9780130205933

Prestressed Concrete : A Fundamental Approach

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130205933

  • ISBN10:

    0130205931

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-10-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Summary

Created for senior-level undergraduate and graduate Civil Engineering courses.Completely revised to reflect the new ACI 318 Building Code, this popular text offers a unique approach to examining the design of prestressed concrete members in a logical, step-by- step trial and adjustment procedure. Encouraging clear, systematic thinking, it integrates handy flow charts to better understand the steps needed for design and analysis. Extensive discussions on material properties and concrete performance are provided, as well as an in-depth analysis of prestressing of circular tanks for liquid and gas containment and their prestressed shell roofs.

Author Biography

Edward G. Nawy is a distinguished professor with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxi
Basic Concepts
1(30)
Introduction
1(4)
Comparison with Reinforced Concrete
2(2)
Economics of Prestressed Concrete
4(1)
Historical Development of Prestressing
5(2)
Basic Concepts of Prestressing
7(12)
Introduction
7(3)
Basic Concept Method
10(2)
C-Line Method
12(3)
Load-Balancing Method
15(4)
Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method
19(2)
C-Line Computation of Fiber Stresses
21(1)
Load-Balancing Computation of Fiber Stresses
22(1)
SI Working Stress Concepts
23(8)
References
27(1)
Problems
27(4)
Materials and Systems for Prestressing
31(42)
Concrete
31(5)
Introduction
31(1)
Parameters Affecting the Quality of Concrete
31(1)
Properties of Hardened Concrete
32(4)
Stress-Strain Curve of Concrete
36(1)
Modulus of Elasticity and Change in Compressive Strength with Time
36(7)
High-Strength Concrete
38(1)
Initial Compressive Strength and Modulus
39(4)
Creep
43(5)
Effects of Creep
45(1)
Rheologial Models
45(3)
Shrinkage
48(2)
Nonprestressing Reinforcement
50(3)
Prestressing Reinforcement
53(6)
Types of Reinforcement
53(1)
Stress-Relieved and Low-Relaxation Wires and Strands
54(1)
High-Tensile-Strength Prestressing Bars
55(1)
Steel Relaxation
56(2)
Corrosion and Deterioration of Strands
58(1)
ACI Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement
59(1)
Concrete Stresses in Flexure
59(1)
Prestressing Steel Stresses
59(1)
AASHTO Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement
60(1)
Concrete Stresses before Creep and Shrinkage Losses
60(1)
Concrete Stresses at Service Load after Losses
60(1)
Prestressing Steel Stresses
60(1)
Relative Humidity Values
60(1)
Prestressing Systems and Anchorages
61(9)
Pretensioning
61(1)
Post-Tensioning
62(1)
Jacking Systems
63(1)
Grouting of Post-Tensioned Tendons
64(6)
Circular Prestressing
70(1)
Ten Principles
70(3)
References
70(3)
Partial Loss of Prestress
73(33)
Introduction
73(2)
Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES)
75(3)
Pretensioned Elements
75(3)
Post-tensioned Elements
78(1)
Steel Stress Relaxation (R)
78(2)
Relaxation Loss Computation
80(1)
ACI-ASCE Method of Accounting for Relaxation Loss
80(1)
Creep Loss (CR)
80(3)
Computation of Creep Loss
82(1)
Shrinkage Loss (SH)
83(2)
Computation of Shrinkage Loss
84(1)
Losses Due to Friction (F)
85(3)
Curvature Effect
85(1)
Wobble Effect
86(1)
Computation of Friction Loss
87(1)
Anchorage-Seating Losses (A)
88(2)
Computation of Anchorage-Seating Loss
89(1)
Change of Prestress Due to Bending of a Member (ΔfpB)
90(1)
Step-by-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Pre-Tension Beam
90(6)
Step-by-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Post-Tension Beam
96(3)
Lump-Sum Computation of Time-Dependent Losses in Prestress
99(1)
SI Prestress Loss Expressions
100(6)
SI Prestress Loss Example
101(3)
References
104(1)
Problems
104(2)
Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
106(115)
Introduction
106(2)
Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components
108(7)
General Guidelines
108(1)
Minimum Section Modulus
108(7)
Service-Load Design Examples
115(13)
Variable Tendon Eccentricity
115(7)
Variable Tendon Eccentricity with No Height Limitation
122(4)
Constant Tendon Eccentricity
126(2)
Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties
128(11)
General Guidelines
128(2)
Gross Area, the Transformed Section, and the Presence of Ducts
130(1)
Envelopes for Tendon Placement
130(1)
Advantages of Curved or Harped Tendons
131(1)
Limiting-Eccentricity Envelopes
132(4)
Prestressing Tendon Envelopes
136(2)
Reduction of Prestress Force Near Supports
138(1)
End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones
139(19)
Stress Distribution
139(2)
Development and Transfer Length in Pretensioned Members and Design of their Anchorage Reinforcement
141(3)
Post-Tensioned Anchorage Zones: Linear Elastic and Strut-and-Tie Theories
144(9)
Design of End Anchorage Reinforcement for Post-Tensioned Beams
153(5)
Flexural Design of Composite Beams
158(4)
Unshored Slab Case
158(2)
Fully Shored Case
160(1)
Effective Flange Width
161(1)
Summary of Step-by-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Service-Load Design of Prestressed Members
162(3)
Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section
165(13)
Ultimate-Strength Flexural Design
178(3)
Cracking-Load Moment
178(1)
Partial Prestressing
179(1)
Cracking Moment Evaluation
180(1)
Load and Strength Factors
181(7)
Reliability and Structured Safety of Concrete Components
181(4)
ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins
185(1)
Design Strength vs. Nominal Strength: Strength-Reduction Factor &phis;
186(1)
AASHTO Strength-Reduction Factors
187(1)
ANSI Alternative Load and Strength-Reduction Factors
187(1)
Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load
188(11)
Introduction
188(1)
The Equivalent Rectangular Block and Nominal Moment Strength
189(10)
Preliminary Ultimate-Load Design
199(2)
Summary Step-by-Step Procedure for Limit at Failure Design of the Prestressed Members
201(5)
Ultimate Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility
206(3)
Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Simply Supported Beam Using Approximate Procedures
209(4)
Use of the ANSI Load and Strength Reduction Factors in Example 4.10
213(1)
SI Flexural Design Expression
213(8)
SI Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams
215(2)
References
217(1)
Problems
218(3)
Shear and Torsional Strength Design
221(101)
Introduction
221(1)
Behavior of Homogeneous Beams in Shear
222(3)
Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections
225(1)
Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement
226(4)
Modes of Failure of Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement
227(1)
Flexural Failure [F]
227(1)
Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexural Shear, FS]
227(2)
Shear Compression Failure [Web Shear, WS]
229(1)
Shear and Principal Stresses in Prestressed Beams
230(6)
Flexure-Shear Strength [Vci]
231(3)
Web-Shear Strength [Vcw]
234(1)
Controlling Values of Vci and Vcw for the Determination of Web Concrete Strength Vc
235(1)
Web-Shear Reinforcement
236(4)
Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy
236(1)
Web Steel Resistance
236(3)
Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups
239(1)
Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction
240(4)
Service-Load Level
240(1)
Ultimate-Load Level
241(2)
Design of Composite-Action Dowel Reinforcement
243(1)
Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear
244(3)
Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of Dowel-Action Vertical Steel in Composite Sections
247(1)
Dowel Steel Design for Composite Action
248(1)
Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an Inverted T-Beam
249(2)
Shear Strength and Web-Shear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam
251(3)
Web-Shear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures
254(3)
Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Standard Double Composite T-Beam
257(4)
Brackets and Corbels
261(15)
Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels
262(2)
Horizontal External Force Effect
264(3)
Sequence of Corbel Design Steps
267(1)
Design of a Bracket or Corbel
268(2)
SI Expressions for Shear in Prestressed Concrete Beams
270(2)
SI Shear Design of Prestressed Beams
272(4)
Torsional Behavior and Strength
276(6)
Introduction
276(1)
Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements
277(5)
Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements
282(20)
Skew-Bending Theory
283(2)
Space Truss Analogy Theory
285(2)
Compression Field Theory
287(4)
Plasticity Equilibrium Truss Theory
291(5)
Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Shear, and Bending in Accordance with the ACI 318-99 Code
296(5)
SI-Metric Expressions for Torsion Equations
301(1)
Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear
302(4)
Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams
306(9)
SI Combined Torsion and Shear Design of Prestressed Beam
315(7)
References
318(1)
Problems
319(3)
Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures
322(78)
Introduction
322(1)
Disadvantages of Continuity in Prestressing
323(1)
Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams
323(3)
Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity
326(3)
Introduction
326(1)
Support Displacement Method
326(3)
Equivalent Load Method
329(1)
Examples Involving Continuity
329(7)
Effect of Continuity on Transformation of C-Line for Draped Tendons
329(5)
Effect of Continuity on Transformation of C-Line for Harped Tendons
334(2)
Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons
336(4)
Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem
337(3)
Concordance Hypotheses
340(1)
Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure of Continuous Beams
340(4)
Tendon Profile Envelope and Modifications
344(1)
Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams
345(10)
Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity
355(5)
Design for Continuity Using Nonprestressed Steel at Support
360(1)
Indeterminate Frames and Portals
361(22)
General Properties
361(3)
Forces and Moments in Portal Frames
364(4)
Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames
368(3)
Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame
371(12)
Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames
383(17)
Method of Imposed Rotations
384(3)
Determination of Plastic Hinge Rotations in Continuous Beams
387(3)
Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges
390(3)
Computation of Available Rotational Capacity
393(1)
Check for Plastic Rotation Serviceability
394(1)
Transverse Confining Reinforcement for Seismic Design
395(1)
Selection of Confining Reinforcement
396(1)
References
397(1)
Problems
398(2)
Camber, Deflection, and Crack Control
400(80)
Introduction
400(1)
Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations
401(1)
Short-Term (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members
401(14)
Load-Deflection Relationship
401(4)
Uncracked Sections
405(4)
Cracked Sections
409(6)
Short-Term Deflection at Service Load
415(6)
Short-Term Deflection of Cracked Prestressed Beams
421(1)
Short-Term Deflection of the Beam in Example 4.3 if Cracked
421(1)
Construction of Moment-Curvature Diagram
422(6)
Long-Term Effects on Deflection and Camber
428(7)
PCI Multipliers Method
428(2)
Incremental Time-Steps Method
430(2)
Approximate Time-Steps Method
432(2)
Computer Methods for Deflection Evaluation
434(1)
Deflection of Composite Beams
434(1)
Permissible Limits of Computed Deflection
435(1)
Long-Term Camber and Deflection Computation by the PCI Multipliers Method
436(4)
Long-Term Camber and Deflection Computation by the Incremental Time-Steps Method
440(11)
Long-Term Camber and Deflection Computation by the Approximate Time-Steps Method
451(3)
Long-Term Deflection of Composite Double-T Cracked Beam
454(7)
Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams
461(5)
Introduction
461(1)
Mathematical Model Formulation for Serviceability Evaluation
461(1)
Expressions for Pretensioned Beams
462(1)
Expressions for Post-Tensioned Beams
463(1)
Long-Term Effects on Crack-Width Development
464(2)
Tolerable Crack Widths
466(1)
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Without Mild Steel
466(1)
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Steel
467(1)
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned I-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Mild Steel
468(1)
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation for Post-tensioned T-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Steel
469(1)
SI Deflection and Cracking Expressions
470(1)
SI Deflection Control
471(5)
SI Crack Control
476(4)
References
476(1)
Problems
477(3)
Prestressed Compression and Tension Members
480(56)
Introduction
480(1)
Prestressed Compression Members: Load-Moment Interaction in Columns and Piles
481(6)
Strength Reduction Factor &phis;
487(3)
Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Prestressed Compression Members
490(1)
Construction of Nominal Load-Moment (Pn-Mn) and Design (Pu-Mu) Interaction Diagrams
491(6)
Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns
497(5)
Buckling Considerations
501(1)
Moment Magnification Method: First-Order Analysis
502(4)
Moment Magnification in Non-Sway Frames
503(1)
Moment Magnification in Sway Frames
504(2)
Second-Order Frame Analysis and P - Δ Effects
506(1)
Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns
507(1)
Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column
507(6)
Compression Members in Biaxial Bending
513(6)
Exact Method of Analysis
513(1)
Load Contour Method of Analysis
514(3)
Step-by-Step Operational Procedure for the Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns
517(2)
Practical Design Considerations
519(3)
Longitudinal or Main Reinforcement
519(1)
Lateral Reinforcement for Columns
519(3)
Reciprocal Load Method for Biaxial Bending
522(2)
Modified Load Contour Method for Biaxial Bending
524(2)
Design of Biaxially Loaded Prestressed Concrete Column by the Modified Load Contour Method
524(2)
Prestressed Tension Members
526(4)
Service-Load Stresses
526(2)
Deformation Behavior
528(1)
Decompression and Cracking
529(1)
Limit State at Failure and Safety Factors
529(1)
Suggested Step-by-Step Procedure for the Design of Tension Members
530(1)
Design of Linear Tension Members
530(6)
References
533(1)
Problems
534(2)
Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems
536(78)
Introduction: Review of Methods
536(4)
The Semielastic ACI Code Approach
539(1)
The Yield-Line Theory
539(1)
The Limit Theory of Plates
539(1)
The Strip Method
539(1)
Summary
540(1)
Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Slabs and Plates
540(1)
Two-Way Action
540(1)
Relative Stiffness Effects
540(1)
The Equivalent Frame Method
541(8)
Introduction
541(1)
Limitations of the Direct Design Method
542(1)
Determination of the Statical Moment Mo
543(2)
Equivalent Frame Analysis
545(3)
Pattern Loading of Spans
548(1)
Two-Directional Load Balancing
549(2)
Flexural Strength of Prestressed Plates
551(3)
Design Moments Mu
551(3)
Bending of Prestressing Tendons and Limiting Concrete Stresses
554(5)
Distribution of Prestressing Tendons
554(1)
Limiting Concrete Tensile Stresses at Service Load (ft psi)
555(4)
Load-Balancing Design of a Single-Panel Two-Way Floor Slab
559(5)
One-Way Slab Systems
564(5)
Shear-Moment Transfer to Columns Supporting Flat Plates
565(1)
Shear Strength
565(1)
Shear-Moment Transfer
565(3)
Deflection Requirements for Minimum Thickness: An Indirect Approach
568(1)
Step-by-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Design of a Two-Way Prestressed Slab and Plate System
569(2)
Design of Prestressed Post-Tensioned Flat-Plate Floor System
571(21)
Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation
592(3)
The Equivalent Frame Approach
592(2)
Column and Middle Strip Deflections
594(1)
Deflection Evaluation of Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Floor Slabs
595(3)
Yield-Line Theory for Two-Way-Action Plates
598(12)
Fundamental Concepts of Hinge-Field Failure Mechanisms in Flexure
599(5)
Failure Mechanisms and Moment Capacities of Slabs of Various Shapes Subjected to Distributed or Concentrated Loads
604(6)
Yield-Line Moment Strength of a Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Plate
610(4)
References
611(1)
Problems
612(2)
Connections for Prestressed Concrete Elements
614(28)
Introduction
614(1)
Tolerances
615(1)
Composite Members
615(1)
Reinforced Concrete Bearing in Composite Members
616(6)
Reinforced Bearing Design
620(2)
Dapped-End Beam Connections
622(7)
Determination of Reinforcement to Resist Failure
623(3)
Dapped-End Beam Connection Design
626(3)
Reinforced Concrete Brackets and Corbels
629(1)
Concrete Beam Ledges
629(4)
Design of Ledge Beam Connection
631(2)
Selected Connection Details
633(9)
References
641(1)
Problems
641(1)
Prestressed Concrete Circular Storage Tanks and Steel Roofs
642(82)
Introduction
642(1)
Design Principles and Procedures
643(13)
Internal Loads
643(3)
Restraining Moment Mo and Radial Shear Force Qo at Freely Sliding Wall Base Fuel to Liquid Pressure
646(5)
General Equation of Forces and Displacements
651(4)
Ring Shear Qo and Moment Mo, Gas Containment
655(1)
Moment Mo and Ring Force Qo in Liquid-Retaining Tank
656(2)
Ring Force Qy at Intermediate Heights of Wall
658(1)
Cylindrical Steel Membrane Coefficients
659(2)
Prestressing Effects on Wall Stresses for Fully Hinged, Partially Sliding and Hinged, Fully Fixed, and Partially Fixed Bases
661(25)
Freely Sliding Wall Base
676(1)
Hinged Wall Base
676(1)
Partially Sliding and Hinged Wall Base
677(1)
Fully Fixed Wall Base
677(4)
Partially Fixed Wall Base
681(5)
Recommended Practice for Situ-Cast and Precast Prestressed Concrete Circular Storage Tanks
686(4)
Stresses
686(1)
Required Strength Load Factors
687(1)
Minimum Wall-Design Requirements
688(2)
Crack Control in Walls of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks
690(1)
Tank Roof Design
690(7)
Membrane Theory of Spherical Domes
691(6)
Prestressed Concrete Tanks with Circumferential Tendons
697(1)
Step-by-Step Procedure for the Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks and Dome Roofs
697(12)
Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Water-Retaining Tank and Its Domed Roof
709(15)
References
722(1)
Problems
723(1)
Lrfd and Standard Aashto Design of Concrete Bridges
724(80)
Introduction: Safety and Reliability
724(2)
AASHTO Standard and LRFD Truck Load Specifications
726(14)
Loads
727(3)
Wheel Load Distribution on Bridge Decks: Standard AASHTO Specifications (LFD)
730(2)
Bending Moments in Bridge Deck Slabs: Standard AASHTO Specifications
732(1)
Wind Loads
733(1)
Seismic Forces
733(1)
Load Combinations
733(2)
LRFD Load Combinations
735(5)
Flexural Design Considerations
740(3)
Strain ε and Factor &phis; Variations: The Strain Limits Approach
740(2)
Factored Flexural Resistance
742(1)
Flexural Design Parameters
742(1)
Reinforcement Limits
743(1)
Shear Design Considerations
743(5)
The Modified Compression Field Theory
743(2)
Design Expressions
745(3)
Horizontal Interface Shear
748(3)
Combined Shear and Torsion
751(2)
AASHTO-LRFD Flexural-Strength Design Specifications vs. ACI Code Provisions
753(3)
Step-by-Step Design Procedure
756(4)
LRFD Design of Bulb-Tee Bridge Deck
760(14)
LRFD Shear and Deflection Design
774(7)
Standard AASHTO Flexural Design of Prestressed Bridge Deck Beams
781(8)
Standard AASHTO Shear Reinforcement Design of Bridge Deck Beams
789(4)
Shear and Torsion Reinforcement Design of a Box-Girder Bridge
793(7)
LRFD Major Design Expressions in SI Format
800(4)
Selected References
801(1)
Problems for Solution
802(2)
Seismic Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures
804(129)
Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes
804(5)
Earthquake Ground Motion Characteristics
806(1)
Fundamental Period of Vibration
807(1)
Design Philosophy
808(1)
Spectreal Response Method
809(8)
Spectral Response Acceleration Maps
809(1)
Design Parameters
809(4)
Earthquake Design Load Classifications
813(2)
Redundancy
815(1)
General Procedure Response Spectrum
815(2)
Equivalent Lateral Force Method
817(7)
Horizontal Base Shear
817(3)
Vertical Distribution of Forces
820(1)
Horizontal Distribution of Story Shear Vx
820(1)
Rigid and Flexible Diaphragms
821(1)
Torsion
821(1)
Story Drift and the P-Delta Effect
821(2)
Overturning
823(1)
Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings
823(1)
Other Aspects in Seismic Design
824(1)
Seismic Shear Forces in Beams and Columns of a Frame: Strong Column-Weak Beam Concept
824(3)
Probable Shears and Moments
824(2)
Strong Column Weak Beam Concept
826(1)
ACI Confining Reinforcement for Structural Concrete Members
827(8)
Longitudinal Reinforcement in Compression Members
827(2)
Transverse Confining Reinforcement
829(1)
Horizontal Shear at the Joint of Beam-Column Connection
830(2)
Development of Reinforcement
832(1)
Allowable Shear Stresses in Structural Walls, Diaphragms and Coupling Beams
832(3)
Seismic Design Concepts in High Rise Buildings and Other Structures
835(3)
General Concepts
835(1)
Ductility of Elements and Plastic Hinging
836(2)
Durability Demand Due to Drift Effects
838(1)
Structural Systems in Seismic Zones
838(9)
Structural Ductile Frames
838(4)
Dywidag Ductile Beam-Column Connection, DDC Assembly
842(1)
Structural Walls in High Seismicity Zones (Shear Walls)
842(4)
Unbonded Precast Post-Tensioned Walls
846(1)
Dual Systems
847(1)
Design Procedure for Earthquake Resistant Structures
848(8)
SI Seismic Design Expressions
856(1)
Example 13.1 Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the IBC Approach
857(3)
Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing
860(5)
Example 13.3 Structural Precast Wall Base Connection Design
865(3)
Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a High Rise Building in High Seismicity Zone Using Dywidag Ductile Connection Assembly (DDC)
868(4)
Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a High Rise Building in High Seismicity Zone Using a Hybrid Connector System
872(11)
Selected References
878(1)
Problems for Solution
879(4)
APPENDICES
A Computer Programs in Q-Basic
883(14)
B Unit Conversions, Design Information, Properties of Reinforcement
897(21)
C Selected Typical Standard Precast Double Tees, Inverted Tees, Hollow Core Sections, and AASHTO Bridge Sections
918(15)
Index 933

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