Preface | p. xiii |

Acknowledgments | p. xvii |

About the Authors | p. xxi |

Basic Concepts | p. 1 |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Functioning of Transistors | p. 1 |

What Are the Problems with Power Delivery? | p. 4 |

Importance of Power Delivery in Microprocessors and ICs | p. 5 |

Power Delivery Network | p. 6 |

Transients on the Power Supply | p. 8 |

Simple Relationships for Power Delivery | p. 10 |

Core Circuits | p. 10 |

I/O Circuits | p. 14 |

Delay Due to SSN | p. 15 |

Timing and Voltage Margin Due to SSN | p. 16 |

Relationship between Capacitor and Current | p. 17 |

Design of PDNs | p. 17 |

Target Impedance | p. 20 |

Impedance and Noise Voltage | p. 22 |

Components of a PDN | p. 24 |

Voltage Regulator | p. 24 |

Bypass or Decoupling Capacitors | p. 28 |

Package and Board Planes | p. 37 |

On-Chip Power Distribution | p. 42 |

PDN with Components | p. 45 |

Analysis of PDNs | p. 45 |

Single-Node Analysis | p. 48 |

Distributed Analysis | p. 55 |

Chip-Package Antiresonance: An Example | p. 61 |

High-Frequency Measurements | p. 65 |

Measurement of Impedance | p. 66 |

Measurement of Self-Impedance | p. 68 |

Measurement of Transfer Impedance | p. 70 |

Measurement of Impedance by Completely Eliminating Probe Inductance | p. 70 |

Signal Lines Referenced to Planes | p. 71 |

Signal Lines as Transmission Lines | p. 72 |

Relationship between Transmission-Line Parameters and SSN | p. 74 |

Relationship between SSN and Return Path Discontinuities | p. 75 |

PDN Modeling Methodology | p. 77 |

Summary | p. 79 |

Modeling of Planes | p. 83 |

Introduction | p. 83 |

Behavior of Planes | p. 84 |

Frequency Domain | p. 84 |

Time Domain | p. 86 |

Two-Dimensional Planes | p. 88 |

Lumped Modeling Using Partial Inductances | p. 89 |

Extracting the Inductance and Resistance Matrices | p. 90 |

Distributed Circuit-Based Approaches | p. 94 |

Modeling Using Transmission Lines | p. 94 |

Transmission Matrix Method (TMM) | p. 97 |

Frequency-Dependent Behavior of Unit-Cell Elements | p. 104 |

Modeling of Gaps in Planes | p. 113 |

Discretization-Based Plane Models | p. 117 |

Finite-Difference Method | p. 117 |

Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method | p. 128 |

Finite-Element Method | p. 132 |

Analytical Methods | p. 133 |

Cavity Resonator Method | p. 133 |

Network Representation of the Cavity Resonator Model | p. 135 |

Multiple Plane Pairs | p. 138 |

Coupling through the Vias | p. 141 |

Coupling through the Conductors | p. 154 |

Coupling through the Apertures | p. 158 |

Summary | p. 169 |

Simultaneous Switching Noise | p. 175 |

Introduction | p. 175 |

Methods for Modeling SSN | p. 175 |

Simple Models | p. 177 |

Modeling of Output Buffers | p. 180 |

Modeling of Transmission Lines and Planes | p. 185 |

Microstrip Configuration | p. 186 |

Stripline Configuration | p. 189 |

Conductor-Backed Coplanar Waveguide Configuration | p. 205 |

Summary of Modal Decomposition Methods | p. 207 |

Application of Models in Time-Domain Analysis | p. 209 |

Plane Bounce from Return Currents | p. 209 |

Microstrip-to-Microstrip Via Transition | p. 217 |

Split Planes | p. 222 |

Application of Models in Frequency-Domain Analysis | p. 226 |

Stripline between a Power and a Ground Plane | p. 226 |

Microstrip-to-Stripline Via Transition | p. 228 |

Reduction of Noise Coupling Using Thin Dielectrics | p. 231 |

Extension of M-FDM to Incorporate Transmission Lines | p. 233 |

Analysis of a Complex Board Design | p. 236 |

Summary | p. 239 |

Time-Domain Simulation Methods | p. 243 |

Introduction | p. 243 |

Rational Function Method | p. 244 |

Basic Theory | p. 244 |

Interpolation Schemes | p. 246 |

Properties of Rational Functions | p. 252 |

Passivity Enforcement | p. 257 |

Integration in a Circuit Solver | p. 283 |

Disadvantages | p. 291 |

Signal Flow Graphs | p. 295 |

Causality | p. 296 |

Transfer-Function Causality | p. 296 |

Minimum Phase | p. 296 |

Delay Extraction from Frequency Response | p. 300 |

Causal Signal Flow Graphs | p. 302 |

Computational Aspects in SFG | p. 303 |

Fast Convolution Methods | p. 307 |

Cosimulation of Signal and Power Using SFGs | p. 312 |

Modified Nodal Analysis (MNA) | p. 317 |

What Is MNA? | p. 317 |

Frequency Domain | p. 318 |

Time Domain | p. 320 |

MNA Formulation with S-Parameters | p. 322 |

Summary | p. 327 |

Applications | p. 333 |

Introduction | p. 333 |

High-Speed Servers | p. 334 |

Core PDN Noise | p. 336 |

I/O PDN Noise | p. 345 |

Summary | p. 349 |

High-Speed Differential Signaling | p. 349 |

Test Vehicle Description | p. 350 |

Plane Modeling | p. 352 |

Modeling of Master and Slave Islands | p. 358 |

Rational Function Modeling | p. 361 |

Modal Decomposition and Noise Simulation | p. 361 |

Summary | p. 364 |

Analysis of IC Packages | p. 365 |

Simulation of a Multilayered Package Using M-FDM | p. 366 |

Causal Simulation of HyperBGA Package | p. 368 |

Summary | p. 372 |

Extraction of Dielectric Constant and Loss Tangent | p. 372 |

Problem Definition | p. 373 |

Corner-to-Corner Plane-Probing Method | p. 378 |

Causal Model Development | p. 386 |

Summary | p. 391 |

Embedded Decoupling Capacitors | p. 392 |

Embedded Individual Thin- or Thick-Film Capacitors | p. 394 |

Why Embed Individual Capacitors | p. 395 |

Design of an Embedded Thick-Film Capacitor Array | p. 395 |

Integration of Embedded Capacitors into IBM Package | p. 400 |

Embedded Planar Capacitors | p. 404 |

Summary | p. 415 |

Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) Structures | p. 415 |

Basic Theory | p. 416 |

Response of EBG Structures | p. 417 |

Dispersion-Diagram Analysis | p. 420 |

Modification of M-FDM Using Fringe and Gap Fields | p. 424 |

Scalable Design of EBG Structures for Power Plane Isolation | p. 430 |

Digital-RF Integration | p. 434 |

ADC Load-Board Design | p. 436 |

Issues with EBG Structures for Digital Systems | p. 439 |

Summary | p. 442 |

Future Challenges | p. 443 |

| p. 451 |

Multiport Networks | p. 451 |

Matrix Representation of Transmission Lines | p. 453 |

Spectrum of Digital Signals | p. 454 |

Software list | p. 459 |

Index | p. 461 |

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