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There is perhaps no political position as unique as the American presidency. This book considers both the strengths and weaknesses of the presidency as a political institution as well as the those of recent presidents and their leadership skills to examine the "real" presidency; that is, notjust the theoretical analysis of the institution or assessments of the men who have served as president, but the actual day-to-day responsibilities and challenges that go with the job. To showcase the "real" aspects of the presidency, as well as the differences between individual and institutionalperspectives on decision making, the authors incorporate archival documents from multiple administrations to reveal the inner workings of the White House. The documents and oral histories at presidential libraries and other archives represent a virtual treasure trove of detailed analysis and stories of what actually happened, not only publicly but behind the scenes, in each presidential administration. These documents allow a president and/or membersof his administration, through their own words, to animate the discussions in each chapter from the perspective of political actors who were actually present to understand and appreciate the depth and breadth of presidential power and leadership in the 21st century.
Lori Cox Han is Professor of Political Science at Chapman University. She is the author of A Presidency Upstaged (2011) and Women and U.S. Politics, Second Edition (2010), editor of New Directions in the American Presidency (2010), and coeditor of Rethinking Madam President (2007).
Diane J. Heith is Associate Professor and Chair of Government and Politics at St. John's University. She is the author of the forthcoming The Presidential Road Show (2013) and Polling to Govern (2003) and coeditor, with Lori Cox Han, of In the Public Domain (2005).
Table of Contents
Each chapter includes a Conclusion, Suggested Readings, and "On the Web." Preface Tables and figures Chapter 1. Introduction: Studying Presidents and the Presidency Historical Context The Traditional Presidency The Modern Presidency The Postmodern/Contemporary Presidency Theories and Methodologies Classics in Presidential Studies Newer Methodologies Evolve The President-Centered Approach The Presidency-Centered Approach Sources Presidential Libraries Public Papers Building a Presidential Library: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Leadership Chapter 2. Presidents and the Constitution The Framers' Plan and the Constitutional Convention Inherited Practices and Ideas The Framers' World The Confederation Executive Federalism General vs. Limited Authority Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances Rule by Elites and the Electoral College Powers of the Office The Vesting Clause Law-Enforcement Authority Authority Legislative Authority Appointment and Removal Power Executive Privilege and Immunity Expansion of Presidential Powers Theories of Presidential Power The Constitutionality of Expanded Presidential Powers Presidential Pardons: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: The War Powers Resolution Chapter 3. The Presidential Selection Process The Nominating Process in Historical Perspective The Pre-Nomination Period Deciding to Run The Invisible Primary Gaining Party Support Primaries and Caucuses Iowa and New Hampshire Super Tuesday Financing Presidential Campaigns Campaign Finance: A Brief History The Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1971 and 1974 Loopholes to Campaign Finance Laws Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns Recent Campaign Finance Reforms National Party Conventions The General Election The Electoral College Appealing to Voters Campaign Communications The Consequences of Winning The Coalition The Message and the Mandate Campaigning vs. Governing Presidential Nominations: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: The Electoral College Strategy Chapter 4. The Public Presidency: Communication and Mass Media The Evolving Rhetorical Presidency The Radio Era The Television Age The Internet Age Presidential Communication: Strategies and Resources The Press Office and Press Secretary The Office of Communications Speech Writing Public Events The President and the Press The White House Press Corps Press Conferences The Media Environment News Coverage of the President White House Press Strategies Addressing the Nation: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Media Exposure Chapter 5. The Public Presidency: Public Opinion A Restrained View of the Public Evaluating the President Job Approval Personal Approval President Obama and Public Opinion Popularity as a Source of Presidential Power Presidential Polling as a Source of Power Using White House Polls Tracking the Constituency Rhetorical Design Polling to Save a Presidency: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Presidential Image and Public Opinion Chapter 6. Presidents and the Legislative Branch The President's Formal Role in the Legislative Process Using the Veto The Legislative Veto The Line-Item Veto Recommendations to Congress Senate Confirmations Separation of Powers Staking Out a Role Creating the Chief Legislator Sharing Powers Divergent Constituencies The Decision-Making Process Political Parties Individual Behavior Veto Politics Budget Showdowns and Shutdowns: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Campaigning Against Congress Chapter 7. Presidents and the Judicial Branch Nominations to the U.S. Supreme Court Franklin Roosevelt and the Federal Courts Tenure and Removal The Nomination Process The Confirmation Process The Confirmation Hearings Politicizing the Process Presidential Legacies Nominations to Lower Federal Courts Nominating and Confirming Federal Judges The Candidate Pool The President's Relationship with the Judicial Branch The Role of the Solicitor General Implementing Supreme Court Decisions Defining Presidential Powers Selecting a Chief Justice: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Seeking Justice Chapter 8. Presidents and the Executive Branch The Job of the Chief Executive The Bureaucracy Evolves The Bureaucracy Today Separation of Power Creates Conflict The Cabinet The Executive Office of the President Creating the Executive Office of the President White House Staff Organizing the White House Staff The Chief of Staff Concerns With and Consequences of the EOP Mechanisms for Presidential Control of the Bureaucracy Appointments Budgeting as Management Executive Orders Regulatory Review Signing Statements Vice Presidents The History of the Office The Contemporary Vice Presidency First Ladies First Ladies in Historical Perspective Contemporary First Ladies Crisis Management: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Managing the White House Chapter 9. Presidents and Domestic Policymaking U.S. Domestic Policy Policy and Presidential Agendas Presidents and Domestic Policymaking Principal Domestic Policymakers The Evolution of U.S. Domestic Policy Economic Policy Social Policy Social Services Law Enforcement Natural Resources and Conservation Saving the Big Three Automakers: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: Signing Medicare into Law Chapter 10 Presidents and Foreign Policymaking U.S. Foreign Policy Diplomacy vs. National Security Economic Interests Presidents and Foreign Policymaking The Rational-Actor Model The Political Agenda Domestic Actors International Actors Principal Geopolitical Theaters The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy The Early Republic through World War I World War II and the Cold War The Post-Soviet World War and U.S. Foreign Policy Nation Building: Then . . . and Now In Their Own Words: The Aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis Appendix A. Conducting Research at Presidential Libraries Appendix B. The United States Constitution Appendix C. Presidential Elections Results, 1789-2012 Notes Bibliography Index