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Principles and Applications of Tribology,9781119944546
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Principles and Applications of Tribology



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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 4/1/2013.
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In a fully updated edition, Principles and Applications to Tribology, Second Edition gives the solid understanding of tribology which is essential to engineers whilst designing and ensuring the reliability of machine parts and systems. It moves from basic theory to practice, examining tribology from the integrated viewpoint of mechanical engineering, mechanics, and materials science. It offers detailed coverage of the mechanisms of material wear, friction, and all of the major lubrication techniques - liquids, solids, and gases - and examines a wide range of both traditional and state-of-the-art applications. For this edition the author includes updates on friction and wear as well as completely revised material including the latest breakthroughs in tribology at the nano- and micro- level.

Author Biography

Dr Bhushan is Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor as well as Director of the Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics at The Ohio State University. During his career he has received a number of awards and accolades as well as being central to teaching and formulating the curriculum in Tribology-related topics.  He is a Fellow and Life Member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, as well as various other professional societies.

Table of Contents



1. Introduction

1.1 Definition and History of Tribology

1.2 Industrial Significance of Tribology

1.3 Origins and Significance of Micro/Nanotribology

1.4 Organization of the Book


2. Structure and Properties of Solids

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Atomic Structure, Bonding and Configuration

2.2.1 Individual Atoms and Ions

2.2.2 Molecules, Bonding and Atomic Coordination

2.3 Crystalline Structures

2.3.1 Planar Structures

2.3.2 Nonplanar Structures

2.4 Disorder in Solid Structures

2.4.1 Point Defects

2.4.2 Line Defects (Dislocations)

2.4.3 Surfaces/Internal Boundaries

2.4.4 Solid Solutions

2.5 Atomic Vibrations and Diffusions

2.6 Phase Diagrams

2.7 Microstructures

2.8 Elastic and Plastic Deformation, Fracture and Fatigue

2.8.1 Elastic Deformation

2.8.2 Plastic Deformation

2.8.3 Plastic Deformation Mechanisms

2.8.4 Fracture

2.8.5 Fatigue

2.9 Time-Dependent Viscoelastic/Viscoplastic Deformation

2.9.1 Description of Time-Dependent Deformation Experiments


3. Solid Surface Characterization

3.1 Nature of Surfaces

3.2 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Solid Surfaces

3.2.1 Deformed Layer

3.2.2 Chemically Reacted Layer

3.2.3 Physisorbed Layer

3.2.4 Chemisorbed Layer

3.2.5 Surface Tension, Surface Energy, and Wetting

3.2.6 Methods of Characterization of Surface Layers

3.3 Analysis of Surface Roughness

3.3.1 Average Roughness Parameters

3.3.2 Statistical Analyses

3.3.3 Fractal Characterization

3.3.4 Practical Considerations in Measurement of Roughness Parameters

3.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness

3.4.1 Mechanical Stylus Method

3.4.2 Optical Methods

3.4.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Methods

3.4.4 Fluid Methods

3.4.5 Electrical Method

3.4.6 Electron Microscopy Methods

3.4.7 Analysis of Measured Height Distribution

3.4.8 Comparison of Measurement Methods

3.5 Closure


4. Contact Between Solid Surfaces

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Analysis of the Contacts

4.2.1 Single Asperity Contact of Homogeneous and Frictionless Solids

4.2.2 Single Asperity Contact of Layered Solids in Frictionless and Frictional


4.2.2 Multiple Asperity Dry Contacts

4.3 Measurement of the Real Area of Contact

4.3.1 Review of Measurement Techniques

4.3.2 Comparison of Different Measurement Techniques

4.3.2 Typical Measurements

4.4 Closure


5. Adhesion

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Solid-Solid Contact

5.2.1 Covalent Bond

5.2.2 Ionic or Electrostatic Bond

5.2.3 Metallic Bond

5.2.4 Hydrogen Bond

5.2.5 van der Waals Bond

5.2.6 Free Surface Energy Theory of Adhesion

5.2.7 Polymer Adhesion

5.3 Liquid Mediated Contact

5.3.1 Idealized Geometries

5.3.2 Multiple – Asperity Contacts

5.4 Closure


6. Friction

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Solid-Solid Contact

6.2.1 Rules of Sliding Friction

6.2.2 Basic Mechanisms of Sliding Friction

6.2.3 Other Mechanisms of Sliding Friction

6.2.4 Friction Transitions During Sliding

6.2.5 Static Friction

6.2.6 Stick-slip

6.2.7 Rolling Friction

6.3 Liquid Mediated Contact

6.4 Friction of Materials

6.4.1 Friction of Metals and Alloys

6.4.2 Friction of Ceramics

6.4.3 Friction of Polymers

6.4.4 Friction of Solid Lubricants

6.5 Closure


7. Interface Temperature of Sliding Surfaces

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Thermal Analysis

7.2.1 Fundamental Heat Conduction Solutions

7.2.2 High Contact-Stress Condition (Ar/Aa ~ 1) (Individual Contact)

7.2.3 Low Contact-Stress Condition (Ar/Aa << 1) (Multiple Asperity Contact)

7.3 Interface Temperature Measurements

7.3.1 Thermocouple and Thin-Film Temperature Sensors

7.3.2 Radiation Detection Techniques

7.3.3 Metallographic Techniques

7.3.4 Liquid Crystals

7.4 Closure


8. Wear

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Types of Wear Mechanisms

8.2.1 Adhesive Wear

8.2.2 Abrasive Wear (by Plastic Deformation and Fracture)

8.2.3 Fatigue Wear

8.2.4 Impact Wear

8.2.5 Chemical (Corrosive) Wear

8.2.6 Electrical-Arc-Induced Wear

8.2.7 Fretting and Fretting Corrosion

8.3 Types of Particles Present in Wear Debris

8.3.1 Plate-Shaped Particles

8.3.2 Ribbon-Shaped Particles

8.3.3 Spherical Particles

8.3.4 Irregularly Shaped Particles

8.4 Wear of Materials

8.4.1 Wear of Metals and Alloys

8.4.2 Wear of Ceramics

8.4.3 Wear of Polymers

8.5 Closure


Appendix 8.A Indentation Cracking in Brittle Materials

8.A.1 Blunt Indenter

8.A.2 Sharp Indenter

Appendix 8.B Analysis of Failure Data Using Weibull Distribution

8.B.1 General Expression of the Weibull Distribution

8.B.2 Graphical Representation of a Weibull Distribution

Appendix 8.C Methods for Establishing PV Limit

9. Fluid Film Lubrication

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Regimes of Fluid Film Lubrication

9.2.1 Hydrostatic Lubrication

9.2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication

9.2.3 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

9.2.4 Mixed Lubrication

9.2.5 Boundary Lubrication

9.3 Viscous Flow and Reynolds Equations

9.3.1 Viscosity and Newtonian Fluids

9.3.2 Fluid Flow

9.4 Hydrostatic Lubrication

9.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication

9.5.1 Thrust Bearings

9.5.2 Journal Bearings

9.5.3 Squeeze Film Bearings

9.5.4 Gas-Lubricated Bearings

9.6 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

9.6.1 Forms of Contacts

9.6.2 Line Contact

9.6.3 Point Contact

9.6.4 Thermal Correction

9.6.5 Lubricant Rhelogoy

9.7 Closure


10. Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Boundary Lubrication

10.3 Liquid Lubricants

10.3.1 Principal Classes of Lubricants

10.3.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Lubricants

10.3.2 Additives

10.4 Ionic Liquids

10.4.1 Composition of Ionic Liquids

10.4.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids

10.4.3 Lubrication Mechanisms of ILs

10.4.4 Issues on the Applicability of Ionic Liquids as Lubricants

10.5 Greases

10.6 Closure


11. Nanotribology

11.1 Introduction

11.2 SFA Studies

11.2.1 Description of an SFA

11.2.2 Static (Equilibrium), Dynamic and Shear Properties of Molecularly Thin

Liquid Films

11.3 AFM/FFM Studies

11.3.1 Description of AFM/FFM and Various Measurement Techniques

11.3.2 Surface Imaging, Friction, and Adhesion

11.3.3 Wear, Scratching, Local Deformation, and Fabrication/Machining

11.3.4 Indentation

11.3.5 Boundary Lubrication

11.4 Atomic-Scale Computer Simulations

11.4.1 Interatomic Forces and Equations of Motion

11.4.2 Interfacial Solid Junctions

11.4.3 Interfacial Liquid Junctions and Confined Films

11.5 Closure


12. Friction and Wear Screening Test Methods

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Design Methodology

12.2.1 Simulation

12.2.2 Acceleration

12.2.3 Specimen Preparation

12.2.4 Friction and Wear Measurements

12.3 Typical Test Geometries

12.3.1 Sliding Friction and Wear Tests

12.3.2 Abrasion Tests

12.3.3 Rolling-Contact Fatigue Tests

12.3.4 Solid-Particle Erosion Test

12.3.5 Corrosion Tests

12.4 Closure


13. Bulk Materials, Coatings and Surface Treatments for Tribology

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Bulk Materials

13.2.1 Metals and Alloys

13.2.2 Ceramics and Cermets

13.2.3 Ceramic-Metal Composites

13.2.4 Solid Lubricants and Self-Lubricating Solids

13.3 Coatings and Surface Treatments

13.3.1 Coating Deposition Techniques

13.3.1 Surface Treatment Techniques

13.3.3 Criteria for Selecting Coating Material/Deposition and Surface Treatment


13.4 Closure


14. Tribological Components and Applications

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Common Tribological Components

14.2.1 Sliding-Contact Bearings

14.2.2 Rolling-Contact Bearings

14.2.3 Seals

14.2.4 Gears

14.2.5 Cams and Tappets

14.2.6 Piston Rings

14.2.6 Electrical Brushes


14.3.1 MEMS

14.3.2 NEMS

14.3.3 BioMEMS

14.3.4 Microfabrication Processes

14.4. Material Processing

14.4.1 Cutting Tools

14.4.2 Grinding and Lapping

14.4.3 Forming Processes

14.4.4 Cutting Fluids

14.5 Industrial Applications

14.5.1 Automotive Engines

14.5.2 Gas Turbine Engines

14.5.3 Railroads

14.5.4 Magnetic Storage Devices

14.6 Closure


15. Green Tribology and Biomimetics

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Green Tribology

15.2.1 Twelve Principles of Green Tribology

15.2.2 Areas of Green Tribology

15.3 Biomimetics

15.3.1 Lessons from Nature

15.3.2 Industrial Significance

15.4 Closure



Appendix A. Units, Conversions and Useful Relations

A.1 Fundamental Constants

A.2 Conversion of Units

A.3 Useful Relations

Subject Index

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