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Practical Statistics for Educators,9780761815945

Practical Statistics for Educators

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780761815945

ISBN10:
0761815945
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc
List Price: $39.95

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Summary

This book teaches basic statistics to educators in a clear, concise format. Using examples related to the school and the classroom, it impels the student to better grasp and appreciate the application of statistics to education. The second edition offers a more comprehensive text for students in statistics courses who have to carry out a research project, or for educators who want to study their own practice. It includes two new chapters-an overview of research designs, and a guide for students as they conduct their own research project. The focus is on understanding concepts, the rationale for applying and using the various statistics, and the interpretation of the results. Practical Statistics for Educators is accompanied by the second edition of Workbook to Accompany Practical Statistics for Educators.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Part One: Introduction
An Overview of Educational Research
1(34)
Basic (Pure), Applied, and Action Research
1(2)
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
3(3)
Experimental vs. Nonexperimental Research
6(22)
Experimental Research
6(4)
Threats to Internal Validity
10(3)
Threats to External Validity
13(1)
Comparing Groups
14(6)
Comparing Individuals
20(5)
Nonexperimental Research
25(3)
Summary
28(7)
Basic Concepts in Measurement and Sampling
35(28)
Variables and Measurement Scales
35(5)
Nominal Scale
37(1)
Ordinal Scale
37(1)
Interval Scale
38(1)
Ratio Scale
38(1)
Comparing the Four Scales
39(1)
Populations and Samples
40(1)
Parameters and Statistics
41(1)
Methods of Sampling
42(3)
Simple Random Sample
42(1)
Systematic Sample
43(1)
Stratified Sample
44(1)
Cluster Sample
44(1)
Incidental (Convenience) Sample
45(1)
Sample Bias
45(2)
Size of Sample
47(1)
Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics
47(1)
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
48(1)
The Process of the Statistical Hypothesis Testing
49(2)
Probability and Level of Significance
51(2)
Errors in Decision Making
53(1)
Degrees of Freedom
53(1)
``And Finally...''
54(1)
Summary
54(9)
Part Two: Descriptive Statistics
Organizing and Graphing Data
63(28)
Organizing Data
63(7)
Grouped Distributions
65(2)
Cumulative Frequency Distributions
67(3)
Graphing Data
70(18)
Histogram and Frequency Polygon
70(5)
Graphing Cumulative Distributions
75(1)
Pie Graph
76(2)
Bar Diagram (Bar Graph)
78(3)
Line Graph
81(1)
Pictogram
82(2)
Stem-and-Leaf Diagram
84(1)
Box Plot
85(3)
Summary
88(3)
Measures of Central Tendency
91(12)
Mode
91(2)
Median
93(1)
Mean
94(2)
Comparing the Mode, Median and Mean
96(4)
The Mean of Combined Groups
98(2)
Calculating the Mode, Median and Mean: A Summary of the Steps
100(1)
Summary
101(2)
Measures of Variability
103(12)
The Range
105(1)
Standard Deviation and Variance
105(6)
Using the Variance and SD
107(2)
Factors Affecting the Variance and SD
109(1)
Comparing the Variance and SD for Populations and Samples
110(1)
Summary
111(4)
Part Three: The Normal Curve and Standard Scores
The Normal Curve and Standard Scores
115(16)
The Normal Curve
115(4)
Standard Scores
119(9)
Z Scores
120(3)
T Scores
123(1)
Other Converted Scores
124(1)
The Normal Curve and Percentile Ranks
125(3)
Summary
128(3)
Interpreting Test Scores
131(12)
Norm-Referenced Tests
132(5)
Percentile Ranks
133(2)
Stanines
135(1)
Grade Equivalents
136(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
137(1)
Summary
138(5)
Part Four: Measuring Relationships
Correlation
143(24)
Graphing Correlation
143(4)
Pearson Product Moment
147(8)
Evaluating the Correlation Coefficient
149(1)
Hypotheses for Correlation
150(1)
Computing Pearson Correlation
150(5)
Factors Affecting Correlation
155(2)
Further Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient
157(1)
Intercorrelation Tables
158(3)
Correlation Tables
161(1)
Spearman Rank-Order Correlation
162(3)
Summary
165(2)
Prediction and Regression
167(20)
Simple Regression
169(12)
The Standard Error of Estimate, SE
172(2)
An Example of Simple Regression
174(5)
Graphing the Regression Equation
179(1)
The Coefficient of Determination, r2
180(1)
Multiple Regression
181(2)
Summary
183(4)
Part Five: Inferential Statistics
T-Test
187(16)
Hypotheses for T-Test
188(2)
Using the T-Test
190(11)
T-Test for Independent Samples
191(4)
T-Test for Paired (Dependent) Samples
195(3)
T-Test for a Single Sample
198(3)
Summary
201(2)
Analysis of Variance
203(26)
One-Way ANOVA
205(14)
Hypotheses for One-Way ANOVA
205(1)
Conceptualizing One-Way ANOVA
205(2)
Steps in the Computation of ANOVA
207(4)
Further Interpretation of the F-Ratio
211(1)
An Example of One-Way ANOVA
212(3)
The One-Way ANOVA Summary Table
215(2)
Post Hoc Comparisons
217(2)
Two-Way ANOVA
219(1)
Conceptualizing Two-Way ANOVA
219(8)
Hypotheses for Two-Way ANOVA
220(1)
Graphing the Interaction
221(2)
The Two-Way ANOVA Summary Table
223(1)
An Example of a Two-Way ANOVA
224(3)
Sumary
227(2)
Chi Square
229(20)
Assumptions Required for Chi Square
230(1)
Using Chi Square
231(1)
One Variable Chi Square: Goodness of Fit Test
231(7)
Equal Expected Frequencies
231(4)
Unequal Expected Frequencies
235(3)
Chi Square for Two Variables: Test of Independence
238(3)
Using Percentages in Chi Square
241(1)
Sample Size
242(1)
Computation of Expected Frequencies for Chi Square with Two Variables
243(2)
Summary
245(4)
Part Six: Reliability and Validity
Reliability
249(14)
Understanding the Theory of Reliability
250(1)
Methods of Assessing Reliability
251(5)
Test-Retest
251(1)
Alternate Forms
252(1)
Measures of Internal Consistency
253(3)
Inter-Scorer Reliability
256(1)
The Standard Error of Measurement
256(2)
Factors Affecting Reliability
258(1)
Heterogeneity
258(1)
Test Length
258(1)
Difficulty of Items
259(1)
Quality of Items
259(1)
How High Should the Reliability Be?
259(1)
Summary
260(3)
Validity
263(12)
Content Validity
264(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
265(2)
Concurrent Validity
265(1)
Predictive Validity
266(1)
Construct Validity
267(1)
Face Validity
268(1)
Assessing Validity
269(1)
Test Bias
269(1)
Summary
270(5)
Part Seven: Conducting Your Own Research
Planning and Conducting Research Studies
275(20)
Research Ethics
277(1)
The Research Proposal
278(8)
Introduction
280(2)
Literature Review
282(1)
Methodology
283(1)
Data Analysis
283(2)
References
285(1)
The Research Report
286(3)
Results
287(1)
Discussion
288(1)
Additional Comments
289(1)
Summary
290(5)
Part Eight: Putting It All Together
Simulations and Examples
295(61)
Introduction
295(1)
Choosing a Statistical Test: A Decision Flowchart
296(3)
Sample Passages and a Step-by-Step Explanation of the Answers
299(2)
Sample Passage 1
299(1)
Answer
299(1)
Sample Passage 2
300(1)
Answer
300(1)
Simulation Passages
301(9)
Answers
310(25)
Appendixes
Appendix Table A: Areas and Ordinates of the Normal Curve in Terms of x/σ
335(6)
Appendix Table B: Values of the Correlations Coefficient (Pearson's r) for Different Levels of Significance
341(1)
Appendix Table C: Distribution of t
342(1)
Appendix Table D: the 5 Percent and 1 Percent Points for the Distribution of F
343(8)
Appendix Table E: Distribution of Studentized Range Statistic
351(4)
Appendix Table F: Distribution of Chi Square
355(1)
Glossary of Symbols 356(2)
Glossary of Formulas 358(7)
Index 365


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