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A Primer on Communication and Communicative Disorders



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An easy-to-read introduction to communication sciences and disorders appropriate for majors and non-majors alike. This text is written by an expert in the field who has taught introductory communicative disorders courses to both majors and non-majors for numerous years. This first edition presents information comprehensively and uses an easy to read, enthusiastic tone of voice that encourages students to explore the content covered in greater detail beyond the text itself. Introducing the basic concepts and methods related to studying communication, the text covers both typical speech and language development along with information on disordered speech and language. ThroughoutA Primer on Communication and Communicative Disorders, students are assisted by valuable study aids and features that help them learn vital terms, process information, check their knowledge, and apply what they have read to real clinic situations and issues. This introductory text is particularly unique in its coverage of important topics such as swallowing disorders and multicultural issues in speech and communication.

Author Biography

Dr. Howard D. Schwartz has been working as a speech-language pathologist since 1974. He has worked in public schools, directed a hospital speech-language pathology program, supervised in university clinics, and directed his own private clinic. Dr. Schwartz has been on the faculty at Northern Illinois University since 1986 and is presently an associate professor in the School of Allied Health and Communicative Disorders. He has been teaching the introductory course in communicative disorders since 1984 and is a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of fluency disorders. Schwartz is the author of A Primer for Stuttering Therapy (Allyn and Bacon, 1999).

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Communication and Communicative Disorders



Communicative Disorders

            Examples of Communicative Disorders

Professionals Who Work With Disordered Communication

            Speech-Language Pathologists

                        Training, Certification and Licensure



                        Training, Certification and Licensure


            Professional Organizations

                        American Speech-Language Hearing Association

                        Additional Professional Organizations

            Summary and Review

            Websites of Interest



Chapter 2: Anatomy and Physiology of Speech, Language and Voice Production


Central Nervous System


            Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System

            Cranial Nerves

            Autonomic Nervous System

Anatomy and Physiology of Speech Production

            Respiratory System

                        Anatomy of Breathing

                        Physiology of Breathing

            Laryngeal/Phonatory System

                        Anatomy of Sound Production

                        Physiology of Sound Production

            Articulatory System

                        Anatomy and Physiology of Shaping Sounds

Summary and Review

Websites of Interest

Chapter 3: Speech Sounds, Articulation and Phonological Disorders


Language and Speech

Sounds in English

            Classification of Speech Sounds



                        Place of Articulation

                        Manner of Production


Speech Sound Development during the First Year of Life


            2-3 Months

            4-6 Months

            7-10 Months

            11-12 Months

Speech Sound Developmental Milestones

Disorders of Articulation

            Traditional Methods of Classifying Speech Sound Errors





Disorders of Phonology

            Syllable Structure Processes

                        Final Consonant Deletion


                        Consonant Cluster Simplification

            Segment Change or Substitution Processes


Articulation and Phonological Disorders Associated With Physical Differences

                        Cleft Lip and Palate


                        Apraxia of Speech

                        Hearing Loss

Assessment of Articulation and Phonological Disorders

                        Phonology/Speech Articulation Screening

                        Hearing Screening

                        Oral-Facial Examination

                        Speech Sound Inventory

                        Conversational Speech Sampling

                        Error Pattern Analysis


                        Assessing Speech in Context    

                        What Do I Do With All Of This Information?

Articulation Therapy

Linguistic/Phonological Based Therapy

Summary and Review

Websites of Interest


Chapter 4: Language Development in Children

Bernard Grela , Ph.D.

University of Connecticut


      Modes of Communication

      Components of Language

      Theories of Language Acquisition: Nature versus Nurture

      Periods of Language Development

                  Prelinguistic Communication




                  First Words




                  Early Language Development


                              Syntax and Morphology



                  Preschool Language


                              Syntax and Morphology



                              Preliteracy Skills

                  The School Years



                              Syntax and Morphology



      Summary and Review

      Websites of Interest


Chapter 5 Language Disorders in Children

Nina C. Capone

Seton Hall University


The Domains of Language




Receptive Language versus Expressive Language

Language Difference is Not a Language Disorder

Defining Language Disorders in Children

Characterizing Language Impairments




Evaluation of Children with Language Impairments

Types of Language Impaired Populations

            Late Talkers

            Specific Language Impairment

            Autism Spectrum Disorders

            Down Syndrome

            Children At-Risk for Language Impairments


Summary and Review

Website of Interest


Chapter 6 Communication in a Multicultural Society

Amy L. Weiss, Ph.D

University of Rhode Island


What is a Culture?

Why Is Cultural Competence Important?

Culture and the Changing Face of the Population

The Characteristics of Culture




The Role of Communication within the Culture

            Verbal and Non Verbal Communication

The Role of Communicative Disorders within the Culture

Speech and Language Differences versus Disorders


            Examples of American Speech Dialects

            Examples of Dialect Differences

Assessment of Speech and Language with Cultural Awareness

Treatment of Speech and Language Differences

Treatment of Bona Fide Speech and Language Disorders in an L1 Other than English

Summary and Review

Website References


Chapter 7: Neurological Impairment: Speech and Language Disorders in Adults


Brain Anatomy Associated with Speech and Language Disorders

Language Disorders Associated with Neurological Impairment

            Deficits of Expressive Language

            Deficits of Comprehension

            Deficits in Reading and Writing

Aphasia Classification

            Broca’s Aphasia

            Wernicke’s Aphasia

            Global Aphasia

            Anomic Aphasia

Assessment of Language Disorders Associated With Neurological                                             Impairment

Treatment of Language Disorders Associated With Neurological                                               Impairment

Right Hemisphere Damage and Communicative Disorders

Traumatic Brain Injury 


Motor Speech Disorders



Treatment of Motor Speech Disorders

Summary and Review

Website References



Chapter 8: Voice Disorders


Anatomy of Voice Production

Characteristics of Voice Production

Definitions and Prevalence of Voice Disorders

Classifying Voice Disorders


            Phonotrauma and Changes in Laryngeal Tissue

                        Traumatic Laryngitis

                        Vocal Nodules

                        Vocal Polyps

            Voice Problems and Neurological Disorders

                        Vocal Fold Paralysis

                        Spasmodic Dysphonia

            Organic Disease



                        Carcinoma (Cancer)

Assessment of Voice Disorders

            Interviewing the Client

            Viewing the Larynx

                        Indirect Laryngoscopy

                        Direct Laryngoscopy

            Acoustic and Physiological Measures of Voice

Treating Voice Disorders


            Alaryngeal Communication       

Summary and Review

Website References



Chapter 9: Swallowing Disorders

Cynthia D. Hildner M.S.

Northern Illinois University


Anatomy and Physiology of Swallowing

Phases of Normal Swallowing

            Oral Preparatory Phase

            Oral Phase

            Pharyngeal Phase

            Esophageal Phase

Disordered Swallowing

            Swallowing Phases and Dysphagia

Swallowing Disorders Associated With Various Organic Conditions

            Cerebrovascular Accidents

            Traumatic Brain Injury

            Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

            Parkinson’s disease

            Head and Neck Cancers

The Multidisciplinary Dysphagia Team

Evaluating Swallowing

            Screening Swallowing

            Clinical Assessment of Swallowing

            Instrumental Evaluations of Swallowing

                        Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS)

                        Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES)

Dysphagia Treatment

            Swallowing Compensations


                        Swallowing Maneuvers

                        Diet Modifications

            Swallowing Exercises

            Education and Training

            Non-Oral Feeding Considerations

Variations in Swallowing Across the Lifespan

Summary and Review

Website References     


Chapter 10: Fluency Disorders


Fluency and Stuttering

The Onset of Stuttering

            Incidence and Prevalence

            Genetics and Stuttering

            Onset: Gradual or Sudden

The Development of Stuttering

Theories Regarding the Causes Of Stuttering

            Organic Theories

            Behavioral Theories

            Linguistic Theories

            Biology Plus Environment

Evaluating Stuttering

Treating Adults Who Stutter

Treating Children Who Stutter

Other Fluency Disorders

Summary and Review

Websites of Interest


Chapter 11: Anatomy and Physiology of Hearing, Hearing Disorders


The Transmission of Sound


            Frequency and Pitch    

            Intensity and Loudness

Ear Anatomy and Physiology

            Outer Ear

            Middle Ear

            Inner Ear

Disorders of Hearing

            Conductive Hearing Loss

            Sensorineural Hearing Loss

                        Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss

                        Acquired Sensorineural Hearing Loss

            Mixed Hearing Loss

Summary and Review

Websites of Interest



Chapter 12: Hearing Testing and Management of Hearing Disorders


Hearing Testing


            Air Conduction Audiometry

            Bone Conduction

            Speech Audiometry

            Acoustic Immittance

            Otoacoustic Emissions

            Auditory Evoked Potentials

            Hearing Testing Summary

            Hearing Testing Result and Definitions



                        Hearing Aids

            FM Systems and Assistive Listening Devices

            Cochlear Implants

            Auditory Training

            Communication Training

                        Oral Communication

                        Manual Communication

                        Total Communication

Acoustics in the Classroom

            Signal-to-noise Ratio


            What Can Be Done?

Summary and Review

Websites of Interest



Appendix A


Vocabulary Crossword Puzzles

Chapters 2-12

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