9781856174893

A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781856174893

  • ISBN10:

    1856174891

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-07-11
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Industry and commerce use vast amounts of water and in some parts of the world water is becoming a scarce commodity. We shall need to take more care in our future use of water, and this book is a 'best practice' manual for industrial and commercial users world-wide. Based mainly on the Australian experience with water conservation,this is a practical account of measures which can be taken to re-educate industrial and commercial users in the techniques of water saving and re-use. The principles are covered in detail and supported by examples from specific industries and commercial operations. * VERY topical subject * Based on Australian experience * First book to cover this problem for industrial users

Author Biography

Mohan Seneviratne is Director of Water Efficiency and Substitution, Queensland Water Commission, Australia.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xvi
About the Authorp. xviii
Acknowledgementp. xix
Water Conservation - A Priority for Businessp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Global Water Resources Availabilityp. 2
Human Need for Safe Drinking Water and Proper Sanitationp. 3
Meeting Agricultural Needsp. 6
The Impact of Climate Changep. 8
Business Sector Water Usagep. 11
Nine Reasons for Business to Reduce Their Water Consumptionp. 15
Conclusionp. 22
Referencesp. 22
Basic Water Chemistryp. 25
Overviewp. 25
Solubility Principlesp. 26
Common Substances Found in Waterp. 26
pHp. 26
Dissolved Gasesp. 28
Carbon dioxide and Alkalinityp. 28
Oxygen (O[subscript 2])p. 29
Ammonia (NH[subscript 3])p. 29
Hydrogen Sulphide (H[subscript 2]S)p. 30
Dissolved Ionsp. 30
Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solidsp. 30
Hardness, Calcium and Magnesiump. 32
Chloridesp. 35
Sodiump. 36
Ironp. 36
Manganesep. 36
Silicap. 37
Phosphatep. 37
Nitratep. 37
Boronp. 37
Cyanidep. 38
Suspended Solids and Turbidityp. 38
Colourp. 38
Organics in Waterp. 39
Biochemical Oxygen Demandp. 39
Chemical Oxygen Demandp. 39
Micro-organismsp. 40
Virusesp. 40
Bacteriap. 40
Protozoap. 41
Algaep. 42
Helminthsp. 42
Fungip. 42
Heavy Metalsp. 42
Chromiump. 42
Cadmiump. 43
Leadp. 43
Mercuryp. 44
Radionuclidesp. 44
Referencesp. 44
Saving Water: Step by Stepp. 46
Developing a Sustainable Water Management Planp. 46
Step 1: Seek Senior Management Commitmentp. 50
Step 2: Appoint A Water Conservation Managerp. 51
Responsibilities of the Water Conservation Managerp. 51
Step 3: Gather Baseline Data and Review Usagep. 52
Step 4: Identify Improvement Opportunitiesp. 55
Carry Out an Assessment of Management Systemsp. 55
One-2-Five Water - Management Diagnostic Systemp. 55
Technical Assessmentp. 56
How Detailed Should the Water Audit Be?p. 57
Estimating Water-Saving Potentialp. 59
Complying with Regulatory Standardsp. 60
Carrying out a Water Auditp. 62
Develop a Water Balancep. 65
Identifying Other Opportunities to Reduce Water Usep. 65
Step 5: Preparing the Plan Prioritising the Opportunitiesp. 67
Step 6: Report the Resultsp. 68
Conclusionp. 71
Referencesp. 71
Measuring Flow and Consumptionp. 73
Flow Measurementp. 73
Types of FlowMetersp. 75
Positive Displacement Meters (volumetric)p. 75
Velocity Metersp. 76
Mechanical Metersp. 77
Non-Mechanical Metersp. 78
Selecting a Flowmeterp. 80
Dataloggersp. 80
Chemical Methods of Flow Measurementp. 82
Conclusionp. 82
Cooling Water Systemsp. 83
Introductionp. 83
Types of Cooling Systemsp. 84
Open Recirculating Cooling Water Systemsp. 85
Recirculating Cooling Water Systems - Operational Principlesp. 86
Recirculating Cooling Water Systems - Basic Conceptsp. 88
Types of Cooling Towersp. 92
Induced Draught Cross-flow Cooling Towersp. 93
Induced Draught Counter-flow Cooling Towersp. 93
Forced Draught Wet Cooling Towersp. 94
Evaporative Condensersp. 94
Water Conservation Opportunitiesp. 94
Reducing Involuntary Water Lossp. 95
Minimising Overflow of Water from Cooling Tower Basinsp. 95
Incorrect Piping Configurationp. 96
Leakage from Pipes, Joints and Pump Glandsp. 96
Drift Lossp. 96
Splashp. 96
Reducing Voluntary Water Lossp. 96
Increasing Cycles of Concentrationp. 97
Install Flowmeters on Make-up and Blowdown Lines and Conductivity Meters in Blowdown Linesp. 98
Operate Blowdown in Continuous Modep. 98
Install Sidestream Filtrationp. 99
Improving Operating Practicesp. 100
Shut Off the Unit When not in Operationp. 100
Minimise Process Leaks to the Cooling Systemp. 101
Alternative Water Sourcesp. 101
Maximum Allowable Concentrationsp. 101
Cooling Water Treatment for Recirculating Water Systemsp. 104
Scalingp. 105
Scaling Indicesp. 107
What the LSI is Notp. 108
Scale-control Methodsp. 108
Foulingp. 109
Corrosionp. 109
Biofouling and Microbial Growthp. 111
Microbiological Controlp. 112
Role of Water Treatment Contractors in Water Conservationp. 114
Conclusionp. 115
Referencesp. 115
Alternatives to Wet Cooling Towersp. 117
Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Systemsp. 117
Energy Conservation = Water Conservationp. 118
Alternative Heat Rejection Systemsp. 123
Air-Cooled Condensersp. 124
Hybrid Cooling Towersp. 125
Combination Cooling Systemsp. 127
Geothermal Cooling Systemsp. 129
Referencesp. 130
Steam Systemsp. 132
Introductionp. 132
Steam System Principlesp. 133
Pre-treatmentp. 134
Steam Generationp. 139
Firetube Boilersp. 139
Watertube Boilersp. 140
Waste Heat Recovery Boilersp. 143
Steam Distribution Systemp. 143
Thermostatic Trapsp. 144
Mechanical Trapsp. 144
Thermodynamic Trapsp. 144
Fixed Orifice Condensate Discharge Traps (FOCDT)p. 145
Steam and Energy Conservation Opportunitiesp. 146
Repair Steam Leaksp. 147
Maximise Condensate Recoveryp. 148
Condensate Quality and System Protectionp. 150
Minimise Water Logging of Pipesp. 151
Minimising Boiler Water Blowdownp. 151
Blowdown Controlp. 151
Calculating the "True" Cost of Steamp. 154
Referencesp. 155
Industrial Water Reuse Technologiesp. 157
Introductionp. 157
A Step-by-Step Approach to Water Reusep. 159
Establishing the Goals of the Studyp. 160
Goalsp. 160
Project Boundariesp. 160
Gather Datap. 161
Identify the Projectp. 161
Technical Assessmentp. 164
Implementationp. 164
Pollutants Found in Reuse Streamsp. 164
Removal of Pollutantsp. 165
Order of Removalp. 167
Removal of Suspended Solidsp. 157
Screeningp. 168
Sedimentationp. 170
Settlingp. 171
Chemically Aided Settling - Coagulationp. 172
Filtrationp. 173
Removal of Fats, Oils and Greasesp. 175
Sources of Fats, Oil and Greasep. 175
Free FOG Removal - Skimmingp. 176
Emulsified FOG Removalp. 176
Air Flotationp. 177
Ultrafiltrationp. 179
Removal of Biodegradable Organicsp. 180
Activated Sludge Processp. 184
Anaerobic Processesp. 188
Performancep. 190
Membrane Bioreactorsp. 191
Removal of Heavy Metalsp. 192
Chemical Precipitationp. 193
Ion Exchangep. 196
Adsorptionp. 197
Membranes for Removal of Dissolved Ionsp. 198
Overviewp. 198
Dead-End and Cross-Flow Filtrationp. 201
Dead-end Filtrationp. 201
Cross-flow Filtrationp. 201
Membrane Typesp. 202
Microfiltrationp. 202
Ultrafiltrationp. 205
Nanofiltrationp. 205
Reverse Osmosisp. 206
Membrane Structurep. 206
Membrane Configurationsp. 207
Spiral Woundp. 207
Hollow Fibrep. 207
Tubularp. 208
Plate and Framep. 209
Membrane Performance Monitoringp. 213
Silt Density Indexp. 214
Assessment of Scaling Tendenciesp. 215
Membrane fluxp. 215
Permeate Recoveryp. 216
Disposal of Brine Streamsp. 217
Considerations When Selecting Membrane Systemsp. 217
Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversalp. 219
Referencesp. 219
Making a Financially Sound Business Casep. 221
Introductionp. 221
Management Functionsp. 222
Making a Good Business Casep. 222
Identifying Hidden Costsp. 224
Computing Cash Flowsp. 226
Investment Appraisal Methodsp. 228
Payback Methodp. 228
Return on Investment Methodp. 230
Discounted Cash Flow Methodsp. 230
Net Present Value Analysesp. 231
Internal Rate of Returnp. 233
Assessing Project Riskp. 233
Referencesp. 235
The Hospitality Sectorp. 236
Introductionp. 236
Benchmarking Water and Energy Consumptionp. 237
Benchmarking Water Consumptionp. 237
Benchmarking Energy Consumptionp. 238
Steps to Achieve Water Savingsp. 240
Water Management Policyp. 240
Gathering Consumption and Billing Data and Metering Water Consumptionp. 241
Identifying the Best Opportunitiesp. 241
Guest Roomsp. 241
Public Amenitiesp. 244
Kitchensp. 252
Cooling Tower: Air-Conditioning and Refrigerationp. 258
Laundryp. 259
Ice-Making Machinesp. 259
Swimming Poolsp. 262
Staff Roomsp. 262
Irrigationp. 262
Staff Awareness Programmesp. 264
Guest Awareness Programmesp. 264
Referencesp. 265
Commercial Buildings, Hospitals and Institutional Buildingsp. 267
Introductionp. 267
Commercial Property - Office and Retailp. 267
Industry Structure and Water Usagep. 267
Water-Usage Benchmarksp. 269
Energy Consumptionp. 270
Shopping Centresp. 271
Water-Saving Opportunitiesp. 272
Hospitalsp. 275
Benchmarking Water Usagep. 276
Benchmarking Energy Consumptionp. 277
Water Conservation Opportunitiesp. 278
Monitor Leakagep. 278
Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Systemsp. 279
Steam Systemsp. 279
Taps, Toilets and Urinalsp. 279
Food Preparationp. 280
In-house Laundriesp. 280
Medical Equipmentp. 281
Increase Staff Awarenessp. 285
Floor cleaningp. 285
Correctional Centresp. 285
Water Usage Benchmarksp. 286
Water Conservation Opportunitiesp. 286
Referencesp. 288
Swimming Poolsp. 291
Introductionp. 291
Swimming Pool Benchmarksp. 291
Water Conservation Opportunitiesp. 292
Reducing Leakagep. 293
Water-Efficient Fixturesp. 293
Optimising Filter Backwash Cyclesp. 294
Minimising Evaporationp. 296
Referencesp. 299
Food Processing and Beverage Industryp. 300
Introductionp. 300
Water and Energy Usagep. 301
Water Usagep. 301
Energy Usagep. 303
Understanding the Process and Where Water is Usedp. 306
Benchmarking Water Usage and Comparing it Against Best Practicep. 307
Water Minimisation Measures in the Food-Processing Industryp. 310
Avoiding Water Usagep. 310
Reducing Water Usage - Spray Nozzlesp. 312
Reducing Water Usage - Washingp. 316
Reducing Water Usage - Clean-in-Placep. 316
Reducing Water Usage - Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumpsp. 320
Reducing Water Usage - Amenities Blocksp. 325
Reducing Water Usage - Evaporative Condensers and Cooling Towersp. 325
Reducing Water Usage-Steam Systemsp. 326
Reusing Waterp. 326
Notes on Water-Reuse Applicationsp. 327
Referencesp. 328
Oil Refiningp. 330
Introductionp. 330
Oil Refining Processesp. 332
Desalting, Crude Distillation and Vacuum Distillationp. 332
Thermal and Catalytic Crackingp. 332
Hydrotreatingp. 333
Reformingp. 333
Alkylation and Polymerisationp. 333
Cokingp. 333
Blendingp. 333
Water Usagep. 335
Cooling Water Systemsp. 335
Steam Systemsp. 335
Wastewater Systemsp. 337
Energy Usagep. 338
Water Conservation Opportunitiesp. 339
Reduction in Water Consumptionp. 341
Referencesp. 342
Laundriesp. 343
Introductionp. 343
Industry Structurep. 344
Large Commercial Laundriesp. 344
Large Hospital Laundriesp. 344
Large and Small On-premise Laundriesp. 344
Types of Laundry Equipmentp. 345
Washer-Extractorp. 346
Continuous Batch Washers or Tunnel Washersp. 347
Benchmarkingp. 348
Water Conservationp. 349
Water and Energy Reusep. 349
Reuse for Wash Water Qualityp. 350
Reuse for Rinse Water Qualityp. 351
Ozone Disinfectionp. 353
Referencesp. 355
Glossary of Termsp. 357
Appendixp. 364
Worksheetsp. 364
Conversionsp. 369
Indexp. 372
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