9780471109419

The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, 9th Edition

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780471109419

  • ISBN10:

    047110941X

  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 10/1/1996
  • Publisher: Wiley
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Summary

This is the premier source of ecologically and econimically sound information on the long-term treatment of forests. It provides the information necessary to understand, analyze, and apply the various techniques available for growing stands under any circumstances. It emphasizes the development of techniques so professionals are able to invent silvicultural solutions to problems.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Introduction to Silviculture
Silviculture and its Place in Forestry
3(17)
The Purpose of Silviculture
4(5)
Improving on Nature Through Silviculture
4(1)
Control of Stand Structure and Process
5(1)
Control of Composition
5(2)
Control of Stand Density
7(1)
Restocking of Unproductive Areas
7(1)
Protection and Reduction of Losses
7(1)
Control of Rotation Length
8(1)
Facilitating Harvesting
8(1)
Conservation of Site Productivity
8(1)
Silviculture as Applied Ecology
9(1)
Ecological Technology
10(1)
Relationship with Forest Management and the Social Sciences
11(1)
The Stand and the Forest
11(1)
Scope and Terminology of Silvicultural Practice
12(2)
Kinds of Stands
12(1)
Kinds of Silvicultural Treatments
13(1)
Role of Cutting in Silviculture
14(1)
Effect of Cutting on Growing Stock
15(1)
Silviculture and the Long-Term Economic Viewpoint
15(1)
Variations in Intensity of Practice
16(1)
Silviculture in Application
17(1)
Silvicultural Literature
18(2)
Stand Dynamics
20(27)
Initiating Disturbances and Sources of Regeneration
20(2)
Cohorts and Age Classes
22(1)
Identification of Age Classes
23(2)
Stages of Stand Development
25(2)
Pure, Even-Aged, Single-Canopied Stands
27(3)
Double-Cohort Stands
30(1)
Pure, Uneven-Aged or Multicohort Stands
30(1)
Mixed Single-Canopied Stands
31(1)
Single-Cohort Stratified Mixtures
32(4)
Mixed, Multicohort Stands
36(1)
Relationship to Other Interpretations of Vegetational Development
36(4)
The Ecosystem Concept
38(2)
Choice of Developmental Patterns
40(7)
PART 2 Tending and Intermediate Cutting
The Response of Individual Trees to Thinning and Pruning
47(22)
Response of Trees to Increased Growing Space
47(10)
Priorities in Allocation of Carbohydrates
48(1)
Stem Form
49(2)
Tree Growth as a Guide to Thinning
51(2)
Biological Basis for Quantifying Tree Development
53(1)
Effect on Wood Quality
54(1)
Growth Rate---Not a Causative Factor
55(1)
Controlling Wood Properties by Thinning
56(1)
Pruning
57(12)
Natural Pruning
58(1)
Knots
59(2)
Artificial Pruning
61(1)
Pruning for Timber Production
62(4)
Pruning of Ornamental Trees
66(1)
Shearing and Pruning of Christmas Trees
67(2)
Management of Growth and Stand Yield by Thinning
69(30)
Forest Productivity
69(4)
Stand Development and Productivity
70(2)
Quantification of Production
72(1)
Analysis of Increment
73(4)
Parameters of Stand Density or Stocking
75(2)
Relationships Between Numbers and Sizes of Trees
77(4)
Modeling Growth and Yield
79(2)
Thinning and its Objectives
81(6)
Quantifying Objectives
82(2)
The Effect of Thinning on Stand Production
84(3)
The Effect of Thinning on the Economic Yield of Stands
87(6)
Salvage of Anticipated Losses
87(1)
Increase in Value from Improved Diameter Growth
88(3)
Yield of Income and Control of Investment in Growing Stock During Rotation
91(1)
Improvement of Product Quality
92(1)
Control of Stand Composition and Effects on Regeneration
92(1)
Reducing Risk
93(1)
Additional Ideas on Growth and Productivity
93(6)
Interspecific Variations in Production
93(6)
Methods and Application of Thinning
99(32)
Methods of Thinning
99(18)
Low Thinning
99(3)
Crown Thinning
102(3)
Applications of Crown Thinning
105(2)
Selection Thinning or Thinning of Dominants
107(1)
Different Forms of Selection Thinning
108(3)
Problems with Selection Thinning
111(1)
Geometric Thinning
112(1)
Row and Strip Thinning
113(2)
Potential Problems
115(1)
Free Thinning
116(1)
Quantitative Definition of Thinning Methods
116(1)
Thinning Schedules
117(12)
Choosing Methods of Thinning
117(3)
Timing of the First Thinning
120(1)
Precommercial Thinning
121(1)
Effect of Stand Structure
122(1)
Timing of Subsequent Thinnings
122(2)
Regulation of Stand Density and Thinning Intensity
124(1)
Tree-Spacing Guide
125(1)
Taper Guide
126(1)
Thinning Guides Based on Crown Expansion
127(1)
Formulation of Thinning Schedules
127(2)
Relation to Forest Uses Other than Timber Production
129(1)
Conclusion
129(2)
Release Operations and Herbicides
131(30)
Killing Vegetation in Place
132(1)
Tactics
132(1)
Cutting Small Trees and Shrubs
133(1)
Herbicides
133(14)
Toxicity of Herbicides and Other Pesticides
133(1)
Registration of Herbicides
134(1)
Quantitative Toxicology
134(2)
Fate of Herbicides
136(1)
Modes of Entry and Movement of Herbicides in Woody Plants
137(1)
Penetration
137(1)
Translocation
137(1)
Formulation of Herbicides
138(1)
Methods of Applying Herbicides
139(1)
Stem Injection
139(1)
Stump-Surface Treatment
140(1)
Basal Bark Treatment
140(1)
Soil Application
141(1)
Foliage Application
141(3)
Herbicide Compounds
144(1)
Chlorophenoxy Herbicides
144(1)
Other Auxin Herbicides
145(1)
Triazine Herbicides
146(1)
Phosphonalkyl Compounds
146(1)
Imidazolinone
146(1)
Cleaning
147(4)
Types of Vegetation Removed
147(1)
Timing of Cleanings
148(2)
Extent of Release in Cleaning
150(1)
Liberation Operations
151(3)
Methods of Liberation
151(1)
Cutting
152(1)
Girdling
152(2)
Application of Release Operations
154(7)
PART 3 Regeneration
Ecology of Regeneration
161(34)
Ecological Role of Natural Disturbance
161(1)
Introduction
161(1)
Kinds of Natural Regenerative Disturbances
162(5)
Severe Disturbances
163(1)
Releasing Disturbances
164(1)
Patterns in Floristics in Relation to Disturbance
164(1)
The Role of Fire as a Disturbance
164(3)
Disturbance and the Environment of the Microsite
167(5)
Water Loss
168(1)
Surface Temperature and Energy Transfers
168(3)
Light
171(1)
The Regeneration Process
172(1)
Mechanisms of Essential Stages of Natural Regeneration
172(12)
Flowering
172(5)
Seed Supply
177(1)
Seed Dispersal
177(3)
Storage
180(1)
Germination
180(1)
Succulent Stage
181(1)
Growth and Establishment
182(2)
Provisions for Initiating Natural Regeneration
184(5)
Regulation of Regenerative Canopy Openings
184(4)
Regulation of the Groundstory
188(1)
Regeneration Methods as Analogs to Natural Disturbance
189(6)
Preparation and Treatment of the Site
195(39)
Disposal of Logging Slash
196(11)
Effects of Slash on the Future Stand
196(1)
Slash in Relation to Forest Fires
196(1)
Effect of Slash on Reproduction
197(1)
Management of Slash, Litter, and Soil
197(1)
Effects of Burning on Nutrients and Soil
198(1)
Effects of Removing Organic Materials
199(2)
Effects of Burning Forest Fuels on the Air
201(1)
Slash in Relation to Insects and Fungi
202(1)
Slash in Relation to Harvesting Operations
202(1)
Slash in Relation to Aesthetics and Wildlife
203(1)
Methods and Application of Slash Disposal
203(1)
Broadcast Burning of Slash
203(1)
Spot Burning
204(1)
Burning of Piled Slash
205(1)
Lopping and Scattering of Slash
206(1)
Direct Control of Bark Beetles in Slash
206(1)
Chipping and Yarding of Slash
206(1)
Treatment of the Forest Floor and Competing Vegetation
207(17)
Seedbed Preparation
207(1)
Competing Vegetation
207(2)
Techniques of Treatment
209(1)
Prescribed Burning
210(1)
Purposes and Effect of Prescribed Burning
210(2)
Potential Damage from Prescribed Burning
212(1)
Methods of Prescribed Burning
213(1)
Application of Prescribed Burning
214(3)
Mechanical Treatments
217(3)
Limitations of Mechanical Treatments
220(2)
Herbicide Treatments
222(2)
Flooding
224(1)
Improvement of Site
224(10)
Fertilization
224(2)
Drainage
226(2)
Irrigation
228(1)
Protection
229(5)
Site Classification and Species Selection
234(30)
Methods of Identifying and Classifying Sites
235(12)
Nature of Site or Habitat
235(1)
The Use of Site Analysis in Silviculture
236(3)
Use of Tree Growth As an Indicator of Site Quality
239(3)
Understory Plant Indicators and Habitat Types
242(1)
Analysis of Soils and Topography
243(2)
Ecological Site Classification
245(2)
Selection of Species and Provenances
247(9)
Adaptation to Site
247(1)
Utility of Species for Different Objectives
248(4)
Selection of Provenances
252(1)
Exotic Species
253(2)
Problems with the Use of Exotic Species
255(1)
Genetic Improvement
256(8)
Procedures in Tree Improvement Programs
256(2)
Hybrids
258(1)
Vegetation Multiplication and Tissue Culture
259(1)
Use of Genetic Improvement
259(1)
Conservation of Genetic Resources
260(1)
Genetic Improvement with Natural Regeneration
261(3)
Artificial Regeneration
264(37)
Planting
264(23)
Kinds of Planting Stock
265(1)
Size of Plants
265(2)
Bare-rooted Seedlings
267(1)
Classification of Nursery Stock
268(1)
Transportation and Storage of Bare-root Seedlings
268(1)
Care of Planting Stock in the Field
269(1)
Containerized Seedlings
269(1)
Kinds of Containers and Their Characteristics
270(2)
Handling of Containerized Seedlings
272(1)
Vegetative Propagation of Planting Stock
272(1)
Season of Planting
273(1)
Site Preparation
274(1)
Methods of Planting
274(6)
Planting Machines
280(1)
Placement of Seedlings and Reshaping of Soil Surface
281(1)
Density of Plantations
281(1)
Spatial Arrangement of Plantations
282(2)
Mixed Plantations
284(1)
Enrichment Planting and Underplanting
285(1)
Protection of New Plantations
285(1)
The Role of Planting
286(1)
Direct Seeding
287(14)
Seed Supply
287(2)
Treatment of Seeds to Hasten Germination
289(1)
Control of Seed-Eating Animals
290(1)
Effect of Site Factors and Their Modification
290(1)
Relative Merits of Direct Seeding and Planting
291(1)
Broadcast Seeding
292(1)
Strip and Spot Seeding
293(1)
Application of Direct Seeding
294(7)
PART 4 Stand Development and Structure
Development of Silvicultural Systems and Methods of Regeneration
301(15)
Classification of Methods of Regeneration
301(2)
The Basis of Distinction Between Methods of Regeneration
303(1)
Formulation of Silvicultural Systems
304(3)
Elements of Silvicultural Systems
307(2)
Role of Ownership Objectives in Formulating Silvicultural Systems
309(1)
Resolution of Conflicting Objectives
310(1)
Silviculture by Stand Prescription
310(1)
Naming of Silvicultural Systems
311(1)
The Silvicultural System as Working Hypothesis
312(4)
The Silviculture of Pure Even - Aged Stands
316(14)
Plantation Silviculture
317(3)
Policies about Application of Plantation Silviculture
319(1)
Regeneration of Pure Stands from Natural or Artificial Seeding
320(2)
Clearcutting with Seeding from Adjacent Stands
320(1)
Clearcutting with Regeneration from Seed on the Site
321(1)
Applications of Pure-Stand Silviculture
322(5)
West Coast Douglas-fir Region
322(2)
Southern Pines
324(2)
Closed-Cone Pines
326(1)
The Semantics of Clearcutting
327(3)
Vegetatively Regenerated Stands
330(17)
Vegetative Regeneration
330(6)
Stump-Sprouts
332(2)
Stool-Sprouts
334(1)
Seedling-Sprouts
335(1)
Lignotubers
335(1)
Sprouts from Adventitious Buds
336(1)
Layering
336(1)
Stump-Sprout Stands
336(2)
Root-sucker Stands
338(1)
Planted Coppice Stands
339(1)
Coppice with Standards
340(1)
The Role of Coppice Stands
341(2)
Modern Use
343(1)
Conversion of Coppice Stands to High Forests
344(1)
Stands Reproduced by Natural Layering
345(2)
Double - Cohort Pure Stands Regenerated by Partial Cutting
347(17)
Preparatory Cuttings
348(1)
Establishment or Seeding Cuttings
348(5)
Characteristics of Reserved Trees
349(1)
Arrangement, Number, and Distribution of Seed Trees
350(1)
Sporadicity of Seed Crops
351(1)
Severity of Cutting
352(1)
Arrangement of Seed Trees
352(1)
Removal Cuttings
353(2)
Variations in Spatial Patterns of Stand Structure
355(1)
Strip Arrangements
356(1)
Application of Seed-tree Systems
356(1)
Application of Shelterwood Systems
357(7)
Silviculture of Pure Uneven-Aged Stands
364(27)
The Place of Uneven-Aged Stands
366(1)
Single-Tree Selection System
366(1)
Group-Selection System
367(4)
Strip-Selection System
371(1)
Quantitative Methods of Managing Uneven-Aged Stands
371(10)
The Concept of the Balanced All-Aged Stand
371(1)
Simplifying Approximations
372(1)
Regulation of Cut by Diameter Distribution
373(3)
Negative Exponential Distributions of Diameters as Guides
376(2)
Possibilities with More Large and Fewer Small Trees
378(1)
Other Approaches to Regulation of Stands for Sustained Yield
379(1)
Pitfalls
380(1)
Creation of Balanced Uneven-Aged Stands
380(1)
Irregular Uneven-Aged Stands
381(1)
Evolution of Selection Methods
382(2)
Economic Selection Methods and ``Selective Cutting''
383(1)
Examples of Management of Pure Uneven-Aged Stands
384(7)
Restrictive Sites
384(3)
Good Sites
387(4)
Stands of Mixed Species
391(32)
Single-cohort Stratified Mixtures
392(1)
Relation Between Development and Treatment
392(6)
Irregular Shelterwood Method
398(2)
``One-Cut'' Shelterwood Method
400(2)
Planting of Mixed Stands
402(1)
Alternatives to the Concept of Stratified Mixtures
403(1)
Mistaking Size for Age in Mixed Stands
403(2)
Mixed, Multi-cohort Stands
405(4)
Strip Arrangements
407(1)
Group Arrangements
408(1)
Two-Aged Stands
409(2)
Examples of Management of Mixed Stands
411(4)
North American Stratified Mixtures
411(2)
Moist Tropical Forests
413(2)
Relative Merits of Pure and Mixed Stands
415(8)
PART 5 Silvicultural Management Objectives
Timber Management
423(26)
The Role of Wood Utilization
424(1)
Sustained Yield
425(6)
Financial Considerations
431(6)
Treatment of Monetary Investments
432(2)
Choice of Interest Rate
434(1)
Other Financial Factors
435(1)
Rotation Length
435(2)
Analysis of Stand Increment
437(1)
Concentration and Efficient Arrangement of Operations
438(2)
Harvesting Costs
438(1)
Other Silvicultural Costs
439(1)
Road Network and Harvest Layout Design
440(2)
Aesthetic Considerations
441(1)
Control of Operations
442(1)
Designation of Trees and Stands for Cutting
442(1)
Tree Marking
443(6)
Mechanics of Marking
443(1)
Costs and Benefits of Marking
444(1)
Guidance of Timber Markers
444(1)
Control of Waste and Damage in Logging
445(2)
Protecting Vegetation
447(2)
Silvicultural Management of Watershed Ecosystems
449(15)
Protection of Soil and Water Quality
449(2)
Landslides on Steep Slopes
451(1)
Effect of Cutting Trees
452(1)
Fog-drip
453(1)
Wetland Problems
454(1)
Storage and Leaching of Nutrients
455(1)
Association with Close Utilization of Resources
456(1)
Defense by Revegetation
456(1)
Construction and Maintenance of Roads and Trails
457(2)
Management of Road Networks
459(1)
Effect of Different Kinds of Logging Equipment
460(4)
Silvicultural Control of Damaging Agencies
464(19)
Protection Against Abiotic Agencies
465(5)
Fire Control
465(1)
Dealing with Dead Wood and Slash
466(2)
Wind Damage
468(2)
Protection from Ice, Snow, and Frost
470(1)
Biotic Agencies
470(5)
Role of Mixtures of Species and Age Classes
473(1)
Problems with Unnatural Conditions
474(1)
Other Aspects of Pest Management
475(1)
Damage Control Cuttings
475(8)
Presalvage Cuttings
475(1)
Sanitation Cuttings
476(2)
Salvage Cuttings
478(5)
Silvicultural Management of Wildlife Habitat
483(25)
Habitat Elements
485(8)
Food
486(3)
Shelter
489(2)
Stream Habitats
491(2)
Importance of Vertical Stand Structure
493(1)
Importance of Modifying Forest Structure
494(7)
Tree Species Composition
494(1)
Old-Growth Habitat
495(1)
Sizes and Spatial Arrangement of Stands
495(5)
Corridors
500(1)
The Landscape Context of a Management Area
500(1)
Examples of Application
501(5)
Elk and Woodpecker Habitat in Eastern Oregon
501(2)
Habitat Diversity in Southern New England
503(1)
Biodiversity Conservation in Boreal Forests
504(2)
Control of Wildlife Damage to Trees
506(2)
Agroforestry
508(11)
Stages of Stand Development and Agroforestry
509(1)
Agrisilvicultural Practices
510(3)
Silvopastoral Practices
513(3)
Shelterbelts and Contour Hedgerows
516(1)
Selection of Tree Species for Agroforestry
516(3)
Appendix I Common and Scientific Names of Trees and Shrubs Mentioned in the Text 519(4)
Appendix II Abbreviations in Reference Lists 523(2)
Index 525

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