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Principles of Radiographic Imaging : An Art and a Science,9780766813007
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Principles of Radiographic Imaging : An Art and a Science

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780766813007

ISBN10:
0766813002
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/18/2000
Publisher(s):
CENGAGE Delmar Learning

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 9/18/2000.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles and techniques of radiographic imaging. The physics principles that are the foundation of radiography are explained clearly, with numerous illustrations, examples and solved problems to aid comprehension. Chapters are organized into six units: Creating the Beam, Protecting Patients and Personnel, Creating the Image, Analyzing the Image, Comparing Exposure Systems, and Special Imaging Systems. Specialized imaging modalities, such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography and computed radiography, are explained in individual chapters.

Table of Contents

List of Tables
xi
Foreword xv
Preface xvi
Acknowledgments xviii
UNIT I Creating the Beam 1(140)
Basic Mathematics
3(17)
Arithmetic
4(4)
Algebra
8(7)
Units of Measurement
15(5)
Radiation Concepts
20(18)
Matter And Energy
21(2)
Atomic Theory
23(7)
Types of Energy
30(2)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
32(2)
The Discovery of X-Rays
34(1)
X-Ray Properties
35(3)
Electricity
38(19)
Electrostatics
39(5)
Electrodynamics
44(7)
Series And Parallel Circuits
51(6)
Electromagnetism
57(29)
Magnetism
58(4)
Electromagnetism
62(1)
Solenoids and Electromagnets
63(10)
Controlling Electrical Current
73(5)
Rectification
78(8)
X-Ray Equipment
86(24)
Types of X-Ray Equipment
87(5)
Power For X-Ray Generation
92(2)
A Basic X-Ray Circuit
94(3)
Generators
97(7)
Automatic Exposure Controls
104(6)
The X-Ray Tube
110(21)
The Cathode Assembly
111(3)
The Anode Assembly
114(7)
The Glass Envelope
121(1)
Protective Housing
122(1)
Off-Focus Radiation
123(1)
Rating Charts and Cooling Curves
124(2)
Recommendations For Extending Tube Life
126(5)
X-Ray Production
131(10)
Conditions
132(1)
Target Interactions
132(4)
Emission Spectrum
136(5)
UNIT II Protecting Patients and Personnel 141(82)
Radiation Protection Concepts and Equipment
143(12)
The Basic of Radiation Protection Principles and Practice
144(2)
Quantities and Units Relevant To Radiation Protection
146(2)
Detection And Measurement of Ionizing Radiation
148(7)
Radiation Protection Procedures for Patients and Personnel
155(17)
Advisory Groups And Regulatory Agencies
156(1)
Limiting Exposure To Ionizing Radiation
156(2)
Protection of Personnel
158(4)
Protection of the Patient
162(2)
Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy
164(8)
Filtration
172(8)
Measurement
173(1)
Types of Filtration
174(2)
Effect On Output
176(4)
The Prime Factors
180(12)
The Prime Factors
181(1)
Milliamperage-Second (mAs)
181(2)
Kilovoltage (kVp)
183(2)
Distance
185(7)
X-Ray Interactions
192(14)
X-Ray Interaction with Matter
193(1)
Photoelectric Absorption
194(2)
Coherent Scattering
196(1)
Compton Scattering
197(2)
Pair Production
199(1)
Photodisintegration
200(1)
Effect on Technical Factor Selection
201(5)
Minimizing Patient Dose
206(17)
Estimating Approximate Entrance Skin Exposure
207(2)
Typical Entrance Skin Exposure
209(1)
Reducing Patient Dose With Communication
210(1)
Reducing Patient Dose With Positioning
210(1)
Reducing Patient Dose With Technical Factors
211(3)
Discussing Radiation Risk Versus Benefit With Patients
214(9)
UNIT III Creating the Image 223(134)
Vision and Perception
225(12)
Image Perception
226(4)
Controlling The Image In Space
230(1)
Radiography As An Art Form
231(6)
Beam Restriction
237(11)
Controlling Scatter
238(2)
Beam Restrictors
240(3)
Ancillary Devices
243(5)
The Patient As a Beam Emitter
248(6)
Attenuation
249(1)
The Human Body As An Attenuator
249(2)
The Patient's Relationship to Image Quality
251(3)
The Pathology Problem
254(11)
Pathology and Radiation Absorption
255(2)
Increased Attenuation (Additive) Conditions
257(3)
Decreased Attenuation (Destructive) Conditions
260(5)
The Grid
265(14)
Purpose of the Grid
266(1)
Grid Construction
267(2)
Grid Patterns
269(1)
Grid Types
270(1)
Grid Uses
270(1)
Grid Selection/Conversions
271(1)
Grid Performance Evaluation
272(1)
Grid Errors
273(2)
Other Scatter Reduction Methods
275(4)
Radiographic Film
279(16)
Construction
280(5)
Latent Image Formation
285(1)
Types of Film
285(3)
The Duplication Process
288(1)
The Subtraction Process
288(3)
Film Storage and Handling
291(1)
Film Identification
292(3)
Image Processing
295(19)
Developing
296(3)
Fixing
299(1)
Archiving
300(1)
Automatic Processing
300(6)
Darkroom
306(2)
Silver Recovery Systems
308(6)
Sensitometry
314(14)
Sensitometric Equipment
315(3)
The D Log E Curve
318(1)
Film Characteristics
319(9)
Intensifying Screens
328(14)
Construction
329(1)
Phosphors
330(2)
Characteristics
332(4)
Cassettes and Holders
336(1)
Care
337(5)
Film/Screen Combinations
342(15)
Emission Spectra
343(1)
Characteristics
343(2)
Selecting Film/Screen Combinations
345(4)
Clinical Choices
349(8)
UNIT IV Analyzing the Image 357(98)
Establishing Imaging Standards
359(6)
Professional Imaging Standards
359(1)
The Analytical Process
360(1)
Acceptance Limits
361(4)
Density
365(17)
Assessing Density
366(1)
Effects on Image Appearance
367(1)
Factors Affecting Density
367(15)
Contrast
382(19)
Assessing Contrast
383(2)
Radiographic Contrast
385(4)
Evaluating Contrast
389(5)
Factors Affecting Contrast
394(7)
Recorded Detail
401(13)
Assessing Recorded Detail
402(1)
Effects on Image Appearance
402(1)
Factors Affecting Recorded Detail
403(11)
Distortion
414(15)
Assessing Distortion
415(1)
Factors Affecting Size Distortion
415(4)
Factors Affecting Shape Distortion
419(6)
Effect on Image Appearance
425(4)
The Art of Film Critique
429(9)
Implementing Imaging Standards
430(1)
Identifying An Imaging Problem
430(1)
An Effective Film Critique Method
431(3)
Applying The Film Critique Method
434(4)
Quality Management
438(17)
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
439(1)
Purchasing Equipment
440(1)
Monitoring Equipment Performance
441(6)
Ancillary Equipment
447(1)
Repeat Film Studies
447(2)
Troubleshooting
449(6)
UNIT V Comparing Exposure Systems 455(64)
Developing Exposure Charts
457(9)
System Selection
458(3)
Anatomically Programmed Radiography
461(1)
Establishing A Technique Chart
461(5)
Fixed Kilovoltage Systems
466(9)
Principles of Fixed Kilovoltage Exposure Systems
467(1)
Establishing A Fixed Kilovoltage Peak Technique Chart
468(7)
Variable Kilovoltage Systems
475(20)
Principles of a Variable Kilovoltage Peak Exposure System
476(3)
Establishing a Stepped Variable kVp System
479(3)
The Mayo Clinic Variable kVp System
482(3)
Establishing a Mayo Clinic Variable kVp Chart
485(10)
Other Exposure Systems
495(7)
XVS Unit Step System
496(1)
Bit System
497(1)
Siemens Point System
497(1)
Supertech™ Calculator
497(1)
Proportional Anatomy Systems
498(4)
Automatic Exposure Controls
502(8)
Ionization Chambers
503(2)
Positioning Skills
505(5)
Exposure Conversion Problems
510(9)
Standard Conversion Relationships and Tables
511(2)
Solving Complex Exposure Problems
513(6)
UNIT VI Special Imaging Systems 519(183)
Mobile Radiography
521(12)
Special Patient Considerations
522(1)
Special Radiation Protection Considerations
523(1)
Types of Equipment
524(2)
Automatic Exposure Control
526(1)
Special Technical Factor Selection Considerations
526(7)
Fluoroscopy
533(19)
Historical Development
534(1)
Fluoroscopic Uses
534(1)
Types of Equipment
535(1)
Fluoroscopic X-Ray Tubes
536(1)
Image Intensification Tubes
536(4)
Fluoroscopic Generators
540(1)
Image Quality
540(1)
Viewing Systems
541(3)
Recording The Fluoroscopic Image
544(2)
Mobile Fluoroscopic Equipment
546(1)
Radiation Protection During Fluoroscopy
546(6)
Tomography
552(13)
The Tomographic Principle
553(1)
Tomographic Quality
554(4)
Types of Motion
558(2)
Tomographic Procedures
560(5)
Technical Aspects of Mammography
565(27)
Historical Development
566(5)
Generator Characteristics
571(3)
X-Ray Tube
574(9)
Accessories
583(4)
Resolution
587(1)
Quality Control
588(4)
Vascular Imaging Equipment
592(22)
Generators
593(1)
X-Ray Tubes
593(7)
Angiographic Tables
600(1)
Image Recording Devices
601(8)
Contrast Medium Injection Devices
609(2)
Quality Control
611(3)
Digital Image Processing
614(18)
The Computer
615(3)
Image Processing
618(3)
Digital Image Quality
621(6)
Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS)
627(1)
Laser Film Printers
628(4)
Digital Radiography
632(18)
Introduction
633(1)
Historical Development
633(1)
Indirect Photostimulable Phosphor Imaging Plate Systems
633(6)
Computed Radiography Image Quality
639(4)
Image Acquisition Elements
643(2)
Indirect Silicon Flat Panel Imaging Plate Systems
645(1)
Direct Exposure Imaging Systems
646(1)
Direct Selenium Flat Panel Imaging Plate Systems
646(1)
DICOM Standard
646(1)
Computed Radiography Artifacts
646(4)
Computed Tomography
650(24)
The Invention of Computed Tomography
651(1)
Gentry
651(6)
Table
657(1)
X-Ray Tubes
657(1)
Ditectors
658(2)
Computer
660(1)
Display Console
661(1)
CT Numbers (Hounsfield Units)
662(1)
Image Reconstruction
663(1)
Image Quality
664(1)
Scanning Procedures
665(2)
Artifacts
667(2)
Radiation Protection
669(5)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
674(28)
The Physics of Magnetic Resonance
675(5)
Production of the Magnetic Resonance Image
680(6)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment
686(7)
Image Quality
693(2)
Safety and Biological Hazards
695(7)
Appendix A On a New Kind of Rays* 702(5)
Appendix B Agfa's Troubleshooting the Radiographic System: Symptoms and Possible Causes* 707(5)
Appendix C Du Pont Bit System 712(5)
Appendix D Basic Exposure Table: Siemens Point System 717(5)
Appendix E Answers To Case Studies 722(2)
Appendix F Epigraph Sources and Credits 724(2)
Index 726


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