9780023364501

Principles and Applications of Geochemistry

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780023364501

  • ISBN10:

    0023364505

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 12/24/1997
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Purchase Benefits
  • Free Shipping On Orders Over $59!
    Your order must be $59 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
  • We Buy This Book Back!
    In-Store Credit: $42.00
    Check/Direct Deposit: $40.00
List Price: $200.59 Save up to $5.02
  • Buy New
    $195.57
    Add to Cart Free Shipping

    THIS ITEM IS TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE FROM THE PUBLISHER, BUT IS EXPECTED IN SOON. PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AND WE WILL SHIP IT AS SOON AS IT ARRIVES.

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Summary

Designed to show readers how to use chemical principles in solving geological problems, this book emphasizes a quantitative approach to problem solving and demonstrates how chemical principles control geologic processes in atomic and large-scale environments. The book starts with basic principles and emphasizes quantitative methods of problem-solving. It uses the principles of isotope geology to enhance the understanding of appropriate geochemical subject areas. The book also examines the geochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of surface water and that determine its quality for human consumption. For anyone interested in Geochemistry or Geology.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Part I PLANET EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 2(58)
1 What Is Geochemistry?
2(6)
1.1 Early History
2(1)
1.2 Geochemistry in the U.S.S.R.
3(1)
1.3 V.M. Goldschmidt
4(1)
1.4 Modern Geochemistry
5(2)
References
7(1)
2 In the Beginning
8(14)
2.1 The Big Bang
8(3)
2.2 Stellar Evolution
11(2)
2.3 Nucleosynthesis
13(7)
2.4 Summary
20(1)
Problems
20(1)
References
20(2)
3 The Solar System
22(21)
3.1 Origin of the Solar System
22(3)
3.2 Origin of the Earthlike Planets
25(1)
3.3 Satellites of the Outer Planets
26(3)
3.4 Pictures of Our Solar System
29(13)
3.5 Summary
42(1)
References
42(1)
4 Chemical Differentiation of the Earth
43(17)
4.1 Internal Structure of the Earth
43(3)
4.2 The Continental Crust: Major Elements
46(3)
4.3 Differentiation of Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks
49(3)
4.4 Differentiation of the Hydrosphere
52(4)
4.5 Summary
56(1)
Problems
57(1)
References
57(3)
Part II PRINCIPLES OF INORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY 60(50)
5 The Electronic Structure of Atoms
60(14)
5.1 The Atom of Thomson and Rutherford
60(1)
5.2 Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
61(2)
5.3 Emission of X-rays
63(1)
5.4 Schrodinger's Model of the Atom
64(3)
5.5 The Aufbau Principle
67(2)
5.6 Summary
69(3)
Problems
72(1)
References
72(2)
6 The Periodic Table and Atomic Weights
74(9)
6.1 Mendeleev's Periodic Table
74(1)
6.2 The Modern Periodic Table
74(3)
6.3 Basic Principles of Atomic Physics
77(1)
6.4 Atomic Weights
78(3)
6.5 Summary
81(1)
Problems
82(1)
References
82(1)
7 Chemical Bonds, Ionic Radii, and Crystals
83(16)
7.1 Electron Donors Versus Acceptors
83(1)
7.2 Measures of Metallic Character
84(3)
7.3 Bonding in Molecules
87(2)
7.4 Ionic Crystals
89(2)
7.5 Ionic Radii
91(6)
7.6 Summary
97(1)
Problems
97(1)
References
98(1)
8 Ionic Substitution in Crystals
99(11)
8.1 Goldschmidt's Rules of Substitution
99(1)
8.2 Camouflage, Capture, and Admission
100(2)
8.3 Coupled Substitution: Key to the Feldspars
102(1)
8.4 Distribution Coefficients and Geothermometers
103(2)
8.5 Geochemical Classification of the Elements
105(1)
8.6 Summary
106(2)
Problems
108(1)
References
108(2)
Part III AQUEOUS GEOCHEMISTRY AND THE STABILITY OF MINERALS 110(166)
9 Acids and Bases
110(20)
9.1 Chemical Reactions and Equilibria
110(2)
9.2 The Law of Mass Action
112(2)
9.3 Dissociation of Weak Acids and Bases
114(7)
9.4 Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Bases
121(2)
9.5 pH Control of Dissociation Equilibria
123(1)
9.6 Solubility of Amorphous Silica
124(3)
9.7 Summary
127(1)
Problems
128(1)
References
128(2)
10 Salts and Their Ions
130(25)
10.1 Solubility of Salts
130(7)
10.2 Hydrolysis
137(2)
10.3 Activities and Concentrations
139(3)
10.4 Solubility of Calcium Carbonate
142(6)
10.5 Chemical Weathering
148(1)
10.6 Transformation of Potassium Feldspar to Kaolinite
149(3)
10.7 Summary
152(1)
Problems
153(1)
References
153(2)
11 Thermodynamics
155(17)
11.1 Definitions
155(2)
11.2 The First Law
157(1)
11.3 Enthalpy
157(2)
11.4 Heats of Reaction
159(1)
11.5 Heat Capacity
160(1)
11.6 The Second Law
161(2)
11.7 Gibbs Free Energy
163(2)
11.8 Derivation of the Law of Mass Action
165(1)
11.9 Fugacity and Activity
166(2)
11.10 The van't Hoff Equation
168(1)
11.11 Solubility of Amorphous Silica Between 0 and 100(Degree)C
168(1)
11.12 Summary
169(1)
Problems
170(1)
References
171(1)
12 Mineral Stability Diagrams
172(28)
12.1 Chemical Weathering of Feldspars
172(10)
12.2 Formation of Zeolites
182(4)
12.3 Magnesium Silicates
186(4)
12.4 Solubility Diagrams
190(4)
12.5 Fugacity Diagrams
194(4)
12.6 Summary
198(1)
Problems
199(1)
References
199(1)
13 Clay Minerals
200(26)
13.1 Crystal Structure
200(2)
13.2 Classification and Chemical Composition
202(6)
13.3 Gibbs Free Energies of Formation
208(3)
13.4 Stability Diagrams
211(6)
13.5 Colloidal Suspensions and Ion Exchange
217(4)
13.6 Dating of Clay Minerals
221(1)
13.7 Summary
222(1)
Problems
223(1)
References
224(2)
14 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
226(27)
14.1 Balancing Equations of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
226(3)
14.2 The Electromotive Series
229(5)
14.3 The Emf of Electrochemical Cells
234(1)
14.4 Stability Limits of Water in Terms of Eh and pH
235(3)
14.5 Stability of Iron Compounds
238(11)
14.6 Summary
249(2)
Problems
251(1)
References
252(1)
15 Rates of Geochemical Processes
253(23)
15.1 Rates of Chemical Reactions
253(4)
15.2 Transport of Matter: Advection
257(2)
15.3 Transport of Matter: Diffusion
259(4)
15.4 Growth of Concretions During Diagenesis
263(5)
15.5 Growth of Monomineralic Layers
268(3)
15.6 Summary
271(1)
Problems
271(2)
References
273(3)
Part IV ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY AND MIXING 276(66)
16 Isotopic Geochronometers
276(25)
16.1 Decay Modes
276(5)
16.2 Law of Radioactivity
281(3)
16.3 Methods of Dating
284(8)
16.4 Cosmogenic Radionuclides
292(5)
16.5 Summary
297(1)
Problems
297(2)
References
299(2)
17 Isotope Fractionation
301(27)
17.1 Principles of Isotope Fractionation
301(3)
17.2 Mathematical Relations
304(2)
17.3 Isotope Fractionation in the Hydrosphere
306(2)
17.4 Oxygen Isotope Composition of Calcite
308(3)
17.5 Oxygen and Hydrogen in Clay Minerals
311(2)
17.6 Groundwater and Geothermal Brines
313(2)
17.7 Isotope Fractionation of Carbon
315(2)
17.8 Isotope Compositions of Strontium in Carbonate Rocks
317(2)
17.9 Isotope Fractionation of Sulfur
319(4)
17.10 Summary
323(2)
Problems
325(1)
References
325(3)
18 Mixing and Dilution
328(14)
18.1 Binary Mixtures
328(2)
18.2 Dilution
330(1)
18.3 Evaporative Concentration
331(1)
18.4 Ternary Mixtures
332(3)
18.5 Isotopic Mixtures of One Element
335(2)
18.6 Isotopic Mixtures of Two Elements
337(1)
18.7 Summary
338(1)
Problems
339(1)
References
340(2)
Part V APPLICATIONS OF GEOCHEMISTRY TO THE SOLUTION OF GLOBAL PROBLEMS 342(164)
19 Consequences of Chemical Weathering
342(26)
19.1 Changes in Chemical Composition of Rocks
343(2)
19.2 Normative Mineral Composition of Weathering Products
345(2)
19.3 Susceptibility of Minerals to Weathering
347(4)
19.4 Formation of Placer Deposits
351(2)
19.5 Provenance Determination by Isotopic Dating
353(1)
19.6 Formation of Soils
354(4)
19.7 Geomicrobiology
358(3)
19.8 Food Production and Population Growth
361(2)
19.9 Summary
363(1)
Problems
364(1)
References
365(3)
20 Chemical Composition of Surface Water
368(32)
20.1 Chemical Analysis of Water in Streams
368(2)
20.2 Chemical Composition of Streams
370(5)
20.3 Chemical Composition of Meteoric Precipitation
375(1)
20.4 Normative Minerals from Water Compositions
376(7)
20.5 Evaporative Concentration
383(9)
20.6 Water Quality
392(3)
20.7 Summary
395(1)
Problems
396(1)
References
397(3)
21 Chemical Weathering of Mineral Deposits
400(25)
21.1 Metallic Mineral Deposits
400(1)
21.2 Oxidation of Iron Sulfides and the Role of Bacteria
401(2)
21.3 Eh-pH Diagram for Copper Minerals
403(4)
21.4 Supergene Enrichment of Fe-Cu Sulfide Deposits
407(1)
21.5 Replacement of Pyrite by Chalcocite
408(3)
21.6 Oxidation of Ore Minerals of Other Metals
411(2)
21.7 Geochemical Exploration
413(4)
21.8 Production and Consumption of Mineral Resources
417(4)
21.9 Summary
421(1)
Problems
422(1)
References
423(2)
22 Geochemical Cycles
425(24)
22.1 The Principle of Mass Balance
426(2)
22.2 Mass Balance for Major Elements in the Ocean
428(3)
22.3 Mass Balance for Trace Elements in the Ocean
431(2)
22.4 The Cycles of C-H-O-N
433(10)
22.5 The Sulfur Cycle
443(3)
22.6 Summary
446(1)
Problems
447(1)
References
447(2)
23 Chemistry of the Atmosphere
449(12)
23.1 Structure and Composition
450(1)
23.2 Ultraviolet Radiation
451(1)
23.3 Ozone in the Stratosphere
452(1)
23.4 Ozone Hole over Antarctica
453(2)
23.5 Infrared Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect
455(2)
23.6 Prediction of the Future Global Climate
457(1)
23.7 Summary
458(1)
Problems
459(1)
References
459(2)
24 Environmental Geochemistry: Disposal of Radioactive Waste
461(24)
24.1 The Big Picture
461(1)
24.2 High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal
462(3)
24.3 Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
465(3)
24.4 Geochemistry of Plutonium
468(5)
24.5 Eh-pH Diagrams of Neptunium and Plutonium
473(3)
24.6 Analog Studies: The Natural Reactors at Oklo, Gabon
476(2)
24.7 Reactor Accidents: Chernobyl, Ukraine
478(3)
24.8 Summary
481(1)
Problems
482(1)
References
483(2)
25 Effect of Environmental Lead on Human Health
485(21)
25.1 Isotope Composition of Environmental Lead
485(2)
25.2 Lead in the Environment
487(5)
25.3 Lead in Plants
492(3)
25.4 Lead Poisoning of Cows and Horses
495(2)
25.5 Human Bones and Tissues
497(2)
25.6 Lead in the Bones of Ancient Peoples
499(3)
25.7 Summary
502(1)
Problems
503(1)
References
504(2)
Appendix A Compilations of Geochemical Data 506(13)
Appendix B Standard Gibbs Free Energies (G^XXX(f)) and Standard Enthalpies of Formation (H^XXX(f)) 519(56)
Author Index 575(14)
Subject Index 589

Rewards Program

Write a Review