
Geotechnical EngineeringA Historical Perspective 


1  (12) 

Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century 


1  (3) 

PreClassical Period of Soil Mechanics (17001776) 


4  (1) 

Classical Soil Mechanics  Phase I (17761856) 


5  (1) 

Classical Soil Mechanics  Phase II (18561910) 


5  (1) 


6  (1) 

Geotechnical Engineering After 1927 


6  (7) 


11  (2) 

Origin of Soil and Grain Size 


13  (32) 

Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil 


13  (7) 


20  (1) 


21  (7) 


28  (1) 

Mechanical Analysis of Soil 


29  (7) 

ParticleSize Distribution Curve 


36  (4) 


40  (2) 


42  (3) 


42  (2) 


44  (1) 

WeightVolume Relationships, Plasticity, and Structure of Soil 


45  (38) 

WeightVolume Relationships 


45  (3) 

Relationships Among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity 


48  (3) 

Relationships Among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content 


51  (2) 

Various UnitWeight Relationships 


53  (5) 


58  (3) 

Consistency of Soil  Atterberg Limits 


61  (1) 


61  (4) 


65  (3) 


68  (2) 

Liquidity Index and Consistency Index 


70  (1) 


71  (1) 


72  (1) 


73  (5) 


78  (5) 


78  (3) 


81  (2) 

Engineering Classification of Soil 


83  (17) 

AASHTO Classification System 


83  (4) 

Unified Soil Classification System 


87  (8) 

Summary and Comparison Between the AASHTO and Unified Systems 


95  (5) 


98  (1) 


99  (1) 


100  (39) 

Compaction  General Principles 


100  (1) 


101  (3) 

Factors Affecting Compaction 


104  (3) 


107  (3) 

Structure of Compacted Clay Soil 


110  (3) 


113  (3) 

Specifications for Field Compaction 


116  (4) 

Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction 


120  (5) 

Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 


125  (4) 

Special Compaction Techniques 


129  (6) 

Summary and General Comments 


135  (4) 


135  (2) 


137  (2) 


139  (39) 


139  (2) 


141  (2) 


143  (2) 

Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 


145  (5) 

Empirical Relations for Hydraulic Conductivity 


150  (5) 

Directional Variation of Permeability 


155  (2) 

Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 


157  (3) 

Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clayey Soils 


160  (2) 

Considerations for Hydraulic Conductivity of Clayey Soils in Field Compaction 


162  (2) 

Moisture Content  Unit Weight Criteria for Clay Liner Construction 


164  (1) 

Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 


164  (4) 

In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Soils 


168  (4) 

Summary and General Comments 


172  (6) 


172  (4) 


176  (2) 


178  (21) 

Laplace's Equation of Continuity 


178  (2) 

Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems 


180  (3) 


183  (2) 

Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net 


185  (4) 

Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil 


189  (2) 

Mathematical Solution for Seepage 


191  (1) 

Uplift Pressure Under Hydraulic Structures 


191  (2) 

Seepage Through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base 


193  (2) 

L. Casagrande's Solution for Seepage Through an Earth Dam 


195  (2) 


197  (2) 


197  (1) 


198  (1) 


199  (25) 

Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 


199  (5) 

Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage 


204  (2) 

Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage 


206  (2) 


208  (5) 

Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety Against Heave 


213  (1) 

Selection of Filter Material 


214  (1) 


215  (3) 

Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise 


218  (1) 

Summary and General Comments 


219  (5) 


220  (3) 


223  (1) 


224  (35) 

Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane 


224  (5) 

Stress Caused by a Point Load 


229  (2) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load 


231  (3) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) 


234  (3) 

Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading 


237  (4) 

Vertical Stress Below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 


241  (1) 

Vertical Stress at Any Point below a Unifromly Loaded Circular Area 


242  (1) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 


242  (9) 

Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure 


251  (3) 

Summary and General Comments 


254  (5) 


254  (4) 


258  (1) 


259  (52) 

Contact pressure and Settlement Profile 


259  (2) 

Relations for Immediate Settlement Calculation 


261  (2) 

Improved Relationship for Immediate Settlement 


263  (5) 

Fundamentals of Consolidation 


268  (3) 

OneDimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 


271  (2) 

Void RatioPressure Plots 


273  (1) 

Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 


274  (3) 

Effect of Disturbance on Void RatioPressure Relationship 


277  (3) 

Calculation of Settlement from OneDimensional Primary Consolidation 


280  (1) 

Compression Index (Cc) and Swell Index (Cs) 


281  (4) 

Secondary Consolidation Settlement 


285  (2) 

Time Rate of Consolidation 


287  (5) 

Coefficient of Consolidation 


292  (8) 

Calculation of Consolidation Settlement Under a Foundation 


300  (2) 

Method of Accelerating Consolidation Settlement 


302  (2) 

Summary and General Comments 


304  (7) 


305  (4) 


309  (2) 


311  (53) 

MohrCoulomb Failure Criterion 


311  (2) 

Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear 


313  (1) 

Laboratory Tests for Determination of Shear Strength Parameters 


314  (1) 


315  (3) 

Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay 


318  (2) 

General Comments on Direct Shear Test 


320  (3) 

Triaxial Shear Test  General 


323  (1) 

ConsolidatedDrained Triaxial Test 


324  (8) 

ConsolidatedUndrained Triaxial Test 


332  (5) 

UnconsolidatedUndrained Triaxial Test 


337  (2) 

Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay 


339  (1) 


340  (6) 


346  (4) 

Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength 


350  (1) 

Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay 


350  (4) 

Empirical Relationships Between Undrained Cohesion (Cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure (σo) 


354  (2) 

Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils 


356  (1) 

Summary and General Comments 


357  (7) 


358  (5) 


363  (1) 

Lateral Earth Pressure: AtRest, Rankine, and Coulomb 


364  (56) 

AtRest, Active, and Passive Pressures 


364  (2) 


366  (2) 

Earth Pressure at Rest for Partially Submerged Soil 


368  (3) 

Lateral Pressure on Retaining Walls from Surcharges  Based on Theory of Elasticity 


371  (3) 

Rankine's Theory of Active Pressure 


374  (3) 

Theory of Rankine's Passive Pressure 


377  (1) 

Yielding of Wall of Limited Height 


378  (2) 

Diagrams for Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution Against Retaining Walls 


380  (12) 

Rankine Active and Passive Pressure with Sloping Backfill 


392  (4) 

Coulomb's Active Pressure 


396  (2) 

Graphic Solution for Coulomb's Active Earth Pressure 


398  (4) 

Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 


402  (5) 

Pae for c'&phis;' Soil Backfill 


407  (4) 

Coulomb's Passive Pressure 


411  (2) 

Passive Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 


413  (1) 

Summary and General Comments 


414  (6) 


415  (4) 


419  (1) 

Lateral Earth PressureCurved Failure Surface 


420  (25) 

Retaining Walls with Friction 


420  (2) 

Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral 


422  (2) 

Procedure for Determination of Passive Earth Pressure, Pp (Cohesionless Backfill) 


424  (2) 

Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure, Kp 


426  (2) 

Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces 


428  (2) 


430  (4) 

Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts in Granular Soil 


434  (3) 

Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for Cuts in Cohesive Soil 


437  (1) 

Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales 


438  (3) 

Dynamic Earth Pressure Distribution Behind a Wall Rotating About the Top 


441  (1) 


442  (3) 


442  (2) 


444  (1) 


445  (58) 


447  (1) 

Stability of Infinite Slopes 


448  (5) 

Finite Slopes  General 


453  (1) 

Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane failure Surfaces (Culmann's Method) 


454  (3) 

Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure Surfaces  General 


457  (1) 

Mass Procedure  Slopes in Homogeneous Clay Soil with &phis; = 0 


458  (5) 

Mass Procedure for Stability of Saturated Clay Slopes (&phis; = 0 condition) with Earthquake Forces 


463  (3) 

Mass Procedure  Slopes in Homogeneous c' &phis;' Soil 


466  (6) 

Ordinary Method of Slices 


472  (4) 

Bishop's Simplified Method of Slices 


476  (1) 

Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady State Seepage 


477  (8) 

Morgenstern's Method of Slices for Rapid Drawdown Condition 


485  (3) 


488  (4) 

Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment on Saturated Clay 


492  (3) 

Summary and General Comments 


495  (8) 


497  (5) 


502  (1) 

SoilBearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 


503  (41) 

Ultimate SoilBearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 


504  (2) 

Terzaghi's Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation 


506  (6) 

General Bearing Capacity Equation 


512  (4) 

Effect of Ground Water Table 


516  (1) 


517  (6) 

Ultimate Load for Shallow Foundations Under Eccentric Load 


523  (3) 

Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement 


526  (2) 


528  (2) 

Ultimate Bearing Capacity on Layered Soil 


530  (8) 

Summary and General Comments 


538  (6) 


538  (4) 


542  (2) 

Landfill Liners and Geosynthetics 


544  (14) 

Landfill Liners  Overview 


544  (1) 


545  (1) 


545  (3) 


548  (2) 


550  (1) 

Single Clay Liner and Single Geomembrane Liner Systems 


551  (1) 

Recent Advances in the Liner Systems for Landfills 


552  (1) 


553  (2) 


555  (1) 

Summary and General Comments 


556  (2) 


557  (1) 


558  (23) 

Planning for Soil Exploration 


558  (2) 


560  (3) 


563  (3) 


566  (1) 

Correlations for Standard Penetration Test 


566  (4) 


570  (3) 


573  (2) 


575  (6) 


577  (1) 


578  (3) 
Answers to Selcted Problems 

581  (4) 
Index 

585  