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Best-selling authors Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell have brought simplicity to the study of argument with Practical Argument Short Third Edition. A straightforward, full-color, accessible introduction to argumentative writing, it employs an exercise-driven, step-by-step approach to get to the heart of what students need to understand argument. Practical Argument focuses on basic principles of classical argument and includes alternative approaches. Practical Argument forgoes the technical terminology that confuses students and explains concepts in understandable, everyday language, with examples that are immediately relevant to students’ lives. Thoroughly updated with exciting new topics and readings, Practical Argument is now available packaged with a LaunchPad that provides:
Interactive exercises and tutorials for reading, writing, and research
LearningCurve adaptive, game-like practice that helps students focus on the topics where they need the most help, such as fallacies, claims, evidence, and other key elements of argument
Comprehension quizzes on the readings and argument instruction
Practical Argument Short Third Edition is also available in a full version with a reader
During their long collaboration, Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell have written a number of best-selling college texts for Bedford/St. Martin's, including Patterns for College Writing, Foundations First, Writing First, Focus on Writing, and, most recently, Practical Argument.Laurie Kirszner is a Professor of English, Emeritus at the University of the Sciences, where she has taught composition, literature, creative writing, and scientific writing, and served as coordinator of the first-year writing program. Stephen Mandell is a Professor of English at Drexel University, where he founded and directed the basic writing program and has taught composition, literature, speech, and technical and business writing.
Table of Contents
Part 1—Understanding ArgumentAn Introduction to ArgumentRecognizing Arguments Why Instructors Assign Argument [box]Defining Argument What Kinds of Statements Are Not Debatable? [box]Arguments in Real LifeWinning and Losing ArgumentsThe Rhetorical SituationConsidering the WriterConsidering the PurposeConsidering the AudienceConsidering the QuestionConsidering the ContextLogos, Pathos, and Ethos The Appeal to Reason (logos) Logos in Action The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos) Pathos in Action The Appeal to Authority (ethos) Ethos in ActionThe Rhetorical TriangleThe Audience for Argument 1—The Four Pillars of ArgumentAT ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?The Elements of Argument Thesis Statement Evidence Refutation Concluding Statement Checklist: Does Your Argument Stand Up? Nia Tuckson,Why Foreign-Language Study Should Be Required [student essay] Andrew Herman, Raise the Drinking Age to Twenty-Five READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?*David Leonhardt, Is College Worth It? Clearly, New Data SayMarty Nemko, We Send Too Many Students to CollegeJennie Le, What Does It Mean to Be a College Grad?Dale Stephens, College Is a Waste of Time*Bridget Terry Long, College Is Worth It – Some of the Time*Mary C. Daly and Leila Bengali, Is It Still Worth Going to College?Tony Brummel, Practical Experience Trumps Fancy DegreesPart 2—Reading and Responding to Arguments2—Thinking and Reading CriticallyAT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? Thinking Critically Using Critical-Thinking Skills [box]Reading Critically Guidelines for Reading Critically [box]Becoming an Active ReaderPreviewing Close Reading Comprehension Clues [box]Gerard Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids Highlighting John Leo, When Life Imitates Video [student highlighting] Annotating Checklist: Questions for Annotating John Leo, When Life Imitates Video [student annotations] Jessica Robbins, Don’t Withhold Violent Games *American Psychological Association, Violence in Mass MediaWriting a Critical Response Checklist: Questions for Critical Reading Katherine Choi, Response to "When Life Imitates Video" [student response] Template for Writing a Critical Response3—Decoding Visual ArgumentsAT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? [continued] Thinking Critically about Visual Arguments Visuals versus Visual Arguments [box]Using Active Reading Strategies with Visual Arguments Comprehension Clues [box] Appeals: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos [box] Todd Davidson, Media Violence [visual] *Max Fisher, Gun-related murders and video game consumption [graphs] *Bob Engelhart, Violent Video Games [cartoon] Parenthood Library, Distribution of Language, Sex, and Violence Codes in PG-Rated Movies [chart] Boy Playing a First Person Shooter Game [photograph] Ways to Die in a Children’s Cartoon [Chart] *Lauren Dazzara, Why Gaming Is a Positive Element in Life [Infographic]Highlighting and Annotating VisualsRockstar North, Grand Theft Auto IV [advertisement] *Nate Londa, Silence the Violence [image] Responding Critically to Visual Arguments Checklist: Questions for Responding to Visual Arguments Jason Savona, Response to Grand Theft Auto IV [student response] Template for Responding to Visual Arguments4—Writing a Rhetorical AnalysisAT ISSUE: Is It Ethical to Buy Counterfeit Designer Merchandise?What Is a Rhetorical Analysis? Overview: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr. [box]Considering the Rhetorical Situation Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation [box] The Writer Analyzing the Writer [box] The Writer’s Purpose Analyzing the Writer’s Purpose [box] The Writer’s Audience Analyzing the Writer’s Audience [box] The QuestionAnalyzing the Question [box] The Context Analyzing the Context [box]Considering the Means of Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos The Appeal to Reason (logos) The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos) The Appeal to Authority (ethos)Considering the Writer’s Rhetorical Strategies Thesis Organization Evidence Stylistic TechniquesAssessing the Argument Checklist: Preparing to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Sample Rhetorical Analysis Dana Thomas, Terror's Purse Strings Deniz Bilgutay,A Powerful Call to Action [student essay] Rajeev Ravisankar, Sweatshop Oppression Template for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Nicholas D. Kristof, Where Sweatshops Are a Dream5—Understanding Logic and Recognizing Logical FallaciesAT ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be? What Is Deductive Reasoning?Constructing Sound Syllogisms Syllogism with an Illogical Middle Term Syllogism with a Key Term Whose Meaning Shifts Syllogisms with Negative PremiseRecognizing Enthymemes Bumper-Sticker Thinking [box]Writing Deductive Arguments Crystal Sanchez, College Should Be for Everyone [student essay] What Is Inductive Reasoning? Reaching Inductive Conclusions [box]Making InferencesConstructing Strong Inductive Arguments Generalization Too Broad Insufficient Evidence Irrelevant Evidence Exceptions to the Rule Writing Inductive Arguments William Saletan, Please Do Not Feed the Humans Recognizing Logical Fallacies Begging the Question Circular Reasoning Weak Analogy Ad Hominem Fallacy (Personal Attack) Creating a Straw Man Hasty or Sweeping Generalization (Jumping to a Conclusion) Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma) Equivocation Red Herring Slippery Slope You Also (Tu Quoque) Appeal to Doubtful Authority Misuse of Statistics Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This) Non Sequitur (It Does Not Follow) Bandwagon Fallacy Patrick J. Buchanan, Immigration Time-Out READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: *How Free Should Free Speech Be? *Thane Rosenbaum, Should Neo-Nazis Be Allowed Free Speech?*Sol Stern, The Unfree Speech Movement*American Association of University Professors, On Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes*Wendy Kaminer, Progressive Ideas Have Killed Free Speech on Campus *Judith Shulevitz, In College and Hiding from Scary Ideas *Eric Posner, Universities Are Right to Crack Down on Speech and BehaviorTemplate for Writing a Deductive ArgumentTemplate for Writing an Inductive Argument6—Rogerian Argument, Toulmin Logic, and Oral Arguments AT ISSUE: Is Online Education Better than Classroom Education?Understanding Rogerian ArgumentStructuring Rogerian ArgumentsWriting Rogerian Arguments Zoya Kahn, Why Cell Phones Do Not Belong in the Classroom [student essay] Understanding Toulmin LogicConstructing Toulmin ArgumentsWriting Toulmin Arguments Jen Davis,Competitive Cheerleaders Are Athletes [student essay] Understanding Oral ArgumentsPlanning an Oral ArgumentChecklist: Designing and Displaying Visuals Delivering Oral ArgumentsDealing with Nervousness [box]Composing an Oral Argument Chantee Steele, An Argument in Support of the "Gap Year" [student speech] READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Online Education Better Than Classroom Education? *Scott Newstok,A Plea for Close Learning *CollegeDegreeSearch.net, The Evolution of Online Learning (Infographic) Chris Bustamante, The Risks and Rewards of Online Learning David Smith, Reliance on Online Materials Hinders Learning Potential for Students Elena Kadvany, Online Education Needs Connection John Crisp, Short Distance Learning *Ray McNulty,Old Flames and New Beacons *Pete Rorabaugh,Trading Classroom Authority for Online CommunityTemplate for Writing a Rogerian ArgumentTemplate for Writng a Toulmin ArgumentPart 3—Writing an Argumentative Essay7—Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argumentative Essay AT ISSUE: Should College Campuses Go Green?Choosing a Topic Topics to Avoid [box]Thinking about Your Topic Freewriting Brainstorming Clustering Informal OutlineDrafting a Thesis StatementUnderstanding Your Purpose and AudienceGathering Evidence Evaluating the Evidence in Your Sources Detecting Bias in Your SourcesRefuting Opposing ArgumentsUsing Analogies as Evidence [box]Strategies for Refuting Opposing ArgumentsRevising Your Thesis StatementStructuring Your Essay Supplying Background Information [box] Using Induction and Deduction Identifying a Strategy for Your Argument Constructing a Formal OutlineEstablishing Credibility Being Well-Informed Being Reasonable Being Fair Maintaining Your Credibility [box]Drafting Your Essay Suggested Transitions for Argument [box]GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using ParallelismRevising Your Essay Asking QuestionsChecklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Structure and StyleChecklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Supporting EvidenceChecklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Purpose and Audience Using Outlines and Templates Getting Feedback Adding VisualsPolishing Your Essay EditingGRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement ProofreadingGRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Contractions vs. Possessive Pronouns Choosing a Title Checking FormatShawn Holton, Going Green [student essay]Part 4—Using Sources to Support Your Argument8—Finding and Evaluating SourcesAT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy?Finding Sources Finding Information in the Library Finding Information OnlineEvaluating SourcesEvaluating Print Sources Nicholas Thompson, Bigger Brother: The Exponential Law of Privacy LossUSA Today Editorial Board, Time To Enact "Do Not Track" *Rebecca MacKinnon,Privacy and Facebook Evaluating Online Sources Using a Site’s URL to Assess Its Objectivity [box] Avoiding Confirmation Bias [box] *The Chronicle of Higher Education, Home Page [website] *Glamour Magazine,Home Page [website] *The Chronicle of Higher Education,About the Chronicle [website] *Glamour Magazine,About Glamour [website] *Jonathan Mahler, Who Spewed That Abuse? Anonymous YikYak App Isn’t Telling *Jennifer Golbeck, All Eyes on You *Craig Desson, My Creepy Instagram Map Knows Where I Live *Sharon Jayson,Is Online Dating Safe? *Sam Laird,Should Athletes Have Social Media Privacy? One Bill Says Yes9—Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing SourcesAT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy? (continued)Summarizing Sources When to Summarize [box] Summarizing Sources [box]Paraphrasing Sources When to Paraphrase [box] Paraphrasing Sources [box]Quoting Sources When to Quote [box] Quoting Sources [box] *Shelley Fralic, Don’t Fall for the Myths about Online PrivacyWorking Source Material into Your Argument Using Identifying Tags Template for Using Identifying Tags [box] Working Quotations into Your Sentences Misrepresenting Quotations [box]Synthesizing Sources10—Documenting Sources: MLA Using Parenthetical ReferencesPreparing the Works-Cited List Periodicals Guidelines for Citing a Periodical Article Books Guidelines for Citing a BookAudiovisual Sources Internet Sources Guidelines for Citing a Website Legal Case Government DocumentMLA Paper Guidelines [box] Erin Blaine, Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be "Fair Game" for Employers? [Model MLA Paper] 11—Using Sources ResponsiblyAT ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?Understanding Plagiarism Two Definitions of Plagiarism [box]Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism Online Sources and Plagiarism [box] Intentional Plagiarism [box]Knowing What to Document Loos Diallo, Plagiarism Policy [image] Austin American-Statesman, Cheaters Never Win Revising to Eliminate PlagiarismREADING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism? Jack Shafer, Sidebar: Comparing the Copy Lawrence M. Hinman, How to Fight College Cheating Trip Gabriel, Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age Elizabeth Minkel, Too Hard Not to Cheat in the Internet Age? Richard A. Posner, The Truth about Plagiarism *Dylan Byers,Plagiarism and BuzzFeed’s Achilles’ Heel *K. Balibalos and J. Gopalakrishnan,OK or Not? *Dan Ariely, Essay Mills: A Course Lesson in CheatingTerm Papers for Sale Advertisement[Web page]Template for Writing an Argument about Plagiarism Writing Assignments: Avoiding PlagiarismAppendix A—Writing Literary ArgumentsWhat Is a Literary Argument?Stating an Argumentative ThesisChoosing EvidenceWriting a Literary ArgumentMegan McGovern,Confessions of a Misunderstood Poem: An Analysis of "The Road Not Taken" [student essay] Loren Martinez, Not Just a "Girl"[student essay] Appendix B—Documenting Sources: APAUsing Parenthetical ReferencesPreparing a Reference ListExamples of APA Citations Periodicals Books Internet SourcesDeniz A. Bilgutay, The High Cost of Cheap Counterfeit Goods [student essay] GlossarySubject Index Index of Titles and Authors