Preface 

ix  

What Is an Argument? (And What Is Not?) 


1  (28) 


1  (2) 


3  (4) 

Where and How Do You Find Arguments? 


7  (3) 

Why Are Arguments Important? 


10  (2) 


12  (6) 

Argument and Explanation: What's the Difference? 


18  (11) 


27  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


27  (1) 


28  (1) 

Pinning Down Argument Structure 


29  (39) 

Standardizing an Argument 


29  (5) 

From Colloquial Writing to Standardized Form 


34  (4) 

General Strategies for Standardizing Arguments 


38  (5) 

Important Details about Conclusions 


43  (8) 

Important Details about Premises 


51  (9) 

The Principle of Charity in Argument Interpretation 


60  (8) 


64  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


65  (1) 


66  (2) 

When Is an Argument a Good One? 


68  (32) 


68  (3) 

More on the (R) and (G) Conditions: Reasoning from Premises to Conclusions 


71  (4) 

Using the ARG Conditions to Evaluate Arguments 


75  (6) 

The Significance of Argument Evaluation 


81  (4) 

The Challenge of Argument 


85  (7) 

Evaluating Arguments and Constructing Your Own Arguments 


92  (2) 


94  (6) 


96  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


97  (2) 


99  (1) 


100  (38) 


103  (13) 

Further Features of Language 


116  (10) 

Clarity and Audience: The Problem of Jargon 


126  (12) 


133  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


134  (2) 


136  (2) 

Premises: What to Accept and Why 


138  (36) 


138  (2) 

When Premises Are Acceptable 


140  (14) 

Summary of Acceptability Conditions 


154  (2) 

When Premises Are Unacceptable 


156  (9) 

Summary of Unacceptability Conditions 


165  (9) 


169  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


170  (2) 


172  (2) 


174  (41) 

Characteristics of Relevance 


174  (3) 

Some Ways of Being Relevant 


177  (4) 

Irrelevance: Some General Comments 


181  (6) 

Fallacies Involving Irrelevance 


187  (16) 

Irrelevance, Missing Premises, and Argument Criticism 


203  (5) 

Emotional Appeals, Irrelevance, and Distraction 


208  (7) 


211  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


211  (2) 


213  (2) 

Deductions: Categorical Logic 


215  (38) 


215  (3) 


218  (2) 

Natural Language and Categorical Form 


220  (5) 


225  (2) 

Rules of Immediate Inference 


227  (6) 

Contrary and Contradictory Predicates and False Dichotomies 


233  (2) 

Categorical Logic: Some Philosophical Background 


235  (3) 

The Categorical Syllogism 


238  (6) 

The Rules of the Categorical Syllogism 


244  (2) 

Applying Categorical Logic 


246  (7) 


249  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


250  (2) 


252  (1) 

Deductively Valid Arguments: Propositional Logic 


253  (45) 

Definition of the Basic Symbols Used in Propositional Logic 


254  (5) 

Testing for Validity by the Truth Table Technique 


259  (3) 

The Shorter Truth Table Technique 


262  (4) 

Translating from English into Propositional Logic 


266  (10) 

Further Points about Translation 


276  (9) 

Simple Proofs in Propositional Logic 


285  (7) 

Propositional Logic and Cogent Arguments 


292  (6) 


294  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


295  (2) 


297  (1) 

An Introduction to Inductive Arguments 


298  (52) 


298  (3) 

Inductive Generalizations 


301  (12) 

Causal Inductive Arguments 


313  (5) 


318  (6) 


324  (10) 

Common Fallacies in Inductive Arguments 


334  (10) 

Different Senses of Inductive 


344  (6) 


345  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


346  (2) 


348  (2) 

Analogies: Reasoning from Case to Case 


350  (42) 

The Nature and Functions of Analogy 


350  (2) 


352  (15) 


367  (8) 

Further Critical Strategies 


375  (3) 

Loose and Misleading Analogies 


378  (14) 


389  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


389  (1) 


390  (2) 

Conductive Arguments and Counterconsiderations 


392  (21) 


395  (18) 


410  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


410  (1) 


411  (2) 

Reflective Analysis of Longer Works 


413  (24) 


413  (1) 

Reading for Understanding 


414  (4) 


418  (2) 

Developing an Outline for Your Essay 


420  (5) 


425  (5) 

Working through an Example 


430  (7) 


434  (1) 

Review of Terms Introduced 


435  (1) 


436  (1) 
Appendix A A Summary of Fallacies 

437  (9) 
Appendix B Selected Essays for Analysis 

446  (12) 

``How Patriarchy Becomes Santa Claus: Why a Myth Is as Good as Its Smile,'' 


446  (2) 





``Abortion and Violence,'' 


448  (1) 





``Believing in the Goddess?'' 


449  (4) 





``Clash Over Climate Change: Singer Article Clouds the Picture,'' 


453  (2) 





``Global Warming Proof Still Suspect,'' 


455  (3) 




Answers to Selected Exercises 

458  (26) 
Index 

484  