Preface 

xi  
Part One: Introduction 


An Overview of Educational Research 


1  (34) 

Basic (Pure), Applied, and Action Research 


1  (2) 

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research 


3  (3) 

Experimental vs. Nonexperimental Research 


6  (22) 


6  (4) 

Threats to Internal Validity 


10  (3) 

Threats to External Validity 


13  (1) 


14  (6) 


20  (5) 


25  (3) 


28  (7) 

Basic Concepts in Measurement and Sampling 


35  (28) 

Variables and Measurement Scales 


35  (5) 


37  (1) 


37  (1) 


38  (1) 


38  (1) 

Comparing the Four Scales 


39  (1) 


40  (1) 

Parameters and Statistics 


41  (1) 


42  (3) 


42  (1) 


43  (1) 


44  (1) 


44  (1) 

Incidental (Convenience) Sample 


45  (1) 


45  (2) 


47  (1) 

Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics 


47  (1) 

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 


48  (1) 

The Process of the Statistical Hypothesis Testing 


49  (2) 

Probability and Level of Significance 


51  (2) 

Errors in Decision Making 


53  (1) 


53  (1) 


54  (1) 


54  (9) 
Part Two: Descriptive Statistics 


Organizing and Graphing Data 


63  (28) 


63  (7) 


65  (2) 

Cumulative Frequency Distributions 


67  (3) 


70  (18) 

Histogram and Frequency Polygon 


70  (5) 

Graphing Cumulative Distributions 


75  (1) 


76  (2) 


78  (3) 


81  (1) 


82  (2) 


84  (1) 


85  (3) 


88  (3) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


91  (12) 


91  (2) 


93  (1) 


94  (2) 

Comparing the Mode, Median and Mean 


96  (4) 

The Mean of Combined Groups 


98  (2) 

Calculating the Mode, Median and Mean: A Summary of the Steps 


100  (1) 


101  (2) 


103  (12) 


105  (1) 

Standard Deviation and Variance 


105  (6) 

Using the Variance and SD 


107  (2) 

Factors Affecting the Variance and SD 


109  (1) 

Comparing the Variance and SD for Populations and Samples 


110  (1) 


111  (4) 
Part Three: The Normal Curve and Standard Scores 


The Normal Curve and Standard Scores 


115  (16) 


115  (4) 


119  (9) 


120  (3) 


123  (1) 


124  (1) 

The Normal Curve and Percentile Ranks 


125  (3) 


128  (3) 


131  (12) 


132  (5) 


133  (2) 


135  (1) 


136  (1) 

CriterionReferenced Tests 


137  (1) 


138  (5) 
Part Four: Measuring Relationships 



143  (24) 


143  (4) 


147  (8) 

Evaluating the Correlation Coefficient 


149  (1) 

Hypotheses for Correlation 


150  (1) 

Computing Pearson Correlation 


150  (5) 

Factors Affecting Correlation 


155  (2) 

Further Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient 


157  (1) 


158  (3) 


161  (1) 

Spearman RankOrder Correlation 


162  (3) 


165  (2) 

Prediction and Regression 


167  (20) 


169  (12) 

The Standard Error of Estimate, SE 


172  (2) 

An Example of Simple Regression 


174  (5) 

Graphing the Regression Equation 


179  (1) 

The Coefficient of Determination, r2 


180  (1) 


181  (2) 


183  (4) 
Part Five: Inferential Statistics 



187  (16) 


188  (2) 


190  (11) 

TTest for Independent Samples 


191  (4) 

TTest for Paired (Dependent) Samples 


195  (3) 

TTest for a Single Sample 


198  (3) 


201  (2) 


203  (26) 


205  (14) 

Hypotheses for OneWay ANOVA 


205  (1) 

Conceptualizing OneWay ANOVA 


205  (2) 

Steps in the Computation of ANOVA 


207  (4) 

Further Interpretation of the FRatio 


211  (1) 

An Example of OneWay ANOVA 


212  (3) 

The OneWay ANOVA Summary Table 


215  (2) 


217  (2) 


219  (1) 

Conceptualizing TwoWay ANOVA 


219  (8) 

Hypotheses for TwoWay ANOVA 


220  (1) 


221  (2) 

The TwoWay ANOVA Summary Table 


223  (1) 

An Example of a TwoWay ANOVA 


224  (3) 


227  (2) 


229  (20) 

Assumptions Required for Chi Square 


230  (1) 


231  (1) 

One Variable Chi Square: Goodness of Fit Test 


231  (7) 

Equal Expected Frequencies 


231  (4) 

Unequal Expected Frequencies 


235  (3) 

Chi Square for Two Variables: Test of Independence 


238  (3) 

Using Percentages in Chi Square 


241  (1) 


242  (1) 

Computation of Expected Frequencies for Chi Square with Two Variables 


243  (2) 


245  (4) 
Part Six: Reliability and Validity 



249  (14) 

Understanding the Theory of Reliability 


250  (1) 

Methods of Assessing Reliability 


251  (5) 


251  (1) 


252  (1) 

Measures of Internal Consistency 


253  (3) 


256  (1) 

The Standard Error of Measurement 


256  (2) 

Factors Affecting Reliability 


258  (1) 


258  (1) 


258  (1) 


259  (1) 


259  (1) 

How High Should the Reliability Be? 


259  (1) 


260  (3) 


263  (12) 


264  (1) 

CriterionRelated Validity 


265  (2) 


265  (1) 


266  (1) 


267  (1) 


268  (1) 


269  (1) 


269  (1) 


270  (5) 
Part Seven: Conducting Your Own Research 


Planning and Conducting Research Studies 


275  (20) 


277  (1) 


278  (8) 


280  (2) 


282  (1) 


283  (1) 


283  (2) 


285  (1) 


286  (3) 


287  (1) 


288  (1) 


289  (1) 


290  (5) 
Part Eight: Putting It All Together 



295  (61) 


295  (1) 

Choosing a Statistical Test: A Decision Flowchart 


296  (3) 

Sample Passages and a StepbyStep Explanation of the Answers 


299  (2) 


299  (1) 


299  (1) 


300  (1) 


300  (1) 


301  (9) 


310  (25) 
Appendixes 


Appendix Table A: Areas and Ordinates of the Normal Curve in Terms of x/σ 


335  (6) 

Appendix Table B: Values of the Correlations Coefficient (Pearson's r) for Different Levels of Significance 


341  (1) 

Appendix Table C: Distribution of t 


342  (1) 

Appendix Table D: the 5 Percent and 1 Percent Points for the Distribution of F 


343  (8) 

Appendix Table E: Distribution of Studentized Range Statistic 


351  (4) 

Appendix Table F: Distribution of Chi Square 


355  (1) 
Glossary of Symbols 

356  (2) 
Glossary of Formulas 

358  (7) 
Index 

365  