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What is included with this book?
Preface | p. xiii |
Acknowledgments | p. xvii |
About the Authors | p. xxi |
Basic Concepts | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Functioning of Transistors | p. 1 |
What Are the Problems with Power Delivery? | p. 4 |
Importance of Power Delivery in Microprocessors and ICs | p. 5 |
Power Delivery Network | p. 6 |
Transients on the Power Supply | p. 8 |
Simple Relationships for Power Delivery | p. 10 |
Core Circuits | p. 10 |
I/O Circuits | p. 14 |
Delay Due to SSN | p. 15 |
Timing and Voltage Margin Due to SSN | p. 16 |
Relationship between Capacitor and Current | p. 17 |
Design of PDNs | p. 17 |
Target Impedance | p. 20 |
Impedance and Noise Voltage | p. 22 |
Components of a PDN | p. 24 |
Voltage Regulator | p. 24 |
Bypass or Decoupling Capacitors | p. 28 |
Package and Board Planes | p. 37 |
On-Chip Power Distribution | p. 42 |
PDN with Components | p. 45 |
Analysis of PDNs | p. 45 |
Single-Node Analysis | p. 48 |
Distributed Analysis | p. 55 |
Chip-Package Antiresonance: An Example | p. 61 |
High-Frequency Measurements | p. 65 |
Measurement of Impedance | p. 66 |
Measurement of Self-Impedance | p. 68 |
Measurement of Transfer Impedance | p. 70 |
Measurement of Impedance by Completely Eliminating Probe Inductance | p. 70 |
Signal Lines Referenced to Planes | p. 71 |
Signal Lines as Transmission Lines | p. 72 |
Relationship between Transmission-Line Parameters and SSN | p. 74 |
Relationship between SSN and Return Path Discontinuities | p. 75 |
PDN Modeling Methodology | p. 77 |
Summary | p. 79 |
Modeling of Planes | p. 83 |
Introduction | p. 83 |
Behavior of Planes | p. 84 |
Frequency Domain | p. 84 |
Time Domain | p. 86 |
Two-Dimensional Planes | p. 88 |
Lumped Modeling Using Partial Inductances | p. 89 |
Extracting the Inductance and Resistance Matrices | p. 90 |
Distributed Circuit-Based Approaches | p. 94 |
Modeling Using Transmission Lines | p. 94 |
Transmission Matrix Method (TMM) | p. 97 |
Frequency-Dependent Behavior of Unit-Cell Elements | p. 104 |
Modeling of Gaps in Planes | p. 113 |
Discretization-Based Plane Models | p. 117 |
Finite-Difference Method | p. 117 |
Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method | p. 128 |
Finite-Element Method | p. 132 |
Analytical Methods | p. 133 |
Cavity Resonator Method | p. 133 |
Network Representation of the Cavity Resonator Model | p. 135 |
Multiple Plane Pairs | p. 138 |
Coupling through the Vias | p. 141 |
Coupling through the Conductors | p. 154 |
Coupling through the Apertures | p. 158 |
Summary | p. 169 |
Simultaneous Switching Noise | p. 175 |
Introduction | p. 175 |
Methods for Modeling SSN | p. 175 |
Simple Models | p. 177 |
Modeling of Output Buffers | p. 180 |
Modeling of Transmission Lines and Planes | p. 185 |
Microstrip Configuration | p. 186 |
Stripline Configuration | p. 189 |
Conductor-Backed Coplanar Waveguide Configuration | p. 205 |
Summary of Modal Decomposition Methods | p. 207 |
Application of Models in Time-Domain Analysis | p. 209 |
Plane Bounce from Return Currents | p. 209 |
Microstrip-to-Microstrip Via Transition | p. 217 |
Split Planes | p. 222 |
Application of Models in Frequency-Domain Analysis | p. 226 |
Stripline between a Power and a Ground Plane | p. 226 |
Microstrip-to-Stripline Via Transition | p. 228 |
Reduction of Noise Coupling Using Thin Dielectrics | p. 231 |
Extension of M-FDM to Incorporate Transmission Lines | p. 233 |
Analysis of a Complex Board Design | p. 236 |
Summary | p. 239 |
Time-Domain Simulation Methods | p. 243 |
Introduction | p. 243 |
Rational Function Method | p. 244 |
Basic Theory | p. 244 |
Interpolation Schemes | p. 246 |
Properties of Rational Functions | p. 252 |
Passivity Enforcement | p. 257 |
Integration in a Circuit Solver | p. 283 |
Disadvantages | p. 291 |
Signal Flow Graphs | p. 295 |
Causality | p. 296 |
Transfer-Function Causality | p. 296 |
Minimum Phase | p. 296 |
Delay Extraction from Frequency Response | p. 300 |
Causal Signal Flow Graphs | p. 302 |
Computational Aspects in SFG | p. 303 |
Fast Convolution Methods | p. 307 |
Cosimulation of Signal and Power Using SFGs | p. 312 |
Modified Nodal Analysis (MNA) | p. 317 |
What Is MNA? | p. 317 |
Frequency Domain | p. 318 |
Time Domain | p. 320 |
MNA Formulation with S-Parameters | p. 322 |
Summary | p. 327 |
Applications | p. 333 |
Introduction | p. 333 |
High-Speed Servers | p. 334 |
Core PDN Noise | p. 336 |
I/O PDN Noise | p. 345 |
Summary | p. 349 |
High-Speed Differential Signaling | p. 349 |
Test Vehicle Description | p. 350 |
Plane Modeling | p. 352 |
Modeling of Master and Slave Islands | p. 358 |
Rational Function Modeling | p. 361 |
Modal Decomposition and Noise Simulation | p. 361 |
Summary | p. 364 |
Analysis of IC Packages | p. 365 |
Simulation of a Multilayered Package Using M-FDM | p. 366 |
Causal Simulation of HyperBGA Package | p. 368 |
Summary | p. 372 |
Extraction of Dielectric Constant and Loss Tangent | p. 372 |
Problem Definition | p. 373 |
Corner-to-Corner Plane-Probing Method | p. 378 |
Causal Model Development | p. 386 |
Summary | p. 391 |
Embedded Decoupling Capacitors | p. 392 |
Embedded Individual Thin- or Thick-Film Capacitors | p. 394 |
Why Embed Individual Capacitors | p. 395 |
Design of an Embedded Thick-Film Capacitor Array | p. 395 |
Integration of Embedded Capacitors into IBM Package | p. 400 |
Embedded Planar Capacitors | p. 404 |
Summary | p. 415 |
Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) Structures | p. 415 |
Basic Theory | p. 416 |
Response of EBG Structures | p. 417 |
Dispersion-Diagram Analysis | p. 420 |
Modification of M-FDM Using Fringe and Gap Fields | p. 424 |
Scalable Design of EBG Structures for Power Plane Isolation | p. 430 |
Digital-RF Integration | p. 434 |
ADC Load-Board Design | p. 436 |
Issues with EBG Structures for Digital Systems | p. 439 |
Summary | p. 442 |
Future Challenges | p. 443 |
p. 451 | |
Multiport Networks | p. 451 |
Matrix Representation of Transmission Lines | p. 453 |
Spectrum of Digital Signals | p. 454 |
Software list | p. 459 |
Index | p. 461 |
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