Learn to Use Words to Express Themselves to Each Other
323(1)
Should We Force Children to Apologize?
324(1)
How Can We Recognize and Encourage Internal Control?
325(1)
How Does American Sign Language Support Positive Child Guidance?
326(12)
Logical and Natural Consequences
338(12)
Natural Consequences
338(1)
Logical Consequences
338(2)
Should Children Be Rescued from the Consequences of Their Actions?
340(1)
What Is the Difference Between Punishment and Guidance?
341(5)
How Can I Be Firm without Seeming Angry?
346(1)
Avoid Overindulging and Overprotecting Children
347(2)
Help Children Learn to Make Choices within Limits
349(1)
External Reinforcement
350(4)
External Conditions that Support Appropriate Behavior
351(1)
What Is Behavior Modification and How Should It Be Used?
352(1)
Why Behavior Modification Does Not Work All the Time
353(1)
Key Terms
354(1)
Points to Remember
355(1)
Practical Application
355(1)
The Big Boys and the Very Muddy Day
355(1)
Discussion Questions
356(1)
Related Readings
357(3)
Multimedia
360(1)
Helpful Web Sites
361(2)
Addressing Persistent, Unproductive Patterns of Behavior
363(38)
Reacting to Needs---Maslow's Hierarchy
363(7)
What Is the Role of Self-Esteem in Repeated Misbehavior?
364(5)
How Can I Support the Child's Development of Self-Esteem?
369(1)
The No-Lose Method of Conflict Resolution
370(1)
Dreikurs' Mistaken Goals
371(2)
Attention-Seeking Behavior
373(3)
Clinging, Feigning Ineptness
373(1)
Artificial Charm, Competitiveness
374(1)
Clowning, Acting Out, Silliness
375(1)
Laziness, Compulsiveness, Obnoxiousness
375(1)
Controlling Behavior
376(7)
Manipulativeness, Vengefulness
376(1)
Pouting, Stubbornness
377(1)
Bullying, Rebelling
378(5)
Disruptive Behavior
383(3)
Destructiveness, Aggressiveness
383(2)
Contempt, Mistrust
385(1)
Fits of Anger, Tantrums, Defiance
386(1)
Withdrawn, Passive Behavior
386(2)
Cyclical Self-Stimulation
386(1)
Rejection of Social Interchange
387(1)
Internalization of Stress
387(1)
Display of Ineptness and Hopelessness
388(1)
Screening for Developmental ``Red Flags''
388(4)
Can Hearing Problems Affect Behavior?
388(1)
Other Physical Conditions That Affect Behavior
389(1)
Can the Presence of Behavioral Problems Signal the Possibility of Child Abuse or Neglect?
389(1)
Consequences of Maltreatment
390(2)
Locating Community Resources
392(1)
Meeting Adult Needs
393(1)
Key Terms
394(1)
Points to Remember
394(1)
Practical Application
395(1)
``Thank Heaven for Sarah''
395(1)
Discussion Questions
396(1)
Related Readings
397(2)
Helpful Web Sites
399(2)
Taking a New Look at Children
401(18)
Identifying Personal Biases
401(4)
Responding More Objectively to Individual Children
402(3)
The Observation Sequence
405(3)
How Observation Supports Positive Guidance
405(1)
What Do I Need to Get Started?
405(1)
How Will I Use My Observations?
406(1)
How Does My Observation Become a Plan?
407(1)
What if My Plan Does Not Work?
407(1)
How Can I Be Sure My Plan Is Working?
408(1)
Observation Strategies
408(5)
What Is an Anecdotal Record?
409(1)
What Is a Running Account?
410(1)
What Is Time Sampling?
410(2)
What Is Event Sampling?
412(1)
Which Method of Recording Observations Works Best?
413(1)
Key Terms
413(1)
Points to Remember
414(1)
Practical Application
414(1)
The Mysterious Case of the Spinning Peg
414(1)
Discussion Questions
414(1)
Related Readings
415(2)
Helpful Web Sites
417(2)
Historical and Cultural Beliefs about Child Guidance
419
Historical Perspectives and Guidance Theories
419(13)
How the Modern World Has Influenced Thinking about Child Guidance
421(5)
The Child in Society
426(2)
How Life Is Different for Contemporary Children in Today's Changing World
428(1)
Preparation for Participation in a Democracy
429(1)
How Early Influences Affect Children's Growth and Development in Terms of Their Learning Appropriate Behavior
430(1)
The Strain of Changing Disciplinary Traditions
431(1)
Cultural Influences on Child Guidance
432(3)
Preparing Children for the Realities of an Adult World
434(1)
How Do Young Children Learn About Their Role in the World?
435(12)
When Does Cultural Learning Begin?
439(1)
Parental Expectations Related to Social and Economic Settings
440(3)
Understanding Cultural Differences
443(4)
Philosophies of Guidance
447(3)
Is a Child's Personality Mostly the Result of Nature or Nurture?
448(2)
What Do Current Experts Say About the Origin of Intelligence and Personality?
450(7)
The Nature versus Nurture Controversy
450(5)
If There Are Different Views about How Children Develop, How Do I Know Which Philosophy Is Right?
455(2)
Key Terms
457(1)
Points to Remember
457(1)
Practical Application
458(1)
Bringing Home a Baby Bumblebee
458(1)
Discussion Questions
458(1)
Related Readings
459(2)
Helpful Web Sites
461
Appendix A 1(1)
Appendix B 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Index 1


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