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Principles of Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation,9780534257491
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Principles of Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534257491

ISBN10:
0534257496
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/23/1996
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $268.95
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Summary

This edition continues Sax's tradition of comprehensive and comprehensible coverage of testing and measurement principles while including the most recent theory and research.

Table of Contents

Preface
PART ONE: MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY
1. THE ROLE OF MEASUREMENT, TESTING, AND EVALUATION
Chapter Objectives
Development and Importance of Measurement and Evaluation
The Necessity of Evaluation in Teaching
The Relationships Among Measurement, Teaching, and Evaluation
Measurement
Tests and Other Measurement Instruments
Evaluation
Types of Evaluative Decisions in Education and Psychology
Summary
Suggested Reading
2. SOCIAL, LEGAL, AND ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TESTING
Chapter Objectives
Criticisms of Testing
Tests Are Biased Against Minority Students
Ethical and Unethical Testing Practices
Alternatives to Traditional Testing
Summary
Suggested Reading
PART TWO: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF CLASSROOM TEST CONSTRUCTION
3. PLANNING FOR THE TEACHER-MADE TEST
Chapter Objectives
Some Preliminary Considerations
Types of Educational Objectives
Research Evidence Regarding the Use of Objectives
The Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains
Item Sampling and Selection:The Test Blueprint
Test Specifications for Criterion-Referenced Tests
Summary
Suggested Reading
4. PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION: TRUE-FALSE, MULTIPLE-CHOICE, AND MATCHING ITEMS
Chapter Objectives
Constructing True-False Tests
Constructing the Multiple-Choice Item
Construction Matching Tests
Summary
Suggested Reading
5. PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION: COMPLETION AND ESSAY TESTS
Chapter Objectives
Constructing Completion Tests
Constructing Essay Achievement Tests
Objectives for Essay Achievement Items
Summary
Suggested Reading
6. RATINGS, OBSERVATIONS, AND THE MEASUREMENT OF PERFORMANCE
Chapter Objectives
The Nature of Observation
Process and Produce Scales
Ratings
Ranking Procedures
Improving Ratings and Rankings
Peer-Group Ratings
Performance Assessment
Summary
Suggested Reading
PART THREE: SUMMARIZING AND INTERPRETING MEASUREMENTS
7. SUMMARIZING AND INTERPRETING MEASUREMENTS
Chapter Objectives
Selecting an Electronic Calculator
Computer Basics
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Standard Scores
Locating Individuals on a Normal Curve
Expressing the Relationship Between Two Sets of Scores
Summary
Suggested Reading
How to Use StataQuest
PART FOUR: CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING ITEMS, TESTS, AND MEASUREMENTS
8. EVALUATING ITEMS: ITEM ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
Chapter Objectives
Analyzing Items on Norm-Referenced Tests
Developing and Interpreting Item Analyses for Norm-Referenced Tests
Interpreting Item-Analysis Data for Norm-Referenced Tests
Reducing Labor in Running Item Analysis
Developing an Item File for Teacher-Made Tests
Storage and Retrieval of Items from Item Banks
Relating Item Analyses to the Purposes of Testing
Presenting and Interpreting Item Analyses for Criterion-Referenced Tests
Item-Response Theory and Item-Characteristic Curves
Summary
Suggested Reading
How to Use StataQuest
9. THE RELIABILITY OF MEASUREMENTS
Chapter Objectives
Obtained, True, and Error Scores
A Technical Definition of Reliability
Practical Methods of Estimating Reliability
The Reliability of Criterion-Referenced and Mastery Tests
Conditions Affecting Reliability Coefficients
The Standard Error of Measurement
The Reliability of Individual and Group Scores
The Reliability of Difference Scores
Sources of Error
Error Components of Different Reliability Coefficients
Ways to Improve Norm-Referenced Reliability
Ways to Improve Criterion-Referenced Reliability
Summary
Suggested Reading
10. THE VALIDITY OF INFERENCES OBTAINED FROM TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS
Chapter Objectives
The Meaning and Importance of Validity
Empirical Methods of Estimating Validity
Face Validity
Cross-Validation
Criterion Contamination
Validity and Reasons for Using Tests
The Validity of Criterion-Referenced Test Interpretations
Summary
Suggested Reading
PART FIVE: SELECTING, EVALUATING, AND USING STANDARDIZED TESTS
11. STANDARDS FOR SELECTING AND EVALUATING STANDARDIZED TESTS
Chapter Objectives
Practical Considerations in Selecting Tests
Technical Considerations in Selecting Tests
A Brief Evaluation Form
Guidelines for Evaluating Criterion-Referenced Tests
Published Sources of Information About Tests
Qualifications to Purchase Test Materials
Summary
12. THE NATURE AND MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE
Chapter Objectives
Precursors to the Development of Intelligence Tests
The Meaning of Intelligence
The Structure of Intelligence
The Origins of Intelligence: The Heredity-Environment Issue
Some Correlates and Uses of Intelligence Test Scores
Norms on Intelligence Tests
Some Examples of Individual Intelligence Tests
Group Tests of Intelligence
Summary
Suggested Readings
13. THE MEASUREMENT OF APTITUDES
Chapter Objectives
The Use of Aptitude Tests
The Differential Nature of Aptitudes
The Reliability of Aptitude Measures
Sex Differences on Aptitude Tests
The Validity of Aptitude Measures
Norms on Aptitude Tests
Reasons for Using Aptitude Tests
Examples and Types of Aptitude Tests
Summary
Suggested Reading
14. STANDARDIZED MEASURES OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
Chapter Objectives
The Meaning of Standardized Achievement Tests
The Construction of Standardized Achievement Tests
Norms on Standardized Achievement Tests
The Lake Wobegon Effect
Multicultural Evaluations of Student Learning
Out-of-Level Testing
The Reliability of Standardized Achievement Tests
The Validity of Standard Achievement Tests
Profiles
The Concepts of Underachievement and Overachievement
Sex Differences on Standardized Achievement Tests
Reasons for Using Standardized Achievement Tests
Some Examples of Standardized Achievement Tests
Summary
Suggested Reading
15. THE MEASUREMENT OF INTERESTS, APTITUDES, AND VALUES
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
THE MEANING OF INTEREST, Aptitude, and Value
Types of Interests
Levels and Areas of Interest
The Relationship Between Interests and Aptitudes
Constructing Interest Inventories
Norms on Interest Inventories
Uses of Interest Inventories
The Reliability of Interest Inventories
The Validity of Interest Inventories
Sex Bias on Interest Inventories
Some Examples of Standardized Interest Inventories
The Measurement of Attitudes
Characteristics of Attitudes
The Scaling of Attitudes
Techniques for Measuring Attitudes
Uses of Attitude Scales
The Reliability of Attitude Scales
The Validity of Attitude Scales
The Measurement of Values
Polling and Questionnaire Construction
Summary
Suggested Reading
16. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY TRAITS
Chapter Objectives
The Meaning of Personality
Pseudoscientific and Quasi-Pseudoscientific Approaches to Personality Measurement
Sources of Error in Personality Assessment: Response Biases
Observational Methods and Measuring Personality
Uses of Personality Measures
Summary
Suggested Reading
PART SIX: EVALUATING STUDENTS AND PROGRAMS
17. EVALUATING STUDENT PROGRESS
Chapter Objectives
The Importance of Evaluating Student Progress
Criteria for Developing a School or District Testing Program
Criteria for Reporting Student Progress
Methods Used to Report Student Progress
Uses of Reporting Systems
Summary
Suggested Reading
18. EVALUATION STRATEGIES
Chapter Objectives
The Role of Program Evaluation in Education
Ethical Considerations in Program Evaluation
The Evaluation Contract
Evaluation Strategies
Common Pitfalls in Program Evaluation
Pitfalls in the Measurement of Effectiveness
Concluding Remarks
Summary
Suggested Reading
Glossary
Appendix 1. Computation of a Mean from a Frequency Distribution
Appendix 2. Computation of a Standard Deviation and Variance from a Frequency Distribution
Appendix 3. Computation of Medians, Percentiles, Quartiles, and Deciles from a Frequency Distribution
Appendix 4. Graphic Methods for Converting Raw Scores to Medians, Percentiles, Quartiles, and Deciles from a Frequency Distribution
Appendix 5. A Raw-Score Formula for Computing Correlations
Appendix 6. Computation of Rank-Order Correlations (Rho, or r)
Bibliography
Name Index
Subject Index


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