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Presidential Leadership : Politics and Policy Making,9780534604028

Presidential Leadership : Politics and Policy Making

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780534604028

ISBN10:
0534604021
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/20/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $157.33

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Summary

1. Presidential Leadership: An Introduction. 2. The Nomination Process. 3. The Presidential Election. 4. The President and the Public. 5. The President and the Media. 6. The President's Office. 7. Presidential Decision Making. 8. The Psychological Presidency. 9. The President and the Executive Branch. 10. The President and Congress. 11. The President and the Judiciary. 12. Domestic Policy Making. 13. Budgetary and Economic Policy Making. 14. Foreign and Defense Policy Making. 15 The Unilateral Presidency. Appendix A: Methods for Studying the Presidency. Appendix B: Non-electoral Succession, Removal and Tenure. Appendix C: Provisions of the Constitution of the United States That Relate to the Presidency. Appendix D: 2004 Electoral and Popular Vote Summary.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xvi
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xix
1 PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP: AN INTRODUCTION
1(27)
The Original Presidency
2(4)
The Creation of the Institution
2(2)
The Scope of Article II
4(2)
The Evolution of the Presidency
6(5)
Policy-Making Roles
6(1)
Organizational Structure
7(2)
Public Dimensions
9(2)
Problems of Contemporary Leadership
11(2)
Approaches to Studying the Presidency
13(6)
Legal
14(1)
Institutional
15(1)
Political Power
16(1)
Psychological
17(1)
Summary
18(1)
Orientation and Organization of This Book
19(5)
Thinking about Leadership: Two Perspectives
19(3)
Conceptual Focus
22(1)
A Preview
23(1)
Selected Readings
24(1)
Notes
25(3)
2 THE NOMINATION PROCESS
28(31)
The Evolution of the System
29(2)
Changes in the Political Arena
31(11)
Party Reforms
31(3)
Campaign Finance
34(4)
Public Relations
38(4)
The Quest for the Nomination: A Strategic Game Plan
42(4)
Non-Front-Runners
42(1)
Pulpit Candidates
43(1)
Front-Runners
43(3)
The Noncompetitive Phase of the Nomination Process
46(8)
Launching the Presidential Campaign: The National Conventions
47(5)
Characteristics of the Nominees
52(2)
Conclusion
54(1)
Discussion Questions
55(1)
Web Exercises
55(1)
Selected Readings
56(1)
Notes
56(3)
3 THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
59(41)
The Strategic Environment
60(13)
The Electoral College
60(5)
The Polity
65(5)
Financial Considerations
70(1)
News Coverage
71(2)
The Presidential Campaign
73(11)
Creating an Organization
74(3)
Designing an Image
77(1)
Projecting a Partisan Appeal
78(1)
Building a Winning Coalition
79(2)
Media Tactics
81(3)
The Meaning of the Election
84(10)
Predictions and Polls
84(2)
Analyzing the Results
86(6)
Assessing the Mandate
92(1)
Converting the Electoral Coalition for Governance
93(1)
Conclusion
94(1)
Discussion Questions
95(1)
Web Exercises
95(1)
Selected Readings
95(1)
Notes
96(4)
4 THE PRESIDENT AND THE PUBLIC
100(54)
Understanding Public Opinion
101(5)
Americans' Opinions
101(1)
Public Opinion Polls
102(2)
Presidential Election Results
104(1)
Mail from the Public
105(1)
Acting Contrary to Public Opinion
105(1)
Public Expectations of the President
106(6)
High Expectations
107(3)
Contradictory Expectations
110(2)
Public Approval of the President
112(11)
Levels of Approval
113(1)
Party Identification
114(1)
Positivity Bias
114(2)
The Persistence of Approval
116(1)
Long-Term Decline
117(1)
Personality or Policy?
118(1)
Personal Characteristics
119(1)
Issues
120(2)
Rally Events
122(1)
Leading the Public
123(23)
Direct Opinion Leadership
124(4)
Framing Issues
128(2)
The Use of Symbols
130(4)
Public Relations
134(4)
Success of Opinion Leadership
138(4)
Information Control
142(4)
Conclusion
146(1)
Discussion Questions
147(1)
Web Exercises
147(1)
Selected Readings
147(1)
Notes
148(6)
5 THE PRESIDENT AND THE MEDIA
154(39)
The Evolution of Media Coverage
155(1)
Relations between the President and the Press
156(12)
The White House Press Corps
157(1)
The Presidential Press Operation
157(2)
The Presidential Press Conference
159(3)
Services for the Press
162(4)
Managing the News
166(2)
Press Coverage of the President
168(10)
Leaks
168(3)
Superficiality
171(3)
Bias
174(4)
Media Effects
178(7)
Setting the Public's Agenda
178(1)
Media Framing and Priming
179(2)
Public Knowledge
181(1)
Limiting the President's Options
182(1)
Undermining the President
183(1)
Limits on Media Effects
184(1)
Conclusion
185(1)
Discussion Questions
186(1)
Web Exercises
186(1)
Selected Readings
187(1)
Notes
187(6)
6 THE PRESIDENT'S OFFICE
193(30)
Organizing Executive Advice
194(10)
The Evolution of the Cabinet
194(4)
The Creation of a Presidential Bureaucracy
198(3)
Consequences of Structural Change
201(3)
Providing a Presidential Staffing System
204(14)
The Early Years
204(1)
The Personalized White House, 1939 to 1960
204(1)
The Institutionalized White House, 1960 to the Present
205(6)
Trends in White House Staffing
211(1)
The Growth of the Vice Presidency
212(4)
The President's Spouse
216(2)
Conclusion
218(1)
Discussion Questions
219(1)
Web Exercises
219(1)
Selected Readings
220(1)
Notes
220(3)
7 PRESIDENTIAL DECISION MAKING
223(31)
Previous Commitments
224(1)
Time Constraints
225(1)
Organization and Style of Decision Making
226(7)
White House Organization
226(2)
The Form of Advice
228(2)
Multiple Advocacy
230(1)
Presidential Involvement
231(2)
Relationships with Advisers
233(6)
Disagreeing with the President
234(1)
Discouraging Advice
235(1)
Groupthink
236(1)
Staff Rivalries
237(1)
Loss of Perspective
237(1)
Role Conceptions
238(1)
Bureaucratic Politics and Decision Making
239(11)
Organizational Parochialism
239(2)
Maintaining the Organization
241(2)
Organizational and Personal Influence
243(2)
Bureaucratic Structure
245(5)
Conclusion
250(1)
Discussion Questions
250(1)
Web Exercises
251(1)
Selected Readings
251(1)
Notes
252(2)
8 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESIDENCY
254(32)
Qualifications for Office
255(1)
Social and Political Background
256(2)
Physical Attributes and General Health
258(2)
Psychological Orientation
260(8)
Cognitive Dimensions
268(7)
Impact of Worldviews
268(3)
Managing Inconsistency
271(4)
Presidential Style
275(3)
White House Staff Relationships
278(2)
Conclusion
280(1)
Discussion Questions
281(1)
Web Exercises
282(1)
Selected Readings
282(1)
Notes
283(3)
9 THE PRESIDENT AND THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
286(44)
Lack of Attention to Implementation
288(1)
Communication of Presidential Decisions
289(6)
Transmission
290(3)
Clarity
293(2)
Consistency
295(1)
Resources
295(8)
Money
295(1)
Staff
296(3)
Authority
299(3)
Facilities and Equipment
302(1)
Dispositions
303(11)
White House Distrust
303(2)
Bureaucratic Responsiveness to the President
305(2)
Staffing the Bureaucracy
307(6)
Limiting Discretion
313(1)
The Bureaucratic Structure
314(5)
Standard Operating Procedures
314(2)
Fragmentation
316(3)
Follow-Up
319(4)
Conclusion
323(1)
Discussion Questions
323(1)
Web Exercises
323(1)
Selected Readings
324(1)
Notes
325(5)
10 THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS 330(48)
Formal Legislative Powers
331(1)
Sources of Conflict between the Executive and Legislative Branches
332(4)
Constituencies
333(1)
Internal Structures
333(2)
Information and Expertise
335(1)
Time Perspectives
335(1)
Agenda Setting
336(1)
Party Leadership
336(12)
Party Support of the President
337(2)
Leading the Party
339(9)
Public Support
348(3)
Public Approval
348(2)
Mandates
350(1)
Evaluating Strategic Position
351(2)
Presidential Legislative Skills
353(14)
Congressional Liaison
353(3)
Personal Appeals
356(1)
Bargaining
357(2)
Services and Amenities
359(1)
Pressure
360(1)
Consultation
361(1)
Setting Priorities
362(2)
Moving Quickly
364(1)
Structuring Choice
364(1)
The Context of Influence
365(2)
The Impact of Legislative Skills
367(1)
The Veto
367(5)
Conclusion
372(1)
Discussion Questions
373(1)
Web Exercises
374(1)
Selected Readings
374(1)
Notes
375(3)
11 THE PRESIDENT AND THE JUDICIARY 378(31)
Judicial Selection
379(12)
Selection of Lower-Court Judges
379(3)
Backgrounds of Lower-Court Judges
382(3)
Selection of Supreme Court Justices
385(4)
Characteristics of Justices
389(2)
President-Supreme Court Relations
391(5)
Molding the Court
391(2)
Arguments in the Courts
393(1)
Enforcing Court Decisions
394(1)
Other Relationships
395(1)
Complying with the Court
396(6)
Presidential Compliance
396(4)
Deference to the President
400(2)
Judicial Powers
402(1)
Conclusion
403(1)
Discussion Questions
404(1)
Web Exercises
404(1)
Selected Readings
405(1)
Notes
405(4)
12 DOMESTIC POLICY MAKING 409(33)
The Development of a Policy-Making Role
410(4)
Institutionalizing Presidential Initiatives
411(1)
Changing Policy Environment
412(2)
The Office of Management and Budget and the Executive Branch
414(7)
Exercising Central Clearance
414(1)
Issuing Statements of Administration Policy
415(1)
Coordinating Executive Branch Advice
416(1)
Reviewing Agency Regulations
416(2)
Overseeing Executive Orders
418(1)
Decision Making in and by the OMB
419(2)
The Evolution of White House Policy Making
421(5)
Structural Orientation
424(1)
Stylistic Differences
425(1)
Strategies for Policy Making
426(9)
Accommodating External Forces
426(3)
Building a Policy Agenda
429(6)
Conclusion
435(3)
Discussion Questions
438(1)
Web Exercises
439(1)
Selected Readings
439(1)
Notes
440(2)
13 BUDGETARY AND ECONOMIC POLICY MAKING 442(33)
The Federal Budget
443(5)
The Battle of the Budget: President Versus Congress
448(3)
The Budget Makers
451(9)
The President
451(1)
The Office of Management and Budget
452(3)
The Executive Departments and Agencies
455(1)
The Congress
456(4)
Presidential Leadership and the Budget
460(1)
Domestic Economic Policy Making
461(3)
Foreign Economic Policy Making
464(1)
Economic Policy Makers
465(3)
The Department of the Treasury
465(1)
The Federal Reserve Board
465(1)
The Council of Economic Advisers
466(1)
The Office of Management and Budget
467(1)
International Economic Advisers
467(1)
The Coordination of Economic Advice
468(1)
The Politics of Economic Policy Making
468(2)
Conclusion
470(1)
Discussion Questions
471(1)
Web Exercises
472(1)
Selected Readings
472(1)
Notes
473(2)
14 FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY MAKING 475(24)
Constitutional and Statutory Authority
476(9)
The Original Design
476(1)
The Exercise of Powers
477(8)
The Expansion of a Policy-Making Role
485(3)
Incentives for Presidential Leadership
485(1)
Policy Goals and Presidential Success: The Two Presidencies Thesis
486(2)
The Development of an Advisory System
488(5)
The Executive Departments
488(1)
The National Security Council
489(3)
The Special Assistant for National Security Affairs
492(1)
Assessing the Advisory System
493(1)
Conclusion
493(2)
Discussion Questions
495(1)
Web Exercises
495(1)
Selected Readings
496(1)
Notes
496(3)
15 THE UNILATERAL PRESIDENCY 499(19)
Executive Orders and Proclamations
500(3)
Executive Agreements and Foreign Policy Doctrines
503(2)
Command Authority: The President's War Powers
505(5)
Historical Precedents
505(1)
Congressional Acquiescence
506(1)
Checks and Balances Restored
507(3)
Legislative Veto
510(2)
Judicial Pardons
512(1)
Conclusion
512(2)
Discussion Questions
514(1)
Web Exercises
515(1)
Selected Readings
515(1)
Notes
516(2)
APPENDIX A: METHODS OF STUDYING THE PRESIDENCY 518(10)
APPENDIX B: NONELECTORAL SUCCESSION, REMOVAL, AND TENURE 528(5)
APPENDIX C: PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES THAT RELATE TO THE PRESIDENCY 533(10)
APPENDIX D: 2004 ELECTORAL AND POPULAR VOTE SUMMARY 543(2)
INDEX 545


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