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Building on the best-selling tradition of previous editions,Principles of Biomedical Ethics,Seventh Edition, provides a highly original, practical, and insightful guide to morality in the health professions. Acclaimed authors Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress thoroughly develop and advocate for four principles that lie at the core of moral reasoning in health care: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. Drawing from contemporary research--and integrating detailed case studies and vivid real-life examples and scenarios--they demonstrate how these prima facie principles can be expanded to apply to various conflicts and dilemmas, from how to deliver bad news to whether or not to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments. Illuminating both theory and method throughout,Principles of Biomedical Ethics,Seventh Edition, considers what constitutes moral character and addresses the problem of moral status: what rights are due to people and animals, and when. It also examines the professional-patient relationship, surveys major philosophical theories--including utilitarianism, Kantianism, rights theory, and virtue theory--and describes methods of moral justification in bioethics. Ideal for courses in biomedical ethics, bioethics, and health care ethics, the text is enhanced by hundreds of annotated citations and a substantial introduction that clarifies key terms and concepts. NEW TO THE SEVENTH EDITION Ch. 1: A clarified and more concise treatment of the common morality and its distinction from both particular moralities and the broad descriptive use of the term "morality" Ch. 3: New sections on degrees of moral status and the moral significance of moral status Ch. 4: A revised section on the therapeutic use of placebos and expanded coverage of theories of autonomy and information-processing issues Ch. 5: New material on historical problems of underprotection and recent problems of overprotection in human subjects research Ch. 6: A new section on expanded access and continued access in research and a relocated and integrated discussion of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients Ch. 7: A distinction between traditional theories of justice and more recent theories like capabilities and well-being Ch. 8: A new section on clinical ethics and research ethics Ch. 9: A whole new section on virtue theory, which expands the account from Ch. 2 of the previous edition, and on rights theory Ch. 10: An extended and more in-depth discussion of the authors' theory of method and justification in bioethics Anew Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/beauchampfeaturing suggestions for effectively using the book in the classroom, possible syllabi and examination questions, additional readings, useful exercises, and cases for discussion
Tom L. Beauchamp is Professor of Philosophy at Georgetown University.
James F. Childress is University Professor and John Allen Hollingsworth Professor of Ethics at the University of Virginia.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a Conclusion.
PART I. MORAL FOUNDATIONS
1. Moral Norms
Normative and Nonnormative Ethics
The Common Morality as Universal Morality
Particular Moralities as Nonuniversal
A Framework of Moral Norms
Conflicting Moral Norms
2. Moral Character
The Concept of Moral Virtue
Virtues in Professional Roles
The Virtue of Caring
Five Focal Virtues
3. Moral Status
The Problem of Moral Status
Theories of Moral Status
From Theories to Practical Guidelines
The Moral Significance of Moral Status
Vulnerable Populations and Vulnerable Individuals
PART II. MORAL PRINCIPLES
4. Respect for Autonomy
The Concept of Autonomy and the Principle of Respect for Autonomy
The Capacity for Autonomous Choice
The Meaning and Justification of Informed Consent
The Concept of Nonmaleficence and the Principle of Nonmaleficence
Distinctions and Rules Governing Nontreatment
Optional Treatments and Obligatory Treatments
Killing and Letting Die
The Justification of Intentionally Arranged Deaths
Problems of Group Harm
Protecting Incompetent Patients
The Concept of Beneficence and Principles of Beneficence
Obligatory Beneficence and Ideal Beneficence
Paternalism: Conflicts between Beneficence and Respect for Autonomy
Surrogate Decision Making for Incompetent Patients
Balancing Benefits, Costs, and Risks
The Value and Quality of Life
The Concept of Justice and Principles of Justice
Traditional Theories of Justice
Recent Theories of Justice
Fair Opportunity and Unfair Discrimination
Vulnerability, Exploitation, and Discrimination in Research
National Health Policy and the Right to Health Care
Global Health Policy and the Right to Health
Allocating, Setting Priorities, and Rationing
8. Professional-Patient Relationships
Clinical Ethics and Research Ethics
The Dual Roles of Clinician and Investigator
PART III. THEORY AND METHOD
9. Moral Theories
Criteria for Assessing Moral Theories
Convergence of Theories
10. Method and Moral Justification
Justification in Ethics
Top-Down Models: Theory and Application
Bottom-Up Models: Cases and Analogical Reasoning
Reflective Equilibrium as an Integrated Model