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Practical Research : Planning and Design,9780131108950
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Practical Research : Planning and Design

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131108950

ISBN10:
0131108956
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $74.20

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Summary

Written in uncommonly engaging, lucid, and elegant prose, this book is an "understand-it-yourself, do-it-yourself" manual designed to help readers understand the fundamental structure of quality research and the methodical process that leads to genuinely significant results. It guides the reader, step-by-step, from the selection of a problem to study, through the process of conducting authentic research, to the preparation of a completed report, with practical suggestions based on a solid theoretical framework and sound pedagogy. This book will show readers two things: 1) that quality research demands planning and design; and, 2) how their own research projects can be executed effectively and professionally.For researchers and research analysts in any discipline.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxi
Part I The Fundamentals
What Is Research?
1(11)
What Research Is Not
1(1)
What Research Is
2(5)
Discovering the Discipline of Research
7(2)
Browsing the Periodicals Section of the Library
8(1)
Finding Journals on the Internet
8(1)
Practical Application: Evaluating the Research of Others
9(2)
Checklist: Reflective Questions to Consider When Evaluating Research
9(1)
Guidelines: Benefiting from Others' Research
10(1)
For Further Reading
11(1)
Tools of Research
12(31)
General Tools of Research
12(1)
The Library and Its Resources as a Tool of Research
13(4)
The Library of the Quiet Past
13(1)
The Library of the Stormy Present
14(1)
How to Access Information Quickly and Efficiently
14(3)
The Computer and Its Software as a Tool of Research
17(3)
Taking Advantage of the Internet
17(2)
Accessing the Internet
19(1)
Learning More About the Internet
19(1)
Practical Application: Using the Internet to Facilitate Communication
20(1)
Practical Application: Using E-mail
20(1)
Guidelines: Getting Started on E-mail
21(1)
Measurement as a Tool of Research
21(8)
Measuring Insubstantial Phenomena: An Example
22(2)
Interpretation of the Data
24(1)
Four Scales of Measurement
25(2)
Validity and Reliability of Measurement
27(2)
Statistics as a Tool of Research
29(2)
The Lure of Statistics
30(1)
Primary Functions of Statistics
30(1)
The Human Mind as a Tool of Research
31(3)
Deductive Logic
31(1)
Inductive Reasoning
32(1)
The Scientific Method
33(1)
Critical Thinking
33(1)
Collaboration with Others
34(1)
Language as a Tool of Research
34(2)
The Value of Knowing Two or More Languages
35(1)
The Importance of Writing
36(1)
Practical Application: Communicating Effectively Through Writing
36(4)
Guidelines: Writing to Communicate
36(2)
Using Technology Guidelines: Using a Word Processor
38(2)
Practical Application: Identifying Important Tools in Your Discipline
40(1)
Checklist: Interviewing an Expert Researcher
40(1)
Reflections on Significant Research
41(1)
For Further Reading
41(2)
Part II Focusing Your Research Efforts
The Problem: The Heart of the Research Process
43(21)
Finding Research Projects
43(2)
Practical Application: Identifying and Describing the Research Problem
45(6)
Guidelines: Finding a Legitimate Problem
45(2)
Guidelines: Stating the Research Problem
47(3)
Checklist: Evaluating the Research Problem
50(1)
Dividing the Research Problem into Subproblems
51(3)
Subproblems Versus PseudoSubproblems
51(1)
Characteristics of Subproblems
51(1)
Identifying Subproblems
52(2)
Every Problem Needs Further Delineation
54(3)
Stating the Hypotheses and/or Research Questions
54(1)
Delimiting the Research
55(1)
Defining the Terms
55(1)
Stating the Assumptions
56(1)
Importance of the Study
57(1)
Ordering the Topics in a Research Proposal
57(1)
A Sample Research Proposal
57(3)
Practical Application: Writing the First Sections of a Proposal
60(2)
Checklist: Evaluating Your Proposed Research Project
60(2)
Practical Application: Reappraising a Proposed Research Problem
62(1)
Guidelines: Fine-Tuning Your Research Problem
62(1)
For Further Reading
63(1)
Review of the Related Literature
64(21)
Understanding the Role of the Review
64(1)
Sources and Strategies for Locating Related Literature
65(6)
Using the Library Catalog
65(1)
Using Indexes, Abstracts, and Other General References
66(1)
Using Online Databases
67(2)
Additional Strategies for Zeroing in on Relevant Literature
69(2)
Practical Application: Conducting a Literature Search
71(4)
Guidelines: Using Your Library Time Efficiently
72(3)
Organizing the Information You Have Collected
75(1)
Creating Computer Databases
75(1)
Knowing When to Quit
76(1)
Practical Application: Beginning Your Review of the Related Literature
76(1)
Evaluating, Organizing, and Synthesizing the Literature
77(2)
Practical Application: Writing the Section on the Related Literature
79(2)
Guidelines: Writing a Clear and Cohesive Review
79(2)
A Sample Research Proposal
81(3)
For Further Reading
84(1)
Planning Your Research Project
85(30)
Planning a General Approach
85(3)
The Basic Format of All Research
85(2)
Research Planning Versus Research Methodology
87(1)
General Criteria for a Research Project
88(1)
The Nature and Role of Data in Research
88(5)
What Are Data?
88(1)
Data Are Transient and Ever Changing
89(1)
Primary Data Versus Secondary Data
89(2)
Criteria for the Admissibility of Data
91(1)
Identifying Appropriate Measurement Instruments
91(2)
Linking Data and Research Methodology
93(4)
Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
94(3)
Considering the Validity of Your Method
97(4)
Internal Validity
97(2)
External Validity
99(1)
Validity in Qualitative Research
100(1)
Ethical Issues in Research
101(3)
Protection from Harm
101(1)
Informed Consent
101(1)
Right to Privacy
102(1)
Honesty with Professional Colleagues
102(1)
Internal Review Boards
102(2)
Professional Codes of Ethics
104(1)
Planning for Data Collection
104(1)
Practical Application: Choosing a Research Approach
105(2)
Guidelines: Deciding Whether to Use a Quantitative or Qualitative Approach
105(2)
Practical Application: Judging the Feasibility of a Research Project
107(3)
Checklist: Determining Whether a Proposed Research Project Is Realistic and Practical
107(3)
When You Can't Anticipate Everything in Advance: The Value of a Pilot Study
110(1)
Practical Application: Establishing Research Criteria and Justifying Your Research Methodology
110(1)
Practical Application: Developing a Plan of Attack
111(2)
Using Project Management Software and Electronic Planners
113(1)
Keeping an Optimistic and Task-Oriented Outlook
113(1)
For Further Reading
113(2)
Writing the Research Proposal
115(18)
Researcher and Architect: Planners in Common
115(1)
Characteristics of a Proposal
116(3)
A Proposal Is a Straightforward Document
117(1)
A Proposal Is Not a Literary Production
117(1)
A Proposal Is Clearly Organized
117(2)
Organizing a Research Proposal
119(2)
Formatting Headings and Subheadings
120(1)
Practical Application: Writing Your Proposal
121(5)
Guidelines: Writing the First Draft
121(3)
Guidelines: Revising Your Proposal
124(2)
Common Weaknesses in Research Proposals
126(1)
Practical Application: Strengthening Your Proposal
127(1)
Checklist: Features Detracting from Proposal Effectiveness
127(1)
Final Thoughts About Proposal Writing
128(1)
A Sample Research Proposal
129(3)
For Further Reading
132(1)
Part III Qualitative Research Methodologies
Qualitative Research
133(28)
The Nature of the Research Problem and Planning in Qualitative Research
134(1)
When to Choose a Qualitative Approach
134(1)
Qualitative Research Designs
135(8)
Case Study
135(2)
Ethnography
137(2)
Phenomenological Study
139(1)
Grounded Theory Study
140(2)
Content Analysis
142(1)
Collecting Data in Qualitative Research
143(3)
Sampling
144(1)
Observations
145(1)
Interviews
146(1)
Practical Application: Conducting Interviews in a Qualitative Study
146(4)
Guidelines: Conducting a Productive Interview
147(2)
Using Technology to Facilitate Data Collection and Transcription
149(1)
Organizing and Analyzing the Data from Qualitative Studies
150(2)
Using Computer Databases to Facilitate Data Organization and Interpretation
151(1)
Practical Application: Planning a Qualitative Study
152(2)
Checklist: Planning a Qualitative Study
152(2)
Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
154(1)
Practical Application: Evaluating a Qualitative Study
155(1)
Checklist: Evaluating Qualitative Research Studies
155(1)
A Sample Dissertation
156(4)
For Further Reading
160(1)
Historical Research
161(18)
Data Sources in Historical Research
162(4)
Collecting Historical Records
165(1)
Online Databases About Historical Events
165(1)
Practical Application: Handling Historical Data Systematically
166(1)
A Paper-and-Pencil Approach
166(1)
A Computerized Approach to Collecting and Organizing Your Data
166(1)
Evaluating and Interpreting Historical Data
167(1)
External Evidence
167(1)
Internal Evidence
167(1)
Considering Historical Time and Historical Space
168(4)
Historical Time
169(1)
Historical Space
170(2)
Psychological or Conceptual Historical Research
172(1)
The Fascination of Searching for Roots
172(1)
Practical Application: Historical Research Writing
172(2)
Checklist: Comparing Two Records of a Significant Event in History
173(1)
Guidelines: Writing the Historical Research Report
174(1)
A Sample Dissertation
174(3)
For Further Reading
177(2)
Part IV Quantitative Research Methodologies
Descriptive Research
179(38)
Descriptive Research Designs
179(6)
Observation Studies
179(1)
Correlational Research
180(2)
Developmental Designs
182(1)
Survey Research
183(2)
Using Checklists and Rating Scales
185(2)
Practical Application: Planning and Conducting Interviews
187(3)
Guidelines: Conducting Interviews in a Quantitative Study
187(1)
An Example in International Relations
188(2)
Practical Application: Constructing and Administering a Questionnaire
190(7)
Guidelines: Constructing a Questionnaire
190(2)
Guidelines: Maximizing Your Return Rate for a Mailed Questionnaire
192(4)
Using Databases, Word Processing, and Mail Merge in Developing Questionnaire Materials
196(1)
Using Scanners to Facilitate Data Tabulation
197(1)
Practical Application: Computerizing Data Collection in Descriptive Research
197(1)
Choosing a Sample in a Descriptive Study
198(12)
Sampling Designs
199(7)
Sampling in Surveys of Very Large Populations
206(1)
Identifying a Sufficient Sample Size
207(1)
Bias in Research Sampling
208(2)
Practical Application: Population Analysis for a Descriptive Survey
210(2)
Checklist: Analyzing a Population
211(1)
Interpreting Data in Descriptive Research
212(1)
Some Final Suggestions
212(1)
A Sample Dissertation
212(4)
For Further Reading
216(1)
Experimental and Ex Post Facto Designs
217(28)
Independent and Dependent Variables
218(1)
The Importance of Control
219(3)
Overview of Experimental and Ex Post Facto Designs
222(1)
Pre-Experimental Designs
223(2)
Design 1: One-Shot Experimental Case Study
223(1)
Design 2: One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
224(1)
Design 3: Static Group Comparison
224(1)
True Experimental Designs
225(2)
Design 4: Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
225(1)
Design 5: Solomon Four-Group Design
225(1)
Design 6: Posttest-Only Control Group Design
226(1)
Design 7: Within-Subjects Design
226(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
227(5)
Design 8: Nonrandomized Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design
227(1)
Design 9: Simple Time-Series Design
228(1)
Design 10: Control Group, Time-Series Design
228(1)
Design 11: Reversal Time-Series Design
229(1)
Design 12: Alternating Treatment Design
229(1)
Design 13: Multiple Baseline Design
229(2)
Using Designs 11, 12, and 13 in Single-Subject Studies
231(1)
Ex Post Facto Designs
232(1)
Design 14: Simple Ex Post Facto Design
232(1)
Factorial Designs
233(5)
Design 15: Randomized Two-Factor Design
233(1)
Design 16: Combined Experimental and Ex Post Facto Design
233(5)
Meta-Analyses
238(1)
Conducting Experiments on the Internet
239(1)
Testing Your Hypotheses, and Beyond
239(1)
Practical Application: Identifying Research Designs
239(1)
A Sample Dissertation
240(4)
For Further Reading
244(1)
Statistical Techniques for Analyzing Quantitative Data
245(37)
Exploring and Organizing a Data Set
245(6)
Organizing Data to Make Them Easier to Think About and Interpret
248(1)
Using Computer Spreadsheets to Organize and Analyze Data
249(2)
Choosing Appropriate Statistics
251(6)
Functions of Statistics
252(1)
Considering the Nature of the Data
253(4)
Descriptive Statistics
257(10)
Points of Central Tendency
257(4)
Measures of Variability: Dispersion and Deviation
261(4)
Measures of Relationship: Correlation
265(2)
Inferential Statistics
267(8)
Estimating Population Parameters
267(3)
Testing Hypotheses
270(3)
Meta-Analysis
273(2)
Using Statistical Software Packages
275(1)
Interpreting the Data
276(1)
A Sample Dissertation
277(2)
Practical Application: Analyzing Data in a Quantitative Study
279(2)
Checklist: Questions to Consider When Choosing a Statistical Procedure
280(1)
For Further Reading
281(1)
Part V Preparing the Research Report
Technical Details: Style, Format, and Organization of the Research Report
282(27)
Getting Started
282(2)
``Surfing'' the Internet for Writing Assistance
283(1)
Learn by Looking
283(1)
Planning a Research Report
284(4)
Description of the Research Problem
284(1)
Description of the Method
285(1)
Presentation of the Data
285(1)
Interpretation of the Data
286(1)
Concluding the Report
287(1)
A Graphic Organizer for the Research Report
288(1)
Front Matter and End Matter
289(3)
Preliminary Pages
289(1)
Endnotes and Footnotes
290(1)
Reference List
290(2)
Appendix Content
292(1)
Organizing the Research Report
292(3)
Preparing the Report
295(1)
Style of Prose
295(1)
Principles of Writing
295(1)
Practical Application: Developing a Writing Schedule
296(2)
Guidelines: Developing a Workable Schedule
297(1)
Practical Application: Critiquing a Research Report
298(2)
Checklist: Criteria for Critiquing a Research Report
298(2)
Beyond the Unpublished Research Report: Presenting and Publishing
300(1)
Paper Presentations
300(1)
Journal Articles
300(1)
Sharing Authorship
301(1)
A Closing Thought
301(1)
For Further Reading
301(2)
Appendix Using SPSS
Creating a Data Set
303(2)
Computing Basic Descriptive Statistics
305(1)
Computing Inferential Statistics
306(3)
References 309(4)
Index 313


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