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Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780312167394

ISBN10:
0312167393
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/15/1998
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP: POLITICS AND POLICY MAKING is the most comprehensive and best-selling text in presidential studies available today. Using two models of leadership, Edwards and Wayne examine all facets of the presidential office in careful detail, using a perfect combination of analytical prose and illustrative examples.

Table of Contents

Prologue xvii
Preface xxiii
Presidential Leadership: An Introduction
1(21)
The Original Presidency
2(4)
The Creation of the Institution
2(2)
The Scope of Article II
4(2)
The Evolution of the Presidency
6(5)
Policy-Making Roles
6(2)
Organizational Structure
8(2)
Public Dimensions
10(1)
Problems of Contemporary Leadership
11(3)
Orientation and Organization of This Book
14(6)
Thinking about Leadership: Two Perspectives
15(2)
Conceptual Focus
17(2)
A Preview
19(1)
Selected Reading
20(1)
Notes
21(1)
The Nomination Process
22(32)
The Evolution of the System
23(3)
Changes in the Political Arena
26(12)
Party Reforms
26(2)
Campaign Finance
28(5)
Public Relations
33(5)
The Quest for the Nomination
38(5)
Hot-Button Issue: Public Indifference
39(4)
The National Conventions
43(6)
The Clinton Presidency: Contrasting Strategies in 1992 and 1996
44(1)
Public Dimensions
45(2)
Official Business
47(1)
Characteristics of the Nominees
47(2)
Conclusion
49(1)
Discussion Questions
50(1)
Web Exercises
51(1)
Selected Reading
51(1)
Notes
52(2)
The Presidential Election
54(41)
The Strategic Environment
55(16)
The Electoral College
55(4)
The Polity
59(7)
Financial Considerations
66(1)
News Coverage
67(1)
Hot-Button Issue: Campaign Finance Reform
68(3)
The Presidential Campaign
71(12)
Creating an Organization
72(2)
Designing an Image
74(1)
Projecting a Partisan Appeal
75(1)
Building a Winning Coalition
76(1)
The Clinton Presidency: Running for Reelection
77(1)
Media Tactics
78(5)
The Meaning of the Election
83(8)
Polling the People
83(1)
Analyzing the Results
84(2)
Assessing the Mandate
86(3)
Converting the Electoral Coalition for Governance
89(2)
Conclusion
91(1)
Discussion Questions
91(1)
Web Exercises
92(1)
Selected Reading
92(1)
Notes
93(2)
The President and the Public
95(49)
Understanding Public Opinion
96(5)
Americans' Opinions
96(1)
Public Opinion Polls
97(2)
Presidential Election Results
99(1)
Mail from the Public
99(1)
Acting Contrary to Public Opinion
100(1)
Public Expectations of the President
101(7)
High Expectations
102(3)
Contradictory Expectations
105(3)
Public Approval of the President
108(12)
Party Identification
108(1)
Positivity Bias
109(2)
The Persistence of Approval
111(1)
Long-Term Decline
112(1)
Personality or Policy?
113(2)
Personal Characteristics
115(1)
Hot-Button Issue: Why Is Bill Clinton So Popular (When No One Seems to Like Him)?
115(1)
Issues
116(3)
Rally Events
119(1)
Leading the Public
120(17)
Direct Opinion Leadership
120(4)
The Clinton Presidency: Bill Clinton and the Public Presidency
124(2)
Information Control
126(4)
The Use of Symbols
130(3)
Public Relations
133(4)
Conclusion
137(1)
Discussion Questions
138(1)
Web Exercises
138(1)
Selected Reading
138(1)
Notes
139(5)
The President and the Media
144(40)
The Evolution of Media Coverage
144(3)
The Clinton Presidency: The President Assesses the Press
146(1)
Relations between the President and the Press
147(12)
The White House Press Corps
147(1)
The Presidential Press Operation
148(2)
The Presidential Press Conference
150(3)
Services for the Press
153(4)
Managing the News
157(2)
Press Coverage of the President
159(12)
Leaks
159(3)
Superficiality
162(5)
Bias
167(4)
Media Effects
171(6)
Media Priming
172(1)
Setting the Public's Agenda
172(1)
Evaluations of the President
173(1)
Limiting the President's Options
174(1)
Hot-Button Issue: The Rush to Judgment
174(1)
Undermining the President
175(2)
Limits on Media Effects
177(1)
Conclusion
177(1)
Discussion Questions
178(1)
Web Exercises
179(1)
Selected Reading
179(1)
Notes
180(4)
The President's Office
184(34)
Organizing Executive Advice
185(9)
The Evolution of the Cabinet
185(3)
The Development of Cabinet Councils
188(1)
The Creation of a Presidential Bureaucracy
188(2)
Consequences of Structural Change
190(4)
Providing a Presidential Staffing System
194(13)
The Early Years
194(1)
The Personalized White House, 1939 to 1960
195(1)
The Institutionalized White House, 1960 to the Present
196(4)
The Clinton Presidency: Staffing Trials and Tribulations
200(4)
Trends in White House Staffing
204(1)
Hot-Button Issue: The Privacy of Internal Communications
205(1)
Evaluating the Staffing System: Spokes of the Wheel versus Central Management
206(1)
The Growth of the Vice Presidency
207(4)
The President's Spouse
211(2)
Conclusion
213(1)
Discussion Questions
214(1)
Web Exercises
215(1)
Selected Reading
215(1)
Notes
216(2)
Presidential Decision Making
218(32)
Previous Commitments
219(1)
Time Constraints
220(1)
Organization and Style of Decision Making
221(8)
White House Organization
221(2)
The Clinton Presidency: Getting a New Chief of Staff
223(1)
The Form of Advice
224(2)
Multiple Advocacy
226(2)
Presidential Involvement
228(1)
Relationships with Advisers
229(7)
Disagreeing with the President
229(2)
Discouraging Advice
231(2)
Groupthink
233(1)
Staff Rivalries
233(1)
Loss of Perspective
234(1)
Role Conceptions
234(1)
Hot-Button Issue: What Difference Does the Decision-Making Process Make?
235(1)
Bureaucratic Politics and Decision Making
236(10)
Organizational Parochialism
236(2)
Maintaining the Organization
238(2)
Organizational and Personal Influence
240(2)
Bureaucratic Structure
242(4)
Conclusion
246(1)
Discussion Questions
246(1)
Web Exercises
247(1)
Selected Reading
247(1)
Notes
248(2)
The Psychological Presidency
250(33)
Qualifications for Office
251(1)
Social and Political Background
252(1)
Physical Attributes and General Health
253(4)
Psychological Orientation
257(10)
Presidential Character
257(5)
Hot-Button Issue: How Important Is Character?
262(2)
The Clinton Presidency: The Impact of Personality Traits on Performance in Office
264(3)
Cognitive Dimensions
267(6)
Impact of Worldviews
268(1)
Managing Inconsistency
269(4)
Presidential Style
273(2)
White House Staff Relationships
275(2)
Conclusion
277(1)
Discussion Questions
278(1)
Web Exercises
279(1)
Selected Reading
279(1)
Notes
280(3)
The President and the Executive Branch
283(40)
Implementation Problems
285(1)
Lack of Attention to Implementation
285(2)
Communication of Presidential Decisions
287(7)
Transmission
287(1)
The Clinton Presidency: The National Performance Review
288(3)
Clarity
291(2)
Consistency
293(1)
Resources
294(7)
Money
294(1)
Staff
295(3)
Authority
298(2)
Hot-Button Issue: The Use of Executive Orders to Bypass Congress
300(1)
Facilities and Equipment
300(1)
Dispositions
301(8)
Staffing the Bureaucracy
303(5)
Incentives
308(1)
The Bureaucratic Structure
309(5)
Standard Operating Procedures
309(2)
Fragmentation
311(3)
Follow-Up
314(4)
Conclusion
318(1)
Discussion Questions
319(1)
Web Exercises
319(1)
Selected Reading
320(1)
Notes
321(2)
The President and Congress
323(46)
Formal Legislative Powers
323(2)
Sources of Conflict between the Executive and Legislative Branches
325(3)
Constituencies
325(1)
Internal Structures
326(2)
Information and Expertise
328(1)
Party Leadership
328(13)
Party Support of the President
329(3)
Leading the Party
332(9)
Public Support
341(3)
Public Approval
341(2)
Mandates
343(1)
Presidential Legislative Skills
344(15)
Congressional Liaison
344(3)
Personal Appeals
347(1)
Bargaining
348(2)
Services and Amenities
350(1)
Pressure
351(1)
Consultation
352(2)
Setting Priorities
354(1)
Moving Fast
355(1)
Structuring Choice
356(1)
The Clinton Presidency: Bill Clinton Tries to Define Himself
357(1)
The Context of Influence
358(1)
The Impact of Legislative Skills
358(1)
The Veto
359(4)
Hot-Button Issue: The Line-Item Veto
361(2)
Conclusion
363(2)
Discussion Questions
365(1)
Web Exercises
366(1)
Selected Reading
366(1)
Notes
367(2)
The President and the Judiciary
369(31)
Judicial Selection
370(11)
Selection of Lower-Court Judges
370(2)
Backgrounds of Lower-Court Judges
372(3)
Selection of Supreme Court Justices
375(4)
Characteristics of Justices
379(2)
President-Supreme Court Relations
381(7)
Molding the Court
382(1)
The Clinton Presidency: Clinton Decides Not to Pack the Courts
383(2)
Arguments in the Courts
385(2)
Enforcing Court Decisions
387(1)
Other Relationships
387(1)
Complying with the Court
388(6)
Presidential Compliance
389(1)
Hot-Button Issue: Is the President Immune from Private Lawsuits?
390(2)
Deference to the President
392(2)
Judicial Powers
394(1)
Conclusion
395(1)
Discussion Questions
396(1)
Web Exercises
396(1)
Selected Reading
397(1)
Notes
397(3)
Domestic Policy Making
400(33)
The Development of a Policy Role
401(4)
Institutionalizing Presidential Initiatives
402(1)
Changing Policy Environment
403(2)
The Office of Management and Budget and the Executive Branch
405(6)
Exercising Central Clearance
406(1)
Coordinating Executive Advice
407(2)
Reviewing Agency Regulations
409(1)
Presenting an Annual Program
410(1)
The Domestic Policy Office and the White House
411(3)
Structural Orientation
413(1)
Stylistic Differences
414(1)
Strategies for Policy Making
414(15)
Accommodating External Forces
415(2)
The Clinton Presidency: The Health Care Fiasco
417(3)
Building a Policy Agenda
420(5)
Hot-Button Issue: The President's Tobacco Plan Goes Up in Smoke
425(4)
Conclusion
429(1)
Discussion Questions
430(1)
Web Exercises
430(1)
Selected Reading
430(1)
Notes
431(2)
Budgetary and Economic Policy Making
433(40)
The Federal Budget
434(11)
The Battle of the Budget: President versus Congress
439(6)
The Budget Makers
445(8)
The President
445(1)
Hot-Button Issue: What Should Be Done with the Budget Surplus?
446(1)
The Office of Management and Budget
447(3)
The Executive Departments and Agencies
450(1)
The Congress
451(2)
Presidential Leadership and the Budget
453(2)
Domestic Economic Policy Making
455(2)
Foreign Economic Policy Making
457(2)
Economic Policy Makers
459(4)
The Department of the Treasury
459(1)
The Federal Reserve Board
460(1)
The Council of Economic Advisers
460(2)
The Office of Management and Budget
462(1)
International Economic Advisers
462(1)
The Coordination of Economic Advice
463(2)
The Politics of Economic Policy Making
465(4)
The Clinton Presidency: Economic Decision Making in 1993
466(3)
Conclusion
469(1)
Discussion Questions
470(1)
Web Exercises
470(1)
Selected Reading
471(1)
Notes
472(1)
Foreign and Defense Policy Making
473(30)
Constitutional and Statutory Authority
474(11)
The Original Design
474(1)
The Exercise of Powers
475(9)
The Clinton Presidency: Dispatching U.S. Forces to Haiti
484(1)
The Expansion of a Policy-Making Role
485(8)
Incentives for Presidential Leadership
485(3)
Policy Goals and Presidential Success: The Two Presidencies Thesis
488(3)
Hot-Button Issue: Fast Track Derailed
491(2)
The Development of an Advisory System
493(4)
The Executive Departments
493(2)
The National Security Council
495(1)
The Special Assistant for National Security Affairs
496(1)
Assessing the Advisory System
497(1)
Conclusion
498(1)
Discussion Questions
499(1)
Web Exercises
500(1)
Selected Reading
501(1)
Notes
502(1)
Appendix A Studying the Presidency 503(14)
Appendix B Nonelectoral Succession, Removal, and Tenure 517(4)
Appendix C Provisions of the Constitution of the United States That Relate to the Presidency 521(8)
Appendix D The Politics of Impeachment: Arguments for and against the Impeachment of William Jefferson Clinton 529(4)
Index 533


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