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Principles of Marketing

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780139570025

ISBN10:
0139570020
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
List Price: $105.33

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Summary

The 12th edition of this popular text continues to build on four major marketing themes: building and managing profitable customer relationships, building and managing strong brands to create brand equity, harnessing new marketing technologies in the digital age, and marketing in a socially responsible way around the globe. Thoroughly updated and streamlined, "Principles of Marketing" tells the stories that reveal the drama of modern marketing, reflecting the major trends and forces that are impacting this dynamic and ever-changing field. Topics include: the marketing environment, managing information, consumer & business buyer behavior, segmentation, targeting, and positioning, branding strategies, distribution channels, advertising and sales promotion, direct marketing, and the global marketplace. An excellent tool for anyone in marketing and sales, whether self- or corporate- employed.

Table of Contents

About the Authors v
Preface xii
PART I: UNDERSTANDING MARKETING AND THE MARKETING PROCESS
Marketing in a Changing World: Creating Customer Value and Satisfaction
What is Marketing?
3(8)
Marketing Defined
3(1)
Needs, Wants, and Demands
4(2)
Products and Services
6(1)
Value Satisfaction, and Quality
7(1)
Exchange, Transactions, and Relationships
8(1)
Markets
9(1)
Marketing
10(1)
Marketing Management
11(1)
Demand Management
11(1)
Building Profitable Customer Relationships
11(1)
Marketing Management Philosophies
12(5)
The Production Concept
13(1)
The Product Concept
14(1)
The Selling Concept
14(1)
The Marketing Concept
14(2)
The Societal Marketing Concept
16(1)
Marketing Challenges into the Next Century
17(7)
Growth of Nonprofit Marketing
18(1)
The Information Technology Boom
19(2)
Rapid Globalization
21(1)
The Changing World Economy
21(1)
The Call for More Ethics and Social Responsibility
22(1)
The New Marketing Landscape
23(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
24(1)
Key Terms
25(1)
Discussing the Issues
25(1)
Applying the Concepts
26(1)
Internet Connection
27(1)
References
28(4)
Company Case 1
29(3)
Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process
32(30)
Strategic Planning
34(4)
Defining the Company Mission
35(2)
Setting Company Objectives and Goals
37(1)
Designing the Business Portfolio
38(5)
Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
38(3)
Developing Growth Strategies
41(1)
Planning Functional Strategies
42(1)
Strategic Planning and Small Business
43(1)
The Marketing Process
44(6)
Marketing Strategies for Competitive Advantage
46(1)
Developing the Marketing Mix
47(3)
Managing the Marketing Effort
50(6)
Marketing Analysis
51(1)
Marketing Planning
51(1)
Marketing Implementation
52(1)
Marketing Department Organization
52(1)
Marketing Control
53(2)
The Marketing Environment
55(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
56(2)
Key Terms
58(1)
Discussing the Issues
58(1)
Applying the Concepts
58(1)
Internet Connection
59(1)
References
60(2)
Company Case 2
60(2)
The Global Marketing Environment
62(34)
The Company's Microenvironment
64(4)
The Company
65(1)
Suppliers
65(1)
Marketing Intermediaries
65(1)
Customers
66(1)
Competitors
66(1)
Publics
67(1)
The Company's Macroenvironment
68(18)
Demographic Environment
68(5)
Economic Environment
73(3)
Natural Environment
76(1)
Technological Environment
77(1)
Political Environment
78(3)
Cultural Environment
81(5)
Responding to the Marketing Environment
86(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
87(1)
Key Terms
87(1)
Discussing the Issues
88(1)
Internet Connections
89(1)
References
89(7)
Company Case 3
91(2)
Comprehensive Case 1
93(3)
PART II: DEVELOPING MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES AND STRATEGIES
Marketing Research and Information Systems
96(36)
The Marketing Information System
99(5)
Assessing Information Needs
99(1)
Developing Information
100(3)
Distributing Information
103(1)
The Marketing Research Process
104(16)
Defining the Problem and Research Objectives
104(1)
Developing the Research Plan
105(1)
Determining Specific Information Needs
105(14)
Implementing the Research Plan
119(1)
Other Marketing Research Considerations
120(4)
Marketing Research in Small Businesses and Nonprofit Organizations
120(1)
International Marketing Research
120(2)
Public Policy and Ethics in Marketing Research
122(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
124(1)
Key Terms
125(1)
Discussing the Issues
125(1)
Applying the Concepts
126(1)
Internet Connection
126(1)
References
127(5)
Company Case 4
129(3)
Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior
132(36)
Model of Consumer Behavior
134(1)
Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
135(16)
Cultural Factors
136(4)
Social Factors
140(2)
Personal Factors
142(4)
Psychological Factors
146(5)
Types of Buying Decision Behavior
151(1)
Complex Buying Behavior
151(1)
Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behavior
151(1)
Habitual Buying Behavior
151(1)
Variety-Seeking Buying Behavior
152(1)
The Buyer Decision Process
152(4)
Need Recognition
153(1)
Information Search
153(1)
Evaluation of Alternatives
154(1)
Purchase Decision
155(1)
Postpurchase Behavior
155(1)
The Buyer Decision Process for New Products
156(4)
Stages in the Adoption Process
157(1)
Individual Differences in Innovativeness
157(1)
Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption
158(2)
Consumer Behavior Across International Borders
160(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
162(1)
Key Terms
163(1)
Discussing the Issues
163(1)
Applying the Concepts
163(1)
Internet Connection
164(1)
References
165(3)
Company Case 5
166(2)
Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior
168(26)
Business Markets
170(3)
Characteristics of Business Markets
170(2)
A Model of Business Buyer Behavior
172(1)
Business Buyer Behavior
173(12)
Major Types of Buying Situations
173(2)
Participants in the Business Buying Process
175(2)
Major Influences on Business Buyers
177(2)
The Business Buying Process
179(6)
Institutional and Government Markets
185(2)
Institutional Markets
185(1)
Government Markets
185(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
187(1)
Key Terms
188(1)
Discussing the Issues
188(1)
Applying the Concepts
188(1)
Internet Connection
189(1)
References
190(4)
Company Case 6
191(3)
Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning for Competitive Advantage
194(42)
Market Segmentation
197(18)
Levels of Market Segmentation
197(5)
Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets
202(10)
Segmenting Business Markets
212(1)
Segmenting International Markets
213(2)
Requirements for Effective Segmentation
215(1)
Market Targeting
215(5)
Evaluating Market Segments
215(1)
Selecting Market Segments
216(4)
Positioning for Competitive Advantage
220(6)
Positioning Strategies
220(1)
Choosing and Implementing a Positioning Strategy
221(5)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
226(1)
Key Terms
227(1)
Discussing the Issues
227(1)
Applying the Concepts
228(1)
Internet Connection
229(1)
References
229(7)
Company Case 7
230(3)
Comprehensive Case 2
233(3)
PART III: DEVELOPING THE MARKETING MIX
Product and Services Strategy
236(36)
What Is a Product?
238(2)
The Product-Service Continuum
239(1)
Levels of Product
239(1)
Product Classifications
240(4)
Consumer Products
240(1)
Industrial Products
241(1)
Organizations, Persons, Places, and Ideas
242(2)
Individual Product Decisions
244(11)
Product Attributes
244(1)
Branding
245(8)
Packaging
253(1)
Labeling
253(1)
Product Support Services
254(1)
Product Line Decisions
255(2)
Product Mix Decisions
257(1)
Services Marketing
258(6)
Nature and Characteristics of a Service
258(2)
Marketing Strategies for Service Firms
260(4)
International Product and Services Marketing
264(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
266(1)
Key Terms
267(1)
Discussing the Issues
267(1)
Applying the Concepts
268(1)
Internet Connection
268(1)
References
269(3)
Company Case 8
270(2)
New-Product Development and Product Life-Cycle Strategies
272(28)
New-Product Development Strategy
274(13)
Idea Generation
275(2)
Idea Screening
277(1)
Concept Development and Testing
277(3)
Marketing Strategy Development
280(1)
Business Analysis
281(1)
Product Development
281(1)
Test Marketing
282(2)
Commercialization
284(2)
Speeding Up New-Product Development
286(1)
Product Life-Cycle Strategies
287(7)
Introduction Stage
289(1)
Growth Stage
289(1)
Maturity Stage
290(2)
Decline Stage
292(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
294(1)
Key Terms
295(1)
Discussing the Issues
295(1)
Applying the Concepts
295(1)
Internet Connection
296(1)
References
297(3)
Company Case 9
298(2)
Pricing Products: Pricing Considerations and Approaches
300(26)
Factors to Consider When Setting Prices
303(10)
Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decision
303(6)
External Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions
309(4)
General Pricing Approaches
313(6)
Cost-Based Pricing
314(2)
Value-Based Pricing
316(2)
Competition-Based Pricing
318(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
319(1)
Key Terms
320(1)
Discussing the Issues
321(1)
Applying the Concepts
321(1)
Internet Connection
322(1)
References
323(3)
Company Case 10
323(3)
Pricing Products: Pricing Strategies
326(24)
New-Product Pricing Strategies
328(3)
Market-Skimming Pricing
330(1)
Market-Penetration Pricing
330(1)
Product Mix Pricing Strategies
331(3)
Product Line Pricing
331(1)
Optional-Product Pricing
331(1)
Captive-Product Pricing
332(1)
By-Product Pricing
332(1)
Product Bundle Pricing
333(1)
Price-Adjustment Strategies
334(6)
Discount and Allowance Pricing
334(1)
Segmented Pricing
335(1)
Psychological Pricing
335(2)
Promotional Pricing
337(1)
Geographical Pricing
337(2)
International Pricing
339(1)
Price Changes
340(4)
Initiating Price Changes
340(2)
Responding to Price Changes
342(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
344(1)
Key Terms
345(1)
Discussing the Issues
345(1)
Applying the Concepts
346(1)
Internet Connection
346(1)
References
347(3)
Company Case 11
348(2)
Distribution Channels and Logistics Management
350(38)
The Nature of Distribution Channels
353(3)
Why Are Marketing Intermediaries Used?
353(1)
Distribution Channel Functions
354(1)
Number of Channel Levels
355(1)
Channel Behavior and Organization
356(8)
Channel Behavior
357(1)
Vertical Marketing Systems
358(4)
Horizontal Marketing Systems
362(1)
Hybrid Marketing Systems
363(1)
Channel Design Decisions
364(5)
Analyzing Consumer Service Needs
365(1)
Setting the Channel Objectives and Constraints
365(1)
Identifying Major Alternatives
366(2)
Evaluating the Major Alternatives
368(1)
Designing International Distribution Channels
368(1)
Channel Management Decisions
369(1)
Selecting Channel Members
369(1)
Motivating Channel Members
370(1)
Evaluating Channel Members
370(1)
Physical Distribution and Logistics Management
370(12)
Nature and Importance of Physical Distribution and Marketing Logistics
371(2)
Goals of the Logistics System
373(1)
Major Logistics Functions
374(3)
Integrated Logistics Management
377(5)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
382(1)
Key Terms
383(1)
Discussing the Issues
383(1)
Applying the Concepts
384(1)
Internet Connection
384(1)
References
385(3)
Company Case 12
386(2)
Retailing and Wholesaling
388(32)
Retailing
390(1)
Store Retailing
391(7)
Amount of Service
391(1)
Product Line
391(3)
Relative Prices
394(1)
Retail Organizations
395(3)
Nonstore Retailing
398(2)
Direct Marketing
398(1)
Direct Selling
398(1)
Automatic Vending
399(1)
Retailer Marketing Decisions
400(5)
Target Market and Positioning Decision
400(1)
Product Assortment and Services Decision
401(2)
Price Decision
403(1)
Promotion Decision
404(1)
Place Decision
404(1)
The Future of Retailing
405(4)
New Retail Forms and Shortening Retail Lifecycles
406(1)
Growth of Nonstore Retailing
406(1)
Increasing Intertype Competition
406(1)
The Rise of Megaretailers
407(1)
Growing Importance of Retail Technology
407(1)
Global Expansion of Major Retailers
407(1)
Retail Stores as ``Communities'' or ``Hangouts''
408(1)
Wholesaling
409(1)
Types of Wholesalers
410(2)
Wholesaler Marketing Decisions
412(2)
Target Market and Positioning Decision
413(1)
Marketing Mix Decisions
413(1)
Trends in Wholesaling
414(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
415(1)
Key Terms
416(1)
Discussing the Issues
416(1)
Applying the Concepts
416(1)
Internet Connection
417(1)
References
417(3)
Company Case 13
418(2)
Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
420(28)
The Marketing Communications Mix
422(1)
A View of the Communication Process
423(2)
Steps in Developing Effective Communication
425(7)
Identifying the Target Audience
425(1)
Determining the Communication Objectives
425(1)
Designing a Message
426(3)
Choosing Media
429(1)
Selecting the Message Source
429(1)
Collecting Feedback
430(2)
Setting the Total Promotion Budget and Mix
432(5)
Setting the Total Promotion Budget
432(1)
Setting the Promotion Mix
433(4)
The Changing Face of Marketing Communications
437(2)
Integrated Marketing Communications
439(1)
Socially Responsible Marketing Communication
439(3)
Advertising
440(1)
Personal Selling
441(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
442(1)
Key Terms
443(1)
Discussing the Issues
443(1)
Applying the Concepts
444(1)
Internet Connection
444(1)
References
445(3)
Company Case 14
445(3)
Advertising, Sales Promotion, and Public Relations
448(30)
Advertising
450(1)
Major Decisions in Advertising
451(12)
Setting Objectives
451(1)
Setting the Advertising Budget
452(1)
Advertising Strategy
453(7)
Advertising Evaluation
460(1)
Organizing for Advertising
461(1)
International Advertising Decisions
462(1)
Sales Promotion
463(5)
Rapid Growth of Sales Promotion
463(1)
Setting Sales-Promotion Objectives
464(1)
Selecting Sales-Promotion Tools
465(3)
Developing the Sales-Promotion Program
468(1)
Public Relations
468(5)
Major Public Relations Tools
469(2)
Major Public Relations Decisions
471(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
473(1)
Key Terms
473(1)
Discussing the Issues
474(1)
Applying the Concepts
474(1)
Internet Connection
474(1)
References
475(3)
Company Case 15
476(2)
Personal Selling and Sales Management
478(26)
The Role of Personal Selling
480(2)
The Nature of Personal Selling
480(1)
The Role of the Sales Force
481(1)
Managing the Salesforce
482(13)
Designing Sales Force Strategy and Structure
482(4)
Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople
486(2)
Training Salespeople
488(1)
Compensating Salespeople
489(1)
Supervising Salespeople
490(3)
Evaluating Salespeople
493(2)
Principles of Personal Selling
495(4)
The Personal Selling Process
495(1)
Steps in the Selling Process
495(2)
Relationship Marketing
497(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
499(1)
Key Terms
500(1)
Discussing the Issues
500(1)
Applying the Concepts
500(1)
Internet Connection
501(1)
References
501(3)
Company Case 16
502(2)
Direct and Online Marketing
504(38)
What is Direct Marketing
507(1)
Growth and Benefits of Direct Marketing
507(1)
The Benefits of Direct Marketing
507(1)
The Growth of Direct Marketing
508(1)
Customer Databases and Direct Marketing
508(4)
Forms of Direct Marketing Communication
512(4)
Face-to-Face Selling
512(1)
Direct-Mail Marketing
513(1)
Catalog Marketing
514(1)
Telemarketing
514(1)
Direct-Response Television Marketing
515(1)
Kiosk Marketing
516(1)
Online Marketing and Electronic Commerce
516(11)
Rapid Growth of Online Marketing
517(1)
The Online Consumer
518(1)
The Benefits of Online Marketing
519(2)
Online Marketing Channels
521(5)
The Promise and Challenges of Online Marketing
526(1)
Integrated Direct Marketing
527(2)
Public Policy and Ethical Issues in Direct Marketing
529(2)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
531(1)
Key Terms
532(1)
Discussing the Issues
532(1)
Applying the Concepts
533(1)
Internet Connection
533(1)
References
534(8)
Company Case 17
536(2)
Comprehensive Case 3
538(4)
PART IV MANAGING MARKETING
Competitive Strategies: Building Lasting Customer Relationships
542(34)
Defining Customer Value and Satisfaction
545(2)
Customer Value
545(1)
Customer Satisfaction
546(1)
Retaining Customers
547(6)
Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty
547(2)
The Need for Customer Retention
549(1)
The Key: Customer Relationship Marketing
550(3)
Delivering Customer Value and Satisfaction
553(1)
Value Chain
553(1)
Value-Delivery Network
554(1)
Implementing Total Quality Marketing
554(2)
Total Quality Management
555(1)
Marketing's Role in Total Quality
555(1)
Competitive Marketing Strategies
556(12)
Competitor Analysis
557(4)
Competitive Strategies
561(7)
Balancing Customer and Competitor Orientations
568(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
569(1)
Key Terms
570(1)
Discussing the Issues
570(1)
Applying the Concepts
571(1)
Internet Connection
571(1)
References
572(4)
Company Case 18
573(3)
The Global Marketplace
576(28)
Global Marketing into the Twenty-First Century
578(3)
Looking at the Global Marketing Environment
581(6)
The International Trade System
582(2)
Economic Environment
584(1)
Political-Legal Environment
585(1)
Cultural Environment
586(1)
Deciding Whether to Go International
587(1)
Deciding Which Markets to Enter
588(3)
Deciding How to Enter the Market
591(2)
Exporting
591(1)
Joint Venturing
591(2)
Direct Investment
593(1)
Deciding on the Global Marketing Program
593(5)
Product
594(1)
Promotion
595(2)
Price
597(1)
Distribution Channels
597(1)
Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization
598(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
599(1)
Key Terms
599(1)
Discussing the Issues
599(1)
Applying the Concepts
600(1)
Internet Connection
600(1)
References
601(3)
Company Case 19
602(2)
Marketing and Society: Social Responsibility and Marketing Ethics
604(32)
Social Criticisms of Marketing
606(8)
Marketing's Impact on Individual Consumers
606(5)
Marketing's Impact on Society as a Whole
611(3)
Marketing's Impact on Other Businesses
614(1)
Citizen and Public Actions to Regulate Marketing
614(6)
Consumerism
614(2)
Environmentalism
616(4)
Public Actions to Regulate Marketing
620(1)
Business Actions toward Socially Responsible Marketing
620(8)
Enlightened Marketing
621(3)
Marketing Ethics
624(4)
Principles for Public Policy toward Marketing
628(1)
Summary of Chapter Objectives
629(1)
Key Terms
630(1)
Discussing the Issues
630(1)
Applying the Concepts
631(1)
Internet Connection
631(1)
References
632(4)
Company Case 20
634(2)
Comprehensive Case 4
636
Appendix 1: Measuring and Forecasting Demand A1
Appendix 2: Marketing Arithmetic A9
Appendix 3: Careers in Marketing A15
Glossary G1
Credits C1
Subject Index I1
Company/Brand/Name Index I11


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