

1  (37) 


1  (2) 

1.2 Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil 


3  (5) 


8  (2) 


10  (8) 

1.5 Specific Gravity (Gs) 


18  (1) 

1.6 Mechanical Analysis of Soil 


18  (9) 

1.7 ParticleSize Distribution Curve 


27  (5) 


32  (1) 


33  (3) 


36  (2) 

TWO WEIGHTVOLUME RELATIONSHIPS, PLASTICITY, AND STRUCTURE OF SOIL 


38  (44) 

2.1 WeightVolume Relationships 


38  (3) 

2.2 Relationships Among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity 


41  (3) 

2.3 Relationships Among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content 


44  (1) 

2.4 Various UnitWeight Relationships 


45  (7) 


52  (3) 


55  (9) 

2.7 Liquidity Index and Consistency Index 


64  (1) 


65  (3) 


68  (2) 


70  (6) 


76  (1) 


77  (3) 


80  (2) 

THREE CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL 


82  (22) 

3.1 Textural Classification 


82  (3) 

3.2 Classification by Engineering Behavior 


85  (1) 

3.3 AASHTO Classification System 


85  (5) 

3.4 Unified Soil Classification System 


90  (8) 

3.5 Comparison Between the AASHTO and Unified Systems 


98  (3) 


101  (2) 


103  (1) 


104  (55) 

4.1 Compaction  General Principles 


104  (1) 

4.2 Standard Proctor Test 


105  (4) 

4.3 Factors Affecting Compaction 


109  (4) 

4.4 Modified Proctor Test 


113  (4) 

4.5 Structure of Compacted Clay Soil 


117  (1) 

4.6 Effect of Compaction on Clay Soil Properties 


118  (7) 


125  (5) 

4.8 Specifications for Field Compaction 


130  (3) 

4.9 Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction 


133  (8) 

4.10 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 


141  (5) 

4.11 Special Compaction Techniques 


146  (7) 


153  (2) 


155  (2) 


157  (2) 

FIVE FLOW OF WATER IN SOIL: PERMEABILITY AND SEEPAGE 


159  (68) 


159  (2) 


161  (3) 

5.3 Hydraulic Conductivity 


164  (1) 

5.4 Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 


165  (2) 

5.5 Effect of Water Temperature on k 


167  (5) 

5.6 Empirical Relations for Hydraulic Conductivity 


172  (7) 

5.7 Directional Variation of Permeability 


179  (2) 

5.8 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 


181  (6) 

5.9 Considerations for Hydraulic Conductivity of Clayey Soils in Field Compaction 


187  (5) 

5.10 Moisture ContentUnit Weight Criteria for Clay Liner Construction 


192  (1) 

5.11 Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 


193  (6) 

5.12 Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity from Auger Holes 


199  (1) 

5.13 Laplace's Equation of Continuity 


200  (3) 

5.14 Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems 


203  (3) 


206  (4) 

5.16 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil 


210  (3) 

5.17 Mathematical Solution for Seepage 


213  (1) 

5.18 Uplift Pressure Under Hydraulic Structures 


214  (2) 

5.19 Seepage Through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base 


216  (3) 


219  (6) 


225  (2) 

SIX EFFECTIVE STRESS CONCEPTS 


227  (29) 

6.1 Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 


227  (4) 

6.2 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Seepage 


231  (5) 


236  (5) 

6.4 Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety Against Heave 


241  (2) 

6.5 Selection of Filter Material 


243  (1) 

6.6 Capillary Rise in Soils 


244  (3) 

6.7 Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise 


247  (2) 

6.8 Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil 


249  (2) 


251  (1) 


251  (4) 


255  (1) 

SEVEN STRESSES IN A SOIL MASS 


256  (47) 

7.1 Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane 


256  (4) 

7.2 The Pole Method of Finding Stresses Along a Plane 


260  (3) 

7.3 Stress Caused by a Point Load 


263  (4) 

7.4 Westergaard's Solution for Vertical Stress Caused by a Point Load 


267  (2) 

7.5 Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load 


269  (3) 

7.6 Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) 


272  (5) 

7.7 Vertical Stress Caused by a Linearly Increasing Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) 


277  (3) 

7.8 Vertical Stress Below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 


280  (3) 

7.9 Vertical Stress at Any Point Below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 


283  (3) 

7.10 Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 


286  (7) 

7.11 Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure 


293  (2) 


295  (1) 


296  (6) 


302  (1) 

EIGHT COMPRESSIBILITY OF SOIL 


303  (63) 

8.1 Fundamentals of Consolidation 


303  (4) 

8.2 OneDimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 


307  (3) 

8.3 Void RatioPressure Plots 


310  (2) 

8.4 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 


312  (2) 

8.5 Effect of Disturbance on Void RatioPressure Relationship 


314  (3) 

8.6 Influence of Other Factors on Void RatioPressure Relationship 


317  (2) 

8.7 Calculation of Settlement from OneDimensional Primary Consolidation 


319  (2) 

8.8 Compression Index (Cc) 


321  (1) 


322  (6) 

8.10 Settlement from Secondary Consolidation 


328  (3) 

8.11 Time Rate of Consolidation 


331  (7) 

8.12 Coefficient of Consolidation 


338  (4) 

8.13 General Discussion of Determination of Cv 


342  (7) 

8.14 Calculation of Consolidation Settlement Under a Foundation 


349  (1) 

8.15 Immediate Settlement Calculation Based on Elastic Theory 


350  (3) 

8.16 Total Foundation Settlement 


353  (1) 


354  (5) 


359  (5) 


364  (2) 

NINE SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL 


366  (67) 

9.1 MohrCoulomb Failure Criteria 


366  (4) 


370  (4) 

9.3 Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay 


374  (2) 

9.4 General Comments on Direct Shear Test 


376  (6) 

9.5 Triaxial Shear TestGeneral 


382  (1) 

9.6 ConsolidatedDrained Triaxial Test 


383  (8) 

9.7 Friction Angles XXX and XXX for Clays 


391  (2) 

9.8 ConsolidatedUndrained Triaxial Test 


393  (6) 

9.9 UnconsolidatedUndrained Triaxial Test 


399  (3) 

9.10 Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay 


402  (2) 

9.11 General Comments on Triaxial Tests 


404  (1) 


405  (5) 


410  (5) 

9.14 Effect of the Rate of Rotation of Vane on Undrained Shear Strength 


415  (2) 

9.15 Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength 


417  (1) 

9.16 Strength Anisotropy in Clay 


418  (1) 

9.17 Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay 


419  (4) 

9.18 Empirical Relationships Between Undrained Cohesion (Cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure XXX 


423  (3) 

9.19 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils 


426  (1) 


427  (4) 


431  (2) 

TEN LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE 


433  (68) 

10.1 Earth Pressure at Rest 


433  (4) 

10.2 Rankine's Theory of Active Pressure 


437  (4) 

10.3 Theory of Rankine's Passive Pressure 


441  (3) 

10.4 Effect of Wall Yielding 


444  (3) 

10.5 Diagrams for Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution Against Retaining Walls 


447  (15) 

10.6 Lateral Pressure on Retaining Walls from SurchargesBased on Theory of Elasticity 


462  (5) 

10.7 Coulomb's Earth Pressure Theory 


467  (5) 

10.8 Graphic Solution for Coulomb's Active Earth Pressure 


472  (4) 

10.9 Approximate Analysis of Active Force on Retaining Walls 


476  (2) 

10.10 Effect of Wall Friction on Passive Pressure 


478  (2) 

10.11 Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral 


480  (1) 

10.12 Passive Earth Pressure Against Retaining Walls with Curved Failure Surface 


481  (5) 


486  (3) 

10.14 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts in Granular Soil 


489  (2) 

10.15 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for Cuts in Cohesive Soil 


491  (1) 

10.16 Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales 


492  (3) 


495  (5) 


500  (1) 

ELEVEN DYNAMIC LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE 


501  (19) 

11.1 Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 


501  (4) 

11.2 Location of the Line of Action of the Resultant Force, P(ae) 


505  (2) 

11.3 Design of Retaining Wall Based on Tolerable Lateral Displacement 


507  (2) 

11.4 Dynamic Earth Pressure Distribution Behind a Wall Rotating About the Top 


509  (2) 

11.5 P(ae) for cXXX Soil Backfill 


511  (4) 

11.6 Passive Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 


515  (3) 


518  (1) 


519  (1) 

TWELVE SOILBEARING CAPACITY FOR SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 


520  (47) 

12.1 Ultimate SoilBearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 


522  (2) 

12.2 Terzaghi's Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation 


524  (6) 

12.3 Effect of Groundwater Table 


530  (1) 


530  (6) 

12.5 General Bearing Capacity Equation 


536  (6) 

12.6 A Case History for Evaluation of the Ultimate Bearing Capacity 


542  (1) 

12.7 Ultimate Load for Shallow Foundations Under Eccentric Load (OneWay Eccentricity) 


543  (4) 

12.8 Foundations Subjected to TwoWay Eccentricity 


547  (1) 

12.9 Plate Load TestA Field Test 


547  (4) 

12.10 Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement 


551  (3) 

12.11 Bearing Capacity of Foundations on a Slope 


554  (6) 


560  (1) 


561  (4) 


565  (2) 


567  (60) 


567  (4) 

13.2 Stability of Infinite Slopes without Seepage 


571  (3) 

13.3 Stability of Infinite Slopes with Seepage 


574  (3) 

13.4 Finite SlopesGeneral 


577  (1) 

13.5 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surfaces (Culmann's Method) 


578  (4) 

13.6 Slopes with Water in the Tensile Crack 


582  (1) 

13.7 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure SurfacesGeneral 


583  (2) 

13.8 Mass ProcedureSlopes in Homogeneous Clay Soil With XXX = 0 


585  (9) 

13.9 Mass ProcedureSlopes in Homogeneous Soil With XXX greater than 0 


594  (5) 

13.10 Ordinary Method of Slices 


599  (3) 

13.11 Bishop's Simplified Method of Slices 


602  (3) 

13.12 Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady State Seepage 


605  (1) 

13.13 Bishop and Morgenstern's Solution for Stability of Simple Slopes with Seepage 


606  (2) 

13.14 Morgenstern's Method of Slices for Rapid Drawdown Condition 


608  (1) 

13.15 Spencer's Solution for Stability of Simple Slopes with Seepage 


609  (5) 

13.16 Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment on Saturated Clay 


614  (4) 

13.17 Case Histories of Slope Failure 


618  (3) 


621  (5) 


626  (1) 

FOURTEEN LANDFILL LINERS AND GEOSYNTHETICS 


627  (15) 

14.1 Landfill LinersOverview 


627  (1) 


628  (1) 


628  (3) 


631  (3) 


634  (1) 

14.6 Single Clay Liner and Single Geomembrane Liner Systems 


634  (2) 

14.7 Recent Advances in the Liner Systems for Landfills 


636  (1) 

14.8 Leachate Removal Systems 


637  (3) 

14.9 Closure of Landfills 


640  (1) 


641  (1) 


641  (1) 

FIFTEEN SUBSOIL EXPLORATION 


642  (30) 

15.1 Planning for Soil Exploration 


642  (2) 


644  (4) 

15.3 Common Sampling Methods 


648  (4) 


652  (1) 

15.5 Correlations for Standard Penetration Test 


653  (6) 


659  (7) 


666  (2) 

15.8 Soil Exploration Report 


668  (2) 


670  (1) 


671  (1) 
APPENDICES 

672  (26) 
APPENDIX A: Conversion Factors 

672  (3) 
APPENDIX B: Braced Cuts 

675  (2) 
APPENDIX C: Factor of Safety for Slopes 

677  (17) 
APPENDIX D: Rankine Active and Passive Earth Pressure 

694  (4) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

698  (9) 
Index 

707  