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Power and Choice : An Introduction to Political Science,9780072476668

Power and Choice : An Introduction to Political Science

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780072476668

ISBN10:
0072476664
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/1/2002
Publisher(s):
McGraw Hill College Div
List Price: $88.76

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Table of Contents

PREFACE

Part 1 Introduction

1 Politics: Setting the Stage POLITICS POLITICS AS THE MAKING OF COMMON DECISIONS POLITICS AS THE EXERCISE OF POWER IMPLICIT AND MANIFEST POWER POLITICS AND POWER POWER AND CHOICE POLITICS OF THE STATE POLITICAL SCIENCE THE PLEASURES OF POLITICS

2 Modern Ideologies and Political Philosophy AMERICAN IDEOLOGIES LIBERALISM THE CONSERVATIVE REACTION THE SOCIALIST ALTERNATIVE COMMUNISM AND SOCIALISM FASCISM THE GREAT IDEOLOGIES IN THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY IN OTHER HISTORICAL ERAS

Part 2 The State and Public Policy

3 The Modern State THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN STATE THE ORIGIN OF STATES “STATE,” “NATION,” AND THE “NATION-STATE” GOVERNMETN AND THE STATE CHALLENGES TO THE STATE ARE STATES LOSING THEIR ABILITY TO MAKE ECONOMIC POLICY? SOME POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES THE WEST, THE EAST, AND THE SOUTH Example: State building in Nigeria Example: State building in the European Union

4 Policies of the State WHAT DO GOVERNMENTS DO? DEFENSE POLICY EDUCATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE PART II DEMOCRACY AND PUBLIC POLICYTHE PLACE OF POWER IN POLICY ANALYSIS Example: Norway’s Program to Encourage Norwegian-Language Publications Example: Economic Development Compared with “Human Development Example: Effectiveness of Education Policies

5 Political Economy of the State POLITICAL ECONOMY ECONOMIC POLICY I: ECONOMY GROWTH ECONOMIC POLICY II: CONTROLLING INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT ECONOMIC POLICY III: MANAGING DISTRIBUTION AND INEQUALITY INDEPENDENT CENTRAL BANKS CORRUPTION CONCLUSION Example: Political Economy of Germany Example: Political Economy of Indonesia

6 Political Choices: The Problems of Fairness and Efficiency FAIRNESS AND THE PROBLEM OF JUSTICE OTHER ASPECTS OF FAIRNESS EFFICIENCY MODES OF DECISION: INCREMENTAL VS. RADICAL MODES OF DECISION: AUTHORITY VS. THE MARKET CONCLUSION Example: Political ChoicePart 3 The Citizen and the Regime

7 Authority and Legitimacy: The State and the Citizen LEGITIMACY AND AUTHORITY SOURCES OF LEGITIMACY THE “DEMOCRATIC CITIZEN” HOW WELL ARE THESE REQUIREMENTS MET? SOCIAL CAPTIAL POLITICAL CULTURE POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION Example: Building Authority and Legitimacy in West Germany After World War II Example: Declining Democratic Legitimacy in the United States

8 Democracy and Its Recent Surge in the World THE WAVE OF DEMOCRATIZATION IN THE 1980’S AND 1990’S POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS THE END OF HISTORY? WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? Example: Democratization in Spain Example: Fragile democratization in Peru

9 Autocratic Government MILITARY GOVERNMENT WHY AREN’T THERE MORE MILITARY GOVERNMENTS? ONE-PARTY STATES “COURT” POLITICS “POWER AND CHOICE” AGAIN CONCLUSION Example: Civilian Participation in Nigeria’s First Military Regime Example: “Court” Politics in Nazi Germany

Part 4 The Apparatus of Governance

10 Constitutions and the Design of Government VARIATIONS IN FORMALITY THE VIRTUE OF VAGUENESS OTHER PRINCIPLES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN THE GEOGRAPHIC CONCENTRATION OF POWER “FEDERAL” AND “UNITARY” STATES THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN “UNITARY” AND “CENTRALIZED” STATES HOW MUCH CENTRALIZATION IS GOOD? “CONSTITUTIONALISM” Example: Constitutional Government in Great Britain Example: Constitutional Government in Russia

11 Elections ELECTIONS AS A MEANS OF BUILDING SUPPORT ELECTIONS AS A MEANS OF SELECTING LEADERS AND POLICIES ELECTORAL SYSTEMS REFERENDUMS ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION THE PARADOX OF PARTICIPATION THE BASES OF INDIVIDUALS’ ELECTORAL CHOICES Example: Proportional Representation Elections in Israel Example: Elections in Nigeria

12 Parties: A Linking and Leading Mechanism in PoliticsTHE POLITICAL PARTY ORIGINS OF THE MODERN PARTY POLITICAL PARTIES AND THE MOBILIZATION OF THE MASSES POLITICAL PARTIES AND THE RECRUITMENT AND SOCIALIZATION OF LEADERS POLITICAL PARTIES AS A SOURCE OF POLITICAL IDENTITY POLITICAL PARTIES AS A CHANNEL OF CONTROL PARTY ORGANIZATION PARTY FINANCE POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEMS CONCLUSION Example: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1917-1991) Example: Mexico’s Dominant Pary System

13 Structured Conflict: Interest Groups and Politics INTEREST GROUPS AND REPRESENTATION TYPES OF INTEREST GROUPS TACTICS OF INTEREST GROUPS SOCIAL MOVEMENTSPATTERN OF ORGANIZED INTEREST-GROUP ACTIVITY PLURALISM NEOCORPORATISM POWER AND CHOICE Example: Interest Groups in France Example: Interest Groups in Japan: Attenuated Neocorporatism

14 National Decision-Making Institutions: Parliamentary Government CABINET CONTROL WHAT DOES A PARLIAMENT DO? THE LIFE OF A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES EXCEPTIONS TO PARLIAMENTARY SUPREMACY PARLIAMENTS IN AUTOCRATIC SYSTEMS CONCLUSION Example: Parliamentary Government in India Example: Parliamentary Government in Germany

15 National Decision-Making Institutions: Presidential Government PRESIDENTIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS COMPARED GOVERNMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS AND COMPREGENSIVE POLICY RECRUITMENT OF EXECUTIVE LEADERSREVIEW AND CONTROL OF THE EXECUTIVETHE SPLIT EXECUTIVE OF PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMSWHY AREN’T ALL DEMOCRACIES PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS?CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW AND THE FRAGMENTATION OF POWERA NOTE ON CONSTITUTIONS AND POWER Example: Presidential Government in France Example: Presidential Government in Mexico

16 Bureaucracy and the Public SectorPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A POLITICAL PROBLEMCHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION“BUREAUCRACY:” A REFORM OF THE 19TH CENTURY BUREAUCRACY VERSUS FLEXIBILITYTHE PROBLEM OF PROTECTED INCOMPETENCEADJUSTMENTS TO BUREAUCRACYSOCIAL REPRESENTATIVES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CONCLUSION Example: The French Bureaucracy Example the Saudi Arabian Bureaucracy Example: The Battling Bureaucracy in Brazil

17 Laws and the CourtsANGLO-SAXON CASE LAWCONTINENTAL EUROPEAN CODE LAWRELIGIOUS LAW: THE SHARIATHE BLENDING OF CASE LAW AND CODE LAW COURTS Example: The Law in China Example: The European Court of Justice

Part 5 International Politics

18 Global Politics: Politics Among States (and Others) THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM SINCE WORLD WAR IITHE NEW WORLD ORDERINTERNATIONAL POLITICSTHE ABSENCE OF CENTRAL AUTHORITYFIDUCIARY POLITICAL ROLES AND INTERNATIONAL MORALITYIMPEDIMENTS TO INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONPOWER AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICSTHE PROCESS OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICSPOWER AND CHOICE IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICSCONCLUSION Example: A Failure of the New Order: Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda Example: The United NationsA Personal Note

Appendix: Principles of Political Analysis FALSIFIABILITY WHAT MAKES A STATEMENT INTERESTING? CAUSATION AND EXPLANATION HISTORICAL EXPLANATION A FEW COMMON PITFALLS IN ANALYSIS

Glossary

Bibliography

Index



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