
Geotechnical EngineeringA Historical Perspective 


1  (12) 

Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century 


1  (3) 

PreClassical Period of Soil Mechanics (17001776) 


4  (1) 

Classical Soil MechanicsPhase I (17761856) 


5  (1) 

Classical Soil MechanicsPhase II (18561910) 


5  (1) 


6  (1) 

Geotechnical Engineering After 1927 


6  (7) 


11  (2) 

Origin of Soil and Grain Size 


13  (36) 

Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil 


13  (7) 


20  (2) 


22  (7) 


29  (1) 

Mechanical Analysis of Soil 


30  (7) 

ParticleSize Distribution Curve 


37  (6) 


43  (2) 


45  (4) 


45  (3) 


48  (1) 

WeightVolume Relationships, Plasticity, and Structure of Soil 


49  (41) 

WeightVolume Relationships 


49  (3) 

Relationships Among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity 


52  (3) 

Relationships Among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content 


55  (2) 

Various UnitWeight Relationships 


57  (6) 


63  (2) 

Comments on emax and emin 


65  (3) 

Consistency of Soil  Atterberg Limits 


68  (1) 


68  (4) 


72  (2) 


74  (3) 

Liquidity Index and Consistency Index 


77  (1) 


78  (3) 


81  (1) 


82  (4) 


86  (4) 


86  (3) 


89  (1) 

Engineering Classification of Soil 


90  (16) 

AASHTO Classification System 


90  (5) 

Unified Soil Classification System 


95  (6) 

Summary and Comparison Between the AASHTO and Unified Systems 


101  (5) 


104  (1) 


105  (1) 


106  (50) 

Compaction  General Principles 


106  (1) 


107  (3) 

Factors Affecting Compaction 


110  (4) 


114  (7) 

Structure of Compacted Clay Soil 


121  (2) 

Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties 


123  (2) 


125  (5) 

Specifications for Field Compaction 


130  (1) 

Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction 


131  (7) 

Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 


138  (4) 

Special Compaction Techniques 


142  (9) 

Summary and General Comments 


151  (5) 


152  (2) 


154  (2) 


156  (42) 


156  (2) 


158  (2) 


160  (2) 

Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 


162  (6) 

Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity  Granular Soil 


168  (5) 

Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity  Cohesive Soils 


173  (4) 

Directional Variation of Permeability 


177  (1) 

Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 


178  (6) 

Experimental Verification of Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity 


184  (1) 

Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 


185  (3) 

In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Soils 


188  (4) 

Summary and General Comments 


192  (6) 


192  (4) 


196  (2) 


198  (29) 

Laplace's Equation of Continuity 


198  (2) 

Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems 


200  (3) 


203  (2) 

Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net 


205  (4) 

Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soils 


209  (3) 

Mathematical Solution for Seepage 


212  (1) 

Uplift Pressure Under Hydraulic Structures 


213  (2) 

Seepage Through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base 


215  (3) 

L. Casagrande's Solution for Seepage Through an Earth Dam 


218  (2) 


220  (2) 


222  (5) 


223  (3) 


226  (1) 


227  (31) 

Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 


227  (5) 

Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage 


232  (4) 

Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage 


236  (1) 


236  (4) 

Heaving in Soil Due to Flow Around Sheet Piles 


240  (4) 

Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety Against Heave 


244  (3) 

Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil 


247  (1) 


248  (3) 

Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise 


251  (2) 

Summary and General Comments 


253  (5) 


254  (3) 


257  (1) 


258  (45) 

Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane 


258  (5) 

The Pole Method of Finding Stresses Along a Plane 


263  (2) 

Stresses Caused by a Point Load 


265  (3) 

Westergaard's Solution for Vertical Stress Due to a Point Load 


268  (2) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load 


270  (3) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line Load 


273  (1) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) 


274  (4) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Strip Load 


278  (2) 

Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading 


280  (3) 

Vertical Stress Below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 


283  (2) 

Vertical Stress at Any Point Below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 


285  (1) 

Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 


285  (9) 


294  (1) 

Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure 


294  (3) 

Summary and General Comments 


297  (6) 


298  (4) 


302  (1) 


303  (71) 

Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile 


303  (2) 

Relations for Elastic Settlement Calculation 


305  (2) 

Improved Relationships for Elastic Settlement 


307  (5) 

Fundamentals of Consolidation 


312  (3) 

OneDimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 


315  (2) 

Void RatioPressure Plots 


317  (2) 

Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 


319  (2) 

General Comments on Conventional Consolidation Test 


321  (1) 

Effect of Disturbance on Void RatioPressure Relationship 


322  (3) 

Calculation of Settlement from OneDimensional Primary Consolidation 


325  (2) 


327  (1) 


328  (6) 

Empirical Procedure to Estimate Void RatioPressure Relationships 


334  (2) 

Secondary Consolidation Settlement 


336  (4) 

Time Rate of Consolidation 


340  (11) 

Coefficient of Consolidation 


351  (7) 

Calculation of Consolidation Settlement Under a Foundation 


358  (2) 

Method of Accelerating Consolidation Settlement 


360  (3) 


363  (3) 

Summary and General Comments 


366  (8) 


367  (5) 


372  (2) 


374  (62) 

MohrCoulomb Failure Criterion 


374  (2) 

Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear 


376  (1) 

Laboratory Tests for Determination of Shear Strength Parameters 


377  (1) 


378  (3) 

Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay 


381  (2) 

General Comments on Direct Shear Test 


383  (3) 


386  (3) 

Triaxial Shear Test  General 


389  (1) 

ConsolidatedDrained Triaxial Test 


390  (9) 

ConsolidatedUndrained Triaxial Test 


399  (6) 

UnconsolidatedUndrained Triaxial Test 


405  (2) 

Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay 


407  (2) 

Empirical Relationships Between Undrained Cohesion (Cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure (σ'n) 


409  (1) 

Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay 


410  (3) 

Strength Anisotropy in Clay 


413  (2) 


415  (7) 

Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength 


422  (1) 

Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils 


422  (3) 


425  (5) 

Summary and General Comments 


430  (6) 


430  (4) 


434  (2) 

Lateral Earth Pressure: AtRest, Rankine, and Coulomb 


436  (70) 

AtRest, Active, and Passive Pressures 


436  (2) 


438  (3) 

Earth Pressure AtRest for Partially Submerged Soil 


441  (3) 

Rankine's Theory of Active Pressure 


444  (2) 

Theory of Rankine's Passive Pressure 


446  (2) 

Yielding of Wall of Limited Height 


448  (2) 

A Generalized Case for Rankine Active and Passive Pressures  Granular Backfill 


450  (4) 

Diagrams for Lateral EarthPressure Distribution Against Retaining Walls 


454  (15) 

Rankine's Pressure for c'φ' Soil  Inclined Backfill 


469  (3) 

Coulomb's Active Pressure 


472  (4) 

Graphic Solution for Coulomb's Active Earth Pressure 


476  (5) 

Coulomb's Passive Pressure 


481  (2) 

Active and Passive Forces on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 


483  (11) 

Common Types of Retaining Walls in the Field 


494  (2) 

Metallic Strip Reinforcement Design for MSE Walls 


496  (5) 

Summary and General Comments 


501  (5) 


501  (4) 


505  (1) 

Lateral Earth Pressure: Curved Failure Surface 


506  (27) 

Retaining Walls with Friction 


506  (2) 

Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral 


508  (2) 

Procedure for Determination of Passive Earth Pressure (Pp)  Cohesionless Backfill 


510  (2) 

Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure (Kp) 


512  (5) 

Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces 


517  (2) 


519  (3) 

Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts  Granular Soil 


522  (3) 

Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for CutsCohesive Soil 


525  (2) 

Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales 


527  (3) 


530  (3) 


531  (1) 


532  (1) 


533  (68) 


535  (1) 

Stability of Infinite Slopes 


536  (6) 

Finite Slopes  General 


542  (1) 

Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surfaces (Culmann's Method) 


542  (5) 

Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure Surfaces  General 


547  (1) 

Mass Procedure  Slopes in Homogeneous Clay Soil with φ = 0 


548  (10) 

Mass Procedure  Stability of Saturated Clay Slopes (φ = 0 Condition) with Earthquake Forces 


558  (3) 

Mass Procedure  Slopes in Homogeneous c'φ' Soil 


561  (7) 

Ordinary Method of Slices 


568  (3) 

Bishop's Simplified Method of Slices 


571  (2) 

Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for SteadyState Seepage 


573  (2) 

Other Solutions for SteadyState Seepage Condition 


575  (14) 

Morgenstern's Method of Slices for Rapid Drawdown Condition 


589  (2) 

Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment on Saturated Clay 


591  (4) 

Summary and General Comments 


595  (6) 


596  (4) 


600  (1) 

SoilBearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 


601  (33) 

Ultimate SoilBearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 


602  (2) 

Terzaghi's Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation 


604  (6) 

Effect of Groundwater Table 


610  (1) 


611  (4) 

General Bearing Capacity Equation 


615  (4) 

General Comments on Bearing Capacity Factor (Nγ) 


619  (1) 

A Case History for Evaluation of the Ultimate Bearing Capacity 


620  (2) 

Ultimate Load for Shallow Foundations Under Eccentric Load 


622  (4) 

Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement 


626  (2) 


628  (1) 

Summary and General Comments 


629  (5) 


630  (2) 


632  (2) 

Landfill Liners and Geosynthetics 


634  (18) 

Landfill Liners  Overview 


634  (1) 

Compaction of Clay Soil for Clay Liner Construction 


635  (4) 


639  (1) 


639  (3) 


642  (2) 


644  (1) 

Single Clay Liner and Single Geomembrane Liner Systems 


645  (1) 

Recent Advances in the Liner Systems for Landfills 


646  (1) 


647  (3) 


650  (1) 

Summary and General Comments 


651  (1) 


651  (1) 


652  (27) 

Planning for Soil Exploration 


652  (2) 


654  (3) 


657  (4) 


661  (1) 

Correlations for Standard Penetration Test 


662  (4) 


666  (6) 


672  (2) 


674  (5) 


675  (2) 


677  (2) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

679  (4) 
Index 

683  