9780805371871

Preparing for the Biology AP Exam : With Biology, Seventh Edition

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  • ISBN13:

    9780805371871

  • ISBN10:

    0805371877

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-02-16
  • Publisher: PRENTICE HALL SCHOOL GROUP
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Table of Contents

Part I: Introduction to the AP Biology Examination
1(28)
The Advanced Placement Program
3(4)
Why Take an AP Course?
3(1)
Taking an AP Examination
4(1)
AP Biology: Course Goals
5(2)
Understanding the AP Biology Examination
7(6)
Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions
7(4)
Section II: Free-Response Questions
11(2)
Grading Procedures for the AP Biology Examination
13(2)
Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions
13(1)
Section II: Free-Response Questions
13(2)
Test-Taking Strategies for the AP Biology Examination
15(7)
AP Review: Lab Essays
15(1)
Graphing Data
16(1)
Sample Tests
16(1)
The Day of the Exam
17(1)
Section I: Strategies for Multiple-Choice Questions
18(1)
Section II: Strategies for Free-Response Questions
19(3)
AP Topic Correlation to Campbell and Reece Biology, Seventh Edition
22(1)
AP Biology Thematic Study Grid
23(6)
Part II: Topical Review with Sample Questions and Answers and Explanations
29(192)
The Chemistry of Life
31(12)
Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds
31(1)
Concept 2.2 An element's properties depend on the structure of its atoms
31(1)
Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms
31(1)
Concept 3.1 The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding
32(1)
Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth's fitness for life
32(1)
Concept 3.3 Dissociation of water molecules leads to acidic and basic conditions that affect living organisms
33(1)
Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms
33(1)
Concept 5.1 Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
33(1)
Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material
34(1)
Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
34(1)
Concept 5.4 Proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions
35(1)
Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information
36(7)
For Additional Review
37(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
37(1)
Free-Response Question
38(1)
Answers and Explanations
39(4)
The Cell
43(32)
Concept 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry
43(1)
Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions
43(4)
Concept 7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins
47(1)
Concept 7.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment
48(1)
Concept 7.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients
48(1)
Concept 7.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis
49(1)
Concept 8.1 An organism's metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics
49(1)
Concept 8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether the reaction occurs spontaneously
49(1)
Concept 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions
50(1)
Concept 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers
50(1)
Concept 9.1 Catabolic pathways release energy by oxidizing organic fuels
51(1)
Concept 9.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
51(1)
Concept 9.3 The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules
52(1)
Concept 9.4 During oxidative phosphorlyation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis
53(1)
Concept 9.5 Fermentation enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen
54(1)
Concept 9.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways
54(1)
Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food
54(1)
Concept 10.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
55(1)
Concept 10.3 The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar
56(2)
Concept 10.4 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates
58(1)
Concept 11.1 External signals are converted into responses within the cell
58(1)
Concept 11.2 Reception: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape
59(1)
Concept 11.3 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell
59(1)
Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of cytoplasmic activities or transcription
59(1)
Concept 12.1 Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
59(1)
Concept 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle
60(1)
Concept 12.3 The cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system
61(14)
For Additional Review
62(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
62(5)
Free-Response Question
67(1)
Answers and Explanations
67(8)
Genetics
75(36)
Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
75(1)
Concept 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles
75(1)
Concept 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid
76(1)
Concept 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution
77(1)
Concept 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
78(2)
Concept 14.2 The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance
80(1)
Concept 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics
81(1)
Concept 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance
81(1)
Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes
82(1)
Concept 15.2 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each other on the same chromosome
82(1)
Concept 15.3 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
83(1)
Concept 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders
83(1)
Concept 16.1 DNA is the genetic material
84(1)
Concept 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair
85(2)
Concept 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
87(1)
Concept 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA
87(1)
Concept 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
88(1)
Concept 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide
88(2)
Concept 17.6 Comparing gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes reveals key differences
90(1)
Concept 17.7 Point mutations can affect protein structure and function
91(1)
Concept 18.1 A virus has a genome but can reproduce only within a host cell
91(1)
Concept 18.2 Viruses, viroids, and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants
91(1)
Concept 18.3 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination contribute to the genetic diversity of bacteria
92(1)
Concept 18.4 Individual bacteria respond to environmental change by regulating their gene expression
92(1)
Concept 19.1 Chromatin structure is based on successive levels of DNA packing
92(1)
Concept 19.2 Gene expression can be regulated at any stage, but the key step is transcription
92(1)
Concept 19.3 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control
93(1)
Concept 19.4 Eukaryotic genomes can have many noncoding DNA sequences in addition to genes
93(1)
Concept 20.1 DNA cloning permits production of multiple copies of a specific gene or other DNA segment
93(1)
Concept 20.2 Restriction fragment analysis detects DNA differences that affect restriction sites
94(1)
Concept 20.3 Entire genomes can be mapped at the DNA level
94(1)
Concept 20.4 Genome sequences provide clues to important biological questions
94(1)
Concept 20.5 The practical applications of DNA technology affect our lives in many ways
94(17)
For Additional Review
95(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
95(8)
Free-Response Question
103(1)
Answers and Explanations
103(8)
Mechanisms of Evolution
111(18)
Concept 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species
111(1)
Concept 22.2 In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed that species change through natural selection
111(1)
Concept 22.3 Darwin's theory explains a wide range of observations
112(1)
Concept 23.1 Population genetics provides a foundation for studying evolution
113(1)
Concept 23.2 Mutation and sexual recombination produce the variation that makes evolution possible
114(1)
Concept 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter a population's genetic composition
114(1)
Concept 23.4 Natural selection is the primary mechanism of adaptive evolution
115(1)
Concept 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation
115(1)
Concept 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation
116(1)
Concept 24.3 Macroevolutionary changes can accumulate through many speciation events
117(1)
Concept 25.1 Phylogenies are based on common ancestries inferred from fossil, morphological, and molecular evidence
118(1)
Concept 25.2 Phylogenetic systematics connects classification with evolutionary history
118(1)
Concept 25.3 Phylogenetic systematics informs the construction of phylogenetic trees based on shared characters
119(1)
Concept 25.5 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time
120(9)
For Additional Review
120(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
121(2)
Free-Response Question
123(1)
Answers and Explanations
123(6)
The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity
129(26)
Concept 26.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible
129(1)
Concept 26.2 The fossil record chronicles life on Earth
129(2)
Concept 26.6 New information has revised our understanding of the tree of life
131(1)
Concept 27.1 Structural, functional, and genetic adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success
131(1)
Concept 27.2 A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes
132(1)
Concept 27.3 Molecular systematics is illuminating prokaryotic phylogeny
132(1)
Concept 27.4 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere
133(1)
Concept 28.1 Protists are an extremely diverse assortment of eukaryotes
133(1)
Concept 29.1 Land plants evolved from green algae
134(1)
Concept 29.2 Land plants possess a set of derived terrestrial adaptations
135(1)
Concept 29.3 The life cycles of mosses and other bryophytes are dominated by the gametophyte stage
135(1)
Concept 29.4 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants formed the first forests
135(1)
Concept 30.1 The reduced gametophytes of seed plants are protected in ovules and pollen grains
136(1)
Concept 30.2 Gymnosperms bear ``naked'' seeds, typically on cones
136(1)
Concept 30.3 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits
136(2)
Concept 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption
138(1)
Concept 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages
138(1)
Concept 31.5 Fungi have a powerful impact on ecosystems and human welfare
138(1)
Concept 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers
139(1)
Concept 32.2 The history of animals may span more than a billion years
139(1)
Concept 32.3 Animals can be characterized by ``body plans''
139(1)
Overview: Life Without a Backbone
139(3)
Concept 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
142(1)
Concept 34.2 Craniates are chordates that have a head
143(1)
Concept 34.3 Vertebrates are craniates that have a backbone
143(1)
Concept 34.4 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws
144(1)
Concept 34.5 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs and feet
144(1)
Concept 34.6 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg
144(1)
Concept 34.7 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk
145(10)
For Additional Review
145(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
146(3)
Free-Response Question
149(1)
Answers and Explanations
150(5)
Plant Form and Function
155(18)
Concept 35.1 The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells
155(1)
Concept 35.2 Meristems generate cells for new organs
156(1)
Concept 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots
156(1)
Concept 35.4 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants
156(1)
Concept 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation produce the plant body
157(1)
Concept 36.1 Physical processes drive the transport of materials in plants over a range of distances
157(1)
Concept 36.2 Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil
158(1)
Concept 36.3 Water and minerals ascend from roots to shoots through the xylem
158(1)
Concept 36.4 Stomata help regulate the rate of transpiration
159(1)
Concept 36.5 Organic nutrients are translocated through the phloem
159(1)
Concept 37.1 Plants require certain chemical elements to complete their life cycle
159(1)
Concept 37.2 Soil quality is a major determinant of plant distribution and growth
159(1)
Concept 37.3 Nitrogen is often the mineral that has the greatest effect on plant growth
160(1)
Concept 37.4 Plant nutritional adaptations often involve relationships with other organisms
160(1)
Concept 38.1 Pollination enables gametes to come together within a flower
161(2)
Concept 38.2 After fertilization, ovules develop into seeds and ovaries into fruits
163(1)
Concept 38.3 Many flowering plants clone themselves by asexual reproduction
163(1)
Concept 38.4 Plant biotechnology is transforming agriculture
163(1)
Concept 39.2 Plant hormones help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli
163(1)
Concept 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant success
164(1)
Concept 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light
165(1)
Concept 39.5 Plants defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens
165(8)
For Additional Review
165(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
166(2)
Free-Response Question
168(1)
Answers and Explanations
168(5)
Animal Form and Function
173(34)
Concept 40.1 Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape
173(1)
Concept 40.2 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
173(1)
Concept 40.3 Animals use the chemical energy in food to sustain form and function
174(1)
Concept 40.4 Many animals regulate their internal environment within relatively narrow limits
174(1)
Concept 40.5 Thermoregulation contributes to homeostasis and involves anatomy, physiology and behavior
174(1)
Concept 41.1 Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animal's energy budget
175(1)
Concept 41.2 An animal's diet must supply carbon skeletons and essential nutrients
175(1)
Concept 41.3 The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
176(1)
Concept 41.4 Each organ of the mammalian digestive system has specialized food-processing functions
176(2)
Concept 41.5 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems are often associated with diet
178(1)
Concept 42.1 Circulatory systems reflect phylogeny
178(1)
Concept 42.2 Double circulation in mammals depends on the anatomy and pumping cycle of the heart
179(2)
Concept 42.3 Physical principles govern blood circulation
181(1)
Concept 42.4 Blood is a connective tissue with cells suspended in plasma
181(1)
Concept 42.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces
181(1)
Concept 42.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs
181(1)
Concept 42.7 Respiratory pigments bind and transport gases
182(1)
Concept 43.1 Innate immunity provides broad defenses against infection
182(1)
Concept 43.2 In acquired immunity, lymphocytes provide specific defenses against infection
182(1)
Concept 43.3 Humoral and cell-mediated immunity defend against different types of threats
183(1)
Concept 43.4 The immune system's ability to distinguish self from nonself limits tissue transplantation
183(1)
Concept 43.5 Exaggerated, self-directed, or diminished immune responses can cause disease
183(1)
Concept 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes
183(1)
Concept 44.2 An animal's nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat
183(1)
Concept 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme
184(1)
Concept 44.4 Nephrons and associated blood vessels are the functional units of the mammalian kidney
184(1)
Concept 44.5 The mammalian kidney's ability to conserve water is a key terrestrial adaptation
185(1)
Concept 45.1 The endocrine system and the nervous system act individually and together in regulating an animal's physiology
186(1)
Concept 45.2 Hormones and other chemical signals bind to target cell receptors, initiating pathways that culminate in specific cell responses
186(1)
Concept 45.3 The hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate endocrine system
186(2)
Concept 45.4 Nonpituitary hormones help regulate metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior
188(1)
Concept 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom
188(1)
Concept 46.2 Fertilization depends on mechanisms that help sperm meet eggs of the same species
188(1)
Concept 46.3 Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes: focus on humans
189(1)
Concept 46.4 In humans and other mammals, a complex interplay of hormones regulates gametogenesis
189(1)
Concept 46.5 In humans and other placental mammals, an embryo grows into a newborn in the mother's uterus
190(1)
Concept 47.1 After fertilization, embryonic development proceeds through cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis
190(1)
Concept 48.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells
191(1)
Concept 48.2 Ion pumps and ion channels maintain the resting potential of a neuron
191(1)
Concept 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons
192(1)
Concept 48.4 Neurons communicate with other cells-at synapses
192(1)
Concept 48.5 The vertebrate nervous system is regionally specialized
192(1)
Concept 48.6 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions
193(1)
Concept 49.1 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system
193(1)
Concept 49.2 The mechanoreceptors involved with hearing and equilibrium detect settling particles or moving fluid
193(1)
Concept 49.3 The senses of taste and smell are closely related in most animals
194(1)
Concept 49.4 Similar mechanisms underlie vision throughout the animal kingdom
194(1)
Concept 49.5 Animal skeletons function in support, protection, and movement
194(13)
For Additional Review
195(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
195(5)
Free-Response Question
200(1)
Answers and Explanations
200(7)
Ecology
207(14)
Concept 50.2 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species
207(1)
Concept 50.3 Abiotic and biotic factors influence the structure and dynamics of aquatic biomes
207(1)
Concept 50.4 Climate largely determines the distribution and structure of terrestrial biomes
208(1)
Concept 51.1 Behavioral ecologists distinguish between proximate and ultimate causes of behavior
209(1)
Concept 51.2 Many behaviors have a strong genetic component
209(1)
Concept 51.3 Environment, interacting with an animal's genetic makeup, influences the development of behavior
210(1)
Concept 51.5 Natural selection favors behaviors that increase survival and reproductive success
210(1)
Concept 51.6 The concept of inclusive fitness can account for most altruistic social behavior
210(1)
Concept 52.3 The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment
210(1)
Concept 52.5 Populations are regulated by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic influences
211(1)
Concept 53.1 A community's interactions include competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis, and disease
211(1)
Concept 53.2 Dominant and keystone species exert strong controls on community structure
211(1)
Concept 53.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition
212(1)
Concept 53.4 Biogeographic factors affect community biodiversity
212(1)
Concept 54.1 Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling
212(1)
Concept 54.4 Biological and geochemical processes move nutrients between organic and inorganic parts of the ecosystem
212(1)
Concept 54.5 The human population is disrupting chemical cycles through the biosphere
213(8)
For Additional Review
213(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions
213(3)
Free-Response Question
216(1)
Answers and Explanations
216(5)
Part III: Sample Tests with Answers and Explanations
221(2)
Practice Test One 223(30)
Practice Test Two 253

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