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The Practice of Social Research

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780534620295

ISBN10:
0534620299
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Thomson Learning
List Price: $82.95
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Summary

Text presents the logic and skills necessary to perform effective research and write reports. Covers quantitative and qualitative methods and inductive and deductive distinctions. Includes updated and expanded material and new graphics. Includes a companion Research Writer CD-ROM, which complements a new chapter: 'Reading and Writing Social Research.'

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xxv
PART 1 An Introduction to Inquiry
3(82)
Human Inquiry and Science
4(28)
Introduction
5(1)
Looking for Reality
6(6)
Ordinary Human Inquiry
6(1)
Tradition
7(1)
Authority
7(1)
Errors in Inquiry, and Some Solutions
8(1)
What's Really Real?
9(3)
The Foundations of Social Science
12(9)
Theory, Not Philosophy or Belief
12(1)
Social Regularities
13(2)
Aggregates, Not Individuals
15(1)
A Variable Language
16(5)
Some Dialectics of Social Research
21(7)
Idiographic and Nomothetic Explanation
21(3)
Inductive and Deductive Theory
24(2)
Qualitative and Quantitative Data
26(2)
Pure and Applied Research
28(1)
The Ethics of Social Research
28(1)
Voluntary Participation
28(1)
No Harm to Subjects
29(1)
Main Points
29(1)
Key Terms
30(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
30(1)
Additional Readings
30(1)
Resources on the Internet
31(1)
Paradigms, Theory, and Social Research
32(29)
Introduction
33(1)
Some Social Science Paradigms
33(10)
Macrotheory and Microtheory
35(1)
Early Positivism
35(1)
Social Darwinism
36(1)
Conflict Paradigm
36(1)
Symbolic Interactionism
37(1)
Ethnomethodology
38(1)
Structural Functionalism
38(1)
Feminist Paradigms
39(2)
Rational Objectivity Reconsidered
41(2)
Elements of Social Theory
43(1)
Two Logical Systems Revisited
44(8)
The Traditional Model of Science
44(3)
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning: A Case Illustration
47(3)
A Graphic Contrast
50(2)
Deductive Theory Construction
52(3)
Getting Started
52(1)
Constructing Your Theory
53(1)
An Example of Deductive Theory: Distributive Justice
53(2)
Inductive Theory Construction
55(1)
An Example of Inductive Theory: Why Do People Smoke Marijuana?
55(1)
The Links Between Theory and Research
56(1)
Main Points
57(1)
Key Terms
58(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
58(1)
Additional Readings
59(1)
Resources on the Internet
59(2)
The Ethics and Politics of Social Research
61(24)
Introduction
62(1)
Ethical Issues in Social Research
63(9)
Voluntary Participation
63(1)
No Harm to the Participants
64(1)
Anonymity and Confidentiality
65(2)
Deception
67(1)
Analysis and Reporting
68(1)
Institutional Review Boards
69(3)
Professional Codes of Ethics
72(1)
Two Ethical Controversies
72(3)
Trouble in the Tearoom
72(2)
Observing Human Obedience
74(1)
The Politics of Social Research
75(5)
Objectivity and Ideology
76(3)
Politics with a Little ``p''
79(1)
Politics in Perspective
79(1)
Main Points
80(1)
Key Terms
81(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
81(1)
Additional Readings
82(1)
Resources on the Internet
82(3)
PART 2 The Structuring of Inquiry
85(134)
Research Design
86(32)
Introduction
87(1)
Three Purposes of Research
87(3)
Exploration
87(2)
Description
89(1)
Explanation
89(1)
The Logic of Nomothetic Explanation
90(2)
Criteria for Nomothetic Causality
90(2)
False Criteria for Nomothetic Causality
92(1)
Necessary and Sufficient Causes
92(2)
Units of Analysis
94(7)
Individuals
95(1)
Groups
95(1)
Organizations
96(1)
Social Artifacts
96(1)
Units of Analysis in Review
97(3)
Faulty Reasoning about Units of Analysis: The Ecological Fallacy and Reductionism
100(1)
The Time Dimension
101(6)
Cross-Sectional Studies
101(1)
Longitudinal Studies
102(3)
Approximating Longitudinal Studies
105(1)
Examples of Research Strategies
106(1)
How to Design a Research Project
107(6)
Getting Started
109(1)
Conceptualization
109(1)
Choice of Research Method
110(1)
Operationalization
110(1)
Population and Sampling
110(1)
Observations
111(1)
Data Processing
111(1)
Analysis
111(1)
Application
111(1)
Research Design in Review
112(1)
The Research Proposal
113(1)
Elements of a Research Proposal
113(1)
Main Points
114(1)
Key Terms
115(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
115(1)
Additional Readings
116(1)
Resources on the Internet
116(2)
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement
118(32)
Introduction
119(1)
Measuring Anything That Exists
119(3)
Conceptions, Concepts, and Reality
120(1)
Concepts as Constructs
121(1)
Conceptualization
122(7)
Indicators and Dimensions
123(1)
The Interchangeability of Indicators
124(1)
Real, Nominal, and Operational Definitions
124(1)
Creating Conceptual Order
125(1)
An Example of Conceptualization: The Concept of Anomie
126(3)
Definitions in Descriptive and Explanatory Studies
129(3)
Operationalization Choices
132(8)
Range of Variation
132(1)
Variations between the Extremes
133(1)
A Note on Dimensions
133(1)
Defining Variables and Attributes
134(1)
Levels of Measurement
134(4)
Single or Multiple Indicators
138(1)
Some Illustrations of Operationalization Choices
139(1)
Operationalization Goes On and On
140(1)
Criteria of Measurement Quality
140(6)
Precision and Accuracy
140(1)
Reliability
141(2)
Validity
143(2)
Who Decides What's Valid?
145(1)
Tension between Reliability and Validity
146(1)
Main Points
146(1)
Key Terms
147(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
147(1)
Additional Readings
148(1)
Resources on the Internet
148(2)
Indexes, Scales, and Typologies
150(28)
Introduction
151(1)
Indexes versus Scales
151(3)
Index Construction
154(13)
Item Selection
154(1)
Examination of Empirical Relationships
155(5)
Index Scoring
160(1)
Handling Missing Data
161(3)
Index Validation
164(2)
The Status of Women: An Illustration of Index Construction
166(1)
Scale Construction
167(7)
Bogardus Social Distance Scale
168(1)
Thurstone Scale
168(1)
Likert Scale
169(1)
Semantic Differential
170(1)
Guttman Scale
170(4)
Typologies
174(1)
Main Points
175(1)
Key Terms
176(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
176(1)
Additional Readings
176(1)
Resources on the Internet
177(1)
The Logic of Sampling
178(41)
Introduction
179(2)
A Brief History of Sampling
181(1)
President Alf Landon
181(1)
President Thomas E. Dewey
181(1)
Two Types of Sampling Methods
182(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
182(4)
Reliance on Available Subjects
183(1)
Purposive or Judgmental Sampling
183(1)
Snowball Sampling
184(1)
Quota Sampling
184(1)
Selecting Informants
185(1)
The Theory and Logic of Probability Sampling
186(13)
Conscious and Unconscious Sampling Bias
187(2)
Representativeness and Probability of Selection
189(1)
Random Selection
190(1)
Probability Theory, Sampling Distributions, and Estimates of Sampling Error
191(8)
Populations and Sampling Frames
199(2)
Review of Populations and Sampling Frames
201(1)
Types of Sampling Designs
201(7)
Simple Random Sampling
201(2)
Systematic Sampling
203(2)
Stratified Sampling
205(2)
Implicit Stratification in Systematic Sampling
207(1)
Illustration: Sampling University Students
207(1)
Multistage Cluster Sampling
208(7)
Multistage Designs and Sampling Error
210(2)
Stratification in Multistage Cluster Sampling
212(1)
Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) Sampling
212(1)
Disproportionate Sampling and Weighting
213(2)
Probability Sampling in Review
215(1)
Main Points
215(1)
Key Terms
216(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
216(1)
Additional Readings
216(1)
Resources on the Internet
217(2)
PART 3 Modes of Observation
219(148)
Experiments
220(22)
Introduction
221(1)
Topics Appropriate to Experiments
221(1)
The Classical Experiment
221(4)
Independent and Dependent Variables
222(1)
Pretesting and Posttesting
222(1)
Experimental and Control Groups
223(1)
The Double-Blind Experiment
224(1)
Selecting Subjects
225(3)
Probability Sampling
226(1)
Randomization
226(1)
Matching
226(1)
Matching or Randomization?
227(1)
Variations on Experimental Design
228(6)
Preexperimental Research Designs
228(2)
Validity Issues in Experimental Research
230(4)
An Illustration of Experimentation
234(3)
``Natural'' Experiments
237(2)
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Experimental Method
239(1)
Main Points
239(1)
Key Terms
240(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
240(1)
Additional Readings
240(1)
Resources on the Internet
241(1)
Survey Research
242(39)
Introduction
243(1)
Topics Appropriate for Survey Research
243(1)
Guidelines for Asking Questions
244(6)
Choose Appropriate Question Forms
245(1)
Make Items Clear
246(1)
Avoid Double-Barreled Questions
246(1)
Respondents Must Be Competent to Answer
246(2)
Respondents Must Be Willing to Answer
248(1)
Questions Should Be Relevant
248(1)
Short Items Are Best
249(1)
Avoid Negative Items
249(1)
Avoid Biased Items and Terms
249(1)
Questionnaire Construction
250(6)
General Questionnaire Format
250(1)
Formats for Respondents
251(1)
Contingency Questions
251(2)
Matrix Questions
253(1)
Ordering Items in a Questionnaire
254(1)
Questionnaire Instructions
255(1)
Pretesting the Questionnaire
256(1)
A Composite Illustration
256(1)
Self-Administered Questionnaires
256(7)
Mail Distribution and Return
259(1)
Monitoring Returns
259(1)
Follow-up Mailings
260(1)
Acceptable Response Rates
261(1)
A Case Study
262(1)
Interview Surveys
263(5)
The Role of the Survey Interviewer
263(1)
General Guidelines for Survey Interviewing
264(2)
Coordination and Control
266(2)
Telephone Surveys
268(2)
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)
269(1)
New Technologies and Survey Research
270(3)
Comparison of the Different Survey Methods
273(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Survey Research
274(1)
Secondary Analysis
275(2)
Main Points
277(1)
Key Terms
278(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
278(1)
Additional Readings
278(1)
Resources on the Internet
279(2)
Qualitative Field Research
281(31)
Introduction
282(1)
Topics Appropriate to Field Research
282(3)
Special Considerations in Qualitative Field Research
285(3)
The Various Roles of the Observer
285(1)
Relations to Subjects
286(2)
Some Qualitative Field Research Paradigms
288(10)
Naturalism
289(1)
Ethnomethodology
290(1)
Grounded Theory
291(2)
Case Studies and the Extended Case Method
293(2)
Institutional Ethnography
295(1)
Participatory Action Research
296(2)
Conducting Qualitative Field Research
298(8)
Preparing for the Field
298(1)
Qualitative Interviewing
299(3)
Focus Groups
302(1)
Recording Observations
303(3)
Research Ethics in Qualitative Field Research
306(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Field Research
307(2)
Validity
307(1)
Reliability
308(1)
Main Points
309(1)
Key Terms
309(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
309(1)
Additional Readings
310(1)
Resources on the Internet
311(1)
Unobtrusive Research
312(29)
Introduction
313(1)
Content Analysis
314(10)
Topics Appropriate to Content Analysis
314(1)
Sampling in Content Analysis
315(3)
Coding in Content Analysis
318(4)
An Illustration of Content Analysis
322(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Content Analysis
323(1)
Analyzing Existing Statistics
324(8)
Durkheim's Study of Suicide
324(1)
The Consequences of Globalization
325(2)
Units of Analysis
327(1)
Problems of Validity
327(1)
Problems of Reliability
327(1)
Sources of Existing Statistics
328(4)
Historical/Comparative Analysis
332(6)
Examples of Historical/Comparative Analysis
332(2)
Sources of Historical/Comparative Data
334(1)
Analytical Techniques
335(3)
Main Points
338(1)
Key Terms
338(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
338(1)
Additional Readings
339(1)
Resources on the Internet
339(2)
Evaluation Research
341(26)
Introduction
342(1)
Topics Appropriate to Evaluation Research
343(1)
Formulating the Problem: Issues of Measurement
344(4)
Specifying Outcomes
345(1)
Measuring Experimental Contexts
346(1)
Specifying Interventions
346(1)
Specifying the Population
346(1)
New versus Existing Measures
347(1)
Operationalizing Success/Failure
347(1)
Types of Evaluation Research Designs
348(7)
Experimental Designs
348(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
349(5)
Qualitative Evaluations
354(1)
The Social Context
355(7)
Logistical Problems
355(1)
Some Ethical Issues
356(1)
Use of Research Results
357(5)
Social Indicators Research
362(2)
The Death Penalty and Deterrence
362(1)
Computer Simulation
363(1)
Main Points
364(1)
Key Terms
364(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
364(1)
Additional Readings
365(1)
Resources on the Internet
365(2)
PART 4 Analysis of Data
367(2)
Qualitative Data Analysis
369(26)
Introduction
370(1)
Linking Theory and Analysis
370(5)
Discovering Patterns
370(2)
Grounded Theory Method
372(1)
Semiotics
373(2)
Conversation Analysis
375(1)
Qualitative Data Processing
375(6)
Coding
376(3)
Memoing
379(1)
Concept Mapping
380(1)
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data
381(10)
Leviticus as Seen through NUD*IST
382(5)
Sandrine Zerbib: Understanding Women Film Directors
387(4)
The Qualitative Analysis of Quantitative Data
391(1)
Main Points
392(1)
Key Terms
392(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
393(1)
Additional Readings
393(1)
Resources on the Internet
393(2)
Quantitative Data Analysis
395(26)
Introduction
396(1)
Quantification of Data
396(4)
Developing Code Categories
397(2)
Codebook Construction
399(1)
Data Entry
400(1)
Univariate Analysis
400(7)
Distributions
400(2)
Central Tendency
402(3)
Dispersion
405(1)
Continuous and Discrete Variables
406(1)
Detail versus Manageability
406(1)
Subgroup Comparisons
407(3)
``Collapsing'' Response Categories
408(1)
Handling ``Don't Knows''
409(1)
Numerical Descriptions in Qualitative Research
410(1)
Bivariate Analysis
410(6)
Percentaging a Table
412(3)
Constructing and Reading Bivariate Tables
415(1)
Introduction to Multivariate Analysis
416(2)
Main Points
418(1)
Key Terms
419(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
419(1)
Additional Readings
419(1)
Resources on the Internet
420(1)
The Elaboration Model
421(19)
Introduction
422(1)
The Origins of the Elaboration Model
422(5)
The Elaboration Paradigm
427(9)
Replication
428(1)
Explanation
428(2)
Interpretation
430(1)
Specification
431(3)
Refinements to the Paradigm
434(2)
Elaboration and Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing
436(1)
Main Points
437(1)
Key Terms
438(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
438(1)
Additional Readings
438(1)
Resources on the Internet
439(1)
Social Statistics
440(32)
Introduction
441(1)
The Danger of Success in Math
441(1)
Descriptive Statistics
442(9)
Data Reduction
442(1)
Measures of Association
443(4)
Regression Analysis
447(4)
Other Multivariate Techniques
451(7)
Path Analysis
452(2)
Time-Series Analysis
454(1)
Factor Analysis
455(3)
Inferential Statistics
458(10)
Univariate Inferences
458(1)
Tests of Statistical Significance
459(1)
The Logic of Statistical Significance
459(5)
Chi Square
464(4)
Main Points
468(1)
Key Terms
469(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
470(1)
Additional Readings
470(1)
Resources on the Internet
470(2)
Reading and Writing Social Research
472
Introduction
473(1)
Reading Social Research
473(5)
Journals versus Books
473(1)
Evaluation of Research Reports
474(4)
Using the Internet Wisely
478(7)
Some Useful Web Sites
478(1)
Searching the Web
479(1)
Evaluating the Quality of Internet Materials
480(4)
Citing Internet Materials
484(1)
Writing Social Research
485(6)
Some Basic Considerations
485(2)
Organization of the Report
487(3)
Guidelines for Reporting Analyses
490(1)
Main Points
491(1)
Key Terms
491(1)
Review Questions and Exercises
492(1)
Additional Readings
492(1)
Resources on the Internet
492
Appendixes
1(1)
A Using the Library
2(6)
B GSS Household Enumeration Questionnaire
8(10)
C Random Numbers
18(2)
D Distribution of Chi Square
20(2)
E Normal Curve Areas
22(1)
F Estimated Sampling Error
23(2)
G Twenty Questions a Journalist Should Ask about Poll Results
25
Bibliography 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Index 1


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