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Principles of Everyday Behavior Analysis (with Printed Access Card),9780534599942
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Principles of Everyday Behavior Analysis (with Printed Access Card)

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534599942

ISBN10:
053459994X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/5/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $208.66

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Summary

PRINCIPLES OF EVERYDAY BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS uses generalization programming to show you how to apply behavioral concepts to complex everyday situations. The author introduces, defines, and illustrates each behavior modification concept and then immediately includes vignettes that show you how to apply concepts to the real world.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
Introduction: The Science of Learning and the Technology of Education xiv
UNIT 1 The Behavioral Strategy
Introduction to Everyday Behavior Analysis
1(14)
Reading Section
1(9)
Introduction to Unit 1
1(1)
Modern Behaviorism
1(2)
The Growth of Behavior Analysis
3(2)
What Is Behavior Analysis?
5(1)
The Problem with Using Private Events to Explain Behavior
6(1)
The Principle of Public Events
6(1)
The Behavioral Strategy
7(1)
Summary
8(1)
Notes
8(1)
Helpful Hints
8(1)
Additional Readings
9(1)
Programmed Reading
10(3)
Defining Behavior Analysis
10(2)
Principle of Public Events
12(1)
The First Strategy for Solving Human Problems
13(1)
Review
13(1)
Programmed Examples
13(2)
Programmed Examples
14(1)
Definitions of Everyday Behaviors
15(20)
Reading Section
15(14)
What Is Behavior?
15(3)
Behavioral Definitions
18(1)
The Problem with Self-Reports
19(3)
The Principle of Direct Observation
22(2)
Summary
24(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
24(3)
Notes
27(1)
Helpful Hints
28(1)
Additional Readings
28(1)
Programmed Reading
29(4)
What Behavior Analysis Studies
29(1)
Specifying What to Observe
29(1)
Approaches to Observing Behavior
30(2)
The First Tactic of the Behavioral Strategy
32(1)
Review
32(1)
Programmed Examples
33(2)
Programmed Examples
33(2)
Methods for the Observation of Everyday Behaviors
35(26)
Reading Section
35(14)
Outcome Recording for Behaviors That Leave Unique Results
35(3)
Event Recording for Uniform Behaviors
38(2)
Interval Recording for Nonuniform Behaviors
40(2)
Time Sample Recording for Sampling a Behavior
42(3)
Summary
45(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
45(2)
Notes
47(1)
Helpful Hints
47(2)
Additional Readings
49(1)
Programmed Reading
49(8)
Recording Based on Results
50(1)
Recording Instances of Behavior
51(1)
Recording Behavior during Continuous Intervals
52(2)
Recording Behavior during Discontinuous Intervals
54(2)
Another Tactic
56(1)
Review
56(1)
Programmed Examples
57(4)
Programmed Examples
57(4)
Reliability and Validity of Everyday Observations
61(24)
Reading Section
61(11)
Repeated Observations
61(1)
Reliability and Accuracy
62(1)
Computing Trial Reliability
62(3)
Computing Frequency Reliability
65(1)
Goal for Reliability
65(1)
Social Validity of Behavioral Definitions
66(2)
Summary
68(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
68(1)
Notes
69(1)
Helpful Hints
70(2)
Additional Readings
72(1)
Programmed Reading
72(9)
Measuring Observer Agreement
72(1)
Assumptions about Reliability
73(2)
Two Types of Reliability
75(2)
New versus Old Behavioral Definitions
77(1)
Does the Behavioral Definition Make Sense?
78(2)
A New Tactic
80(1)
Review
80(1)
Programmed Examples
81(4)
Programmed Examples
81(4)
Experimental Designs for Studying Everyday Behavior
85(24)
Reading Section
85(11)
Alternative Explanations
85(1)
Experimental Conditions
86(1)
Ruling Out Alternative Explanations
86(1)
The Principle of Single-Subject Experiments
87(1)
Comparison Design
88(1)
Reversal Design
89(1)
Multiple-Baseline Design
90(2)
One-Time Treatments
92(1)
Summary
92(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
93(1)
Notes
94(1)
Helpful Hints
95(1)
Additional Readings
95(1)
Programmed Reading
96(9)
Fundamentals of Experimental Design
96(1)
Making a Useful Experiment
97(1)
The Simplest Design
98(1)
Using a Third Condition
99(1)
Using Many Behaviors or Persons
100(2)
Telling the Difference between Designs
102(1)
Another Tactic
103(1)
Review
104(1)
Programmed Examples
105(4)
Programmed Examples
105(4)
Visual Analysis of Behavioral Experiments
109(38)
Reading Section
109(15)
The Principle of Visual Analysis
109(2)
The Four Steps of Visual Analysis
111(4)
Visual Analysis of Comparison Designs
115(2)
Visual Analysis of Reversal Designs
117(2)
Visual Analysis of Multiple-Baseline Experiments
119(1)
Summary
120(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
120(2)
Notes
122(1)
Helpful Hints
123(1)
Additional Readings
123(1)
Programmed Reading
124(18)
Principle of Visual Analysis
124(1)
Are the Conditions Divided?
125(3)
Are the Conditions Stable?
128(4)
Visual Analysis of Comparison Design
132(4)
Visual Analysis of Reversal and Multiple-Baseline Designs
136(3)
Another Tactic
139(1)
Review
140(2)
Programmed Examples
142(5)
Programmed Examples
142(5)
Review of Behavioral Methods
147(12)
Reading Section
147(5)
The Five Tactics of the Behavioral Strategy
148(2)
Summary
150(1)
Notes
150(1)
Helpful Hints
150(1)
Glossary
151(1)
Additional Readings
152(1)
Practice Review I
152(3)
Some Review Questions
152(3)
Practice Review II
155(4)
Programmed Examples
155(4)
UNIT 2 The Reinforcement Strategy
Reinforcement of Everyday Behaviors
159(20)
Reading Section
159(12)
Introduction to Unit 2
159(1)
Definition of Reinforcement
159(2)
The Variety of Reinforcers
161(1)
Uses of Reinforcement
162(1)
Basic Building Block
163(1)
Misuse of Reinforcement
164(1)
What Behaviors Can Be Reinforced?
165(1)
Unknown: What Is Not a Reinforcer
165(1)
Summary
166(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
166(1)
Notes
167(2)
Helpful Hints
169(2)
Additional Readings
171(1)
Programmed Reading
171(4)
How to Increase Behavior
171(1)
Events That Precede Behavior
172(1)
Events That Don't Increase Behavior
172(1)
Desirable Events
173(1)
Telling Someone What to Do
174(1)
Another Tactic
174(1)
Review
175(1)
Programmed Examples
175(4)
Programmed Examples
175(4)
Extinction of Everyday Behaviors
179(14)
Reading Section
179(7)
Definition of Extinction
179(1)
Uses for Extinction
180(2)
Misuses of Extinction
182(1)
Summary
183(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
183(1)
Notes
184(1)
Helpful Hints
185(1)
Additional Readings
185(1)
Programmed Reading
186(3)
Reducing the Rate of Behavior
186(1)
Telling the Difference
187(1)
What Happens Right after Starting Extinction
188(1)
Another Tactic
188(1)
Review
188(1)
Programmed Examples
189(4)
Programmed Examples
189(4)
Differential Reinforcement of Everyday Behavior
193(20)
Reading Section
193(9)
Defining Differential Reinforcement
193(1)
Uses of Differential Reinforcement
194(2)
Misuses of Differential Reinforcement
196(1)
Reducing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement
197(1)
Summary
197(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
197(2)
Notes
199(1)
Helpful Hints
199(3)
Additional Readings
202(1)
Programmed Reading
202(6)
The Elements of Differential Reinforcement
202(2)
Are the Behaviors Different?
204(1)
Use of the Word Only
205(1)
Practice Identifying Differential Reinforcement
206(1)
Another Tactic
207(1)
Review
207(1)
Programmed Examples
208(5)
Programmed Examples
208(5)
Shaping Everyday Behaviors
213(18)
Reading Section
213(11)
Some Examples of Shaping
214(1)
Definition of Shaping
215(1)
Shaping Shooting an Arrow
215(1)
Overcoming Shyness and Other Problems
216(2)
What Shaping Is Not
218(1)
Natural Shaping
218(1)
Misuse of Shaping
219(1)
Summary
219(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
219(2)
Notes
221(1)
Helpful Hints
222(1)
Additional Readings
223(1)
Programmed Reading
224(4)
A Procedure for Creating New Behavior
224(1)
Examples of Shaping
225(2)
Tactic #4 in the Reinforcement Strategy
227(1)
Review
227(1)
Programmed Examples
228(3)
Programmed Examples
228(3)
Reinforcer Effectiveness
231(16)
Reading Section
231(8)
The Effect of Contingency on Effectiveness
231(2)
The Effect of Immediacy on Effectiveness
233(1)
The Effect of Size on Effectiveness
233(1)
The Effect of Deprivation on Effectiveness
234(1)
Comparison of the Four Principles
235(1)
Summary
236(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
236(1)
Notes
237(1)
Helpful Hints
237(1)
Additional Readings
238(1)
Programmed Reading
239(4)
The Principle of Contingency
239(1)
The Principle of Immediacy
239(1)
The Principle of Size
240(1)
The Principle of Deprivation
241(1)
Telling the Principles Apart
241(1)
Tactic #5 in the Reinforcement Strategy
242(1)
Review
242(1)
Programmed Examples
243(4)
Programmed Examples
243(4)
Ratio Schedules
247(18)
Reading Section
247(8)
Fixed-Ratio Schedules
247(3)
Variable-Ratio Schedules
250(1)
Advantages of Ratio Schedules
251(1)
The Disadvantages of Ratio Schedules
252(1)
Summary
252(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
253(1)
Notes
254(1)
Helpful Hints
254(1)
Additional Readings
255(1)
Programmed Reading
255(7)
Generic Schedules
256(1)
Defining Fixed-Ratio Schedules
256(1)
Variable-Ratio Schedules
257(1)
Response Patterns in Ratio Schedules
258(1)
Resistance to Extinction
259(1)
Two Drawbacks of Ratio Schedules
260(1)
Another Tactic
261(1)
Review
261(1)
Programmed Examples
262(3)
Programmed Examples
262(3)
Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
265(16)
Reading Section
265(8)
Definition of Fixed-Interval Reinforcement
265(2)
Definition of Variable-Interval Schedule
267(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Interval Schedules
268(1)
Comparison of Basic Intermittent Schedules
268(1)
Laws of Behavior
269(1)
Summary
269(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
269(1)
Notes
270(1)
Helpful Hints
270(2)
Additional Readings
272(1)
Programmed Reading
273(5)
Elements of Fixed-Interval Schedules
273(1)
Elements of the Variable-Interval Schedule
274(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Interval Schedules
276(1)
Another Tactic
277(1)
Review
277(1)
Programmed Examples
278(3)
Programmed Examples
278(3)
Review of Reinforcement
281(14)
Reading Section
281(7)
Reinforcement Can Help
281(1)
Reinforcement Can Harm
281(1)
Reinforcement Is Everywhere
282(1)
Reinforcement Works in Every Age and Culture
283(1)
Reinforcement Works with All Behavior
284(1)
The Reinforcement Strategy
284(1)
The Ethics of Reinforcement
285(1)
Summary
286(1)
Helpful Hints
286(1)
Glossary
286(2)
Additional Readings
288(1)
Practice Review I
288(5)
A Set of Review Questions
288(2)
Another Set of Review Questions
290(3)
Practice Review II
293(2)
Programmed Examples
293(2)
UNIT 3 The Stimulus Control Strategy
Stimulus Discrimination and Everyday Behavior
295(24)
Reading Section
295(10)
Introduction to Unit 3
295(1)
Discrimination Training
296(1)
Simple Examples of Discrimination Training
297(1)
Realistic Examples of Discrimination Training
298(2)
Establishing Stimulus Control
300(1)
Summary
301(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
301(2)
Notes
303(1)
Helpful Hints
304(1)
Additional Readings
304(1)
Programmed Reading
305(11)
Narrowing Stimulus Control
305(1)
Stimuli Associated with Reinforcement
306(1)
Stimuli Associated with Extinction
307(1)
Discriminated Behavior
308(1)
Summary of Discrimination Training
309(1)
Discrimination Training versus Differential Reinforcement
310(1)
Complex Examples of Discrimination Training
311(2)
Research Examples of Discrimination Training
313(1)
Another Tactic
314(1)
Review
315(1)
Programmed Examples
316(3)
Programmed Examples
316(3)
Generalization Training of Everyday Behaviors
319(20)
Reading Section
319(10)
Definition of Generalization Training
319(1)
The Train-and-Hope Method
320(2)
Generalization Training
322(1)
The Similar-Stimuli Method
323(1)
Generalization of Extinction
324(1)
Concept Formation
324(1)
Summary
325(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
325(1)
Notes
326(2)
Helpful Hints
328(1)
Additional Readings
328(1)
Programmed Reading
329(5)
Elements of Generalization Training
329(1)
Generalization
330(1)
Generalization Training versus Discrimination Training
331(2)
Tactic #2 in the Stimulus Control Strategy
333(1)
Review
333(1)
Programmed Examples
334(5)
Programmed Examples
334(5)
Programming and Fading
339(18)
Reading Section
339(9)
Prompts
339(1)
Fading
340(1)
Examples of Fading
340(2)
Programming
342(3)
Summary
345(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
345(1)
Notes
346(1)
Helpful Hints
346(1)
Additional Readings
347(1)
Programmed Reading
348(4)
Prompts for Discrimination
348(1)
Prompts for Generalization
349(1)
Using Prompts in Education
350(1)
Fading Versus Programming
351(1)
Another Tactic
351(1)
Review
352(1)
Programmed Examples
352(5)
Programmed Examples
352(5)
Imitation and Instructions
357(18)
Reading Section
357(8)
Definition of Imitation Training
357(1)
Uses of Imitation Training
357(1)
Teaching How to Imitate
358(1)
Definition of Instructional Training
358(1)
Uses of Instructional Training
359(1)
Generalized Instruction-Following
360(1)
Imitation and Instructions Combined
360(1)
Imitation and Instructional Training Are Efficient
360(1)
Summary
361(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
361(1)
Notes
362(1)
Helpful Hints
363(2)
Additional Readings
365(1)
Programmed Reading
365(6)
Copying Behavior
365(2)
Following Instructions
367(1)
Imitation versus Instructional Training
368(1)
Research on Use of Instructions
369(1)
Another Tactic
370(1)
Review
370(1)
Programmed Examples
371(4)
Programmed Examples
371(4)
Conditioned Reinforcers and Everyday Situations
375(20)
Reading Section
375(10)
Definition of Primary and Secondary Reinforcer
375(2)
Definition of Generalized Reinforcers
377(3)
Comparison of Different Types of Reinforcers
380(1)
Stimulus/Response Chains
380(1)
Summary
381(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
381(2)
Notes
383(1)
Helpful Hints
384(1)
Additional Readings
384(1)
Programmed Reading
385(6)
Unlearned Reinforcers
385(1)
Learned Reinforcers
386(1)
Reinforcers That Usually Work
387(2)
Responses That Occur Together
389(2)
Another Tactic
391(1)
Review
391(1)
Programmed Examples
391(4)
Programmed Examples
391(4)
Review of Stimulus Control
395(12)
Reading Section
395(6)
The Stimulus Control Strategy
397(1)
Stimulus Control and Other Cognitive Behaviors
398(1)
Summary
399(1)
Helpful Hints
400(1)
Glossary
400(1)
Practice Review I
401(3)
Some Review Questions
401(3)
Practice Review II
404(3)
Programmed Examples
404(3)
UNIT 4 The Aversive Control Strategy
Punishment by Contingent Stimulation
407(20)
Reading Section
407(10)
Introduction to Unit 4
407(1)
Definition of Punishment
408(1)
The Use of Punishment
409(1)
Everyday Use of Punishers
410(1)
Giving Punishment Is Reinforcing
411(1)
Social Validity of Punishment
412(1)
Analogues between Punishment and Reinforcement
412(1)
Summary
413(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
413(1)
Notes
414(1)
Helpful Hints
415(1)
Additional Readings
416(1)
Programmed Reading
417(6)
Aversive Control
417(1)
Another Way to Reduce Behaviors
418(1)
When Is a Procedure Punishment?
419(1)
Types of Punishment
420(1)
Discriminative Stimuli for Punishment
421(1)
Similarities with Other Procedures
421(1)
Another Tactic
422(1)
Review
422(1)
Programmed Examples
423(4)
Programmed Examples
423(4)
Punishment by Contingent Withdrawal
427(16)
Reading Section
427(7)
Definition of Punishment by Contingent Withdrawal
427(1)
Uses of Punishment by Contingent Withdrawal
428(1)
Uses of Time Out
428(1)
Problems with Punishment
429(1)
Adding Punishment to Reinforcement
430(1)
Punishment Applies to Making a Response
430(1)
Who Decides What Is Undesirable Behavior?
430(1)
Summary
431(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
431(1)
Helpful Hints
432(1)
Additional Readings
433(1)
Programmed Reading
434(5)
Decreasing Behavior by Withdrawing Events
434(1)
Temporary Withdrawal
435(2)
Non-Occurrence and Non-Punishment
437(1)
Punishment by Contingent Withdrawal versus Extinction
437(1)
Another Tactic
438(1)
Review
438(1)
Programmed Examples
439(4)
Programmed Examples
439(4)
Escape and Avoidance
443(20)
Reading Section
443(10)
Definition of Negative Reinforcement
443(1)
Uses of Escape and Avoidance
444(2)
How to Respond to Coercive Behavior
446(2)
Analogues between Positive and Negative Reinforcement
448(2)
Summary
450(1)
Behavior Analysis Examples
450(1)
Notes
451(1)
Helpful Hints
451(2)
Additional Readings
453(1)
Programmed Reading
453(7)
Using the Termination or Prevention of Events
453(1)
Negative Reinforcement versus Punishment
454(1)
Behaviors That Terminate or Prevent Events
455(2)
Coercive Behavior
457(1)
Analogues between Positive and Negative Reinforcement
458(1)
Another Tactic
459(1)
Review
459(1)
Programmed Examples
460(3)
Programmed Examples
460(3)
Review of Aversive Control
463(15)
Reading Section
463(4)
Four Types of Contingencies
463(1)
The Aversive Control Strategy
463(1)
Reducing the Need for Aversive Control
464(1)
Functional Analysis of Undesirable Behavior
465(1)
Freedom
466(1)
Helpful Hints
467(1)
Glossary
467(1)
Practice Review I
467(8)
Some Review Questions
468(2)
Some More Review Questions
470(3)
Some More Review Questions
473(2)
Practice Review II
475(3)
Some Review Questions
475(1)
Some More Review Questions
476(2)
References 478(14)
Answer Key 492(13)
Class Quizzes 505(152)
Name Index 657(6)
Subject Index 663


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