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The dimensions of modern semiconductor devices are reduced to the point where the classical semiconductor theory, including the concepts of continuous particle concentration and continuous current, becomes questionable. Further questions relate to the two-dimensional transport in the most important field-effect devices and the one-dimensional transport in nanowires and carbon nanotubes. Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses,Principles of Semiconductor Devices, Second Edition, presents the semiconductor-physics and device principles in a way that upgrades the classical semiconductor theory and enables proper interpretations of numerous quantum effects in modern devices. The semiconductor theory is directly linked to practical applications, including the links to SPICE models and parameters that are commonly used during circuit design. The text is divided into three parts: Part I explains semiconductor physics; Part II presents the principles of operation and modeling of the fundamental junctions and transistors; and Part III provides supplementary topics, including a dedicated chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices, description of SPICE models and equivalent circuits that are needed for circuit design, introductions to most important specific devices (photonic devices, JFETs and MESFETs, negative-resistance diodes, and power devices), and an overview of integrated-circuit technologies. The chapters and the sections in each chapter are organized so to enable instructors to select more rigorous and design-related topics as they see fit. New to this Edition * A new chapter on the physics of nanoscale devices * A revised chapter on the energy-band model and fully reworked and updated material on crystals to include graphene and carbon nanotubes * A revised P-N junction chapter to emphasize the current mechanisms that are relevant to modern devices * JFETs and MESFETs in a stand-alone chapter * Fifty-seven new problems and eleven new examples
Sima Dimitrijev is Professor at the Griffith School of Engineering and Deputy Director of Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre at Griffith University in Australia. He is the author of Understanding Semiconductor Devices (OUP, 2000) as well as numerous other publications in the areas of MOSFET technology, modeling, and applications.
Table of Contents
Contents PART I INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS 1 lNTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS AND CURRENT CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS, THE ATOMIC-BOND MODEL 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CRYSTALS 1.1.1 Atomic Bonds 1.1.2 Three-Dimensional Crystals 1.1.3 Two-Dimensional Crystals: Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 1.2 CURRENT CARRIERS 1.2.1 Two Types of Current Carriers in Semiconductors 1.2.2 N·Type and P-Type Doping 1.2.3 Electroneutrality Equation 1.2.4 Electron and Hole Generation and Recombination in Thermal Equilibrium 1.3 BASICS OF CRYSTAL GROWTH AND DOPING TECHNIQUES 1.3.1 Crystal-Growth Techniques 1.3.2 Doping Techniques Summary Problems Review Questions
2 THE ENERGY-BAND MODEL 12.1 ELECTRONS AS WAVES 2.1.1 De Broglie Relationship Between Particle and Wave Properties 2.1.2 Wave Function and Wave Packet 2.1.3 Schrodinger Equation 2.2 ENERGY LEVELS IN ATOMS AND ENERGY BANDS IN CRYSTALS 2.2.1 Atomic Structure 2.2.2 Energy Bands in Metals 2.2.3 Energy Gap and Energy Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators 12.3 ELECTRONS AND HOLES AS PARTICLES 2.3.1 Effective Mass and Real E-k Diagrams 2.3.2 The Question of Electron Size: The Uncertainty Principle 2.3.3 Density of Electron States 2.4 POPULATION OF ELECTRON STATES, CONCENTRATIONS OF ELECTRONS A:"D HOLES 2.4.1 Fermi-Dirac Distribution 2.4.2 Maxwell-Boltzmann Approximation and Effective Density of States 2.4.3 Fermi Potential and Doping 2.4.4 Nonequilibrium Carrier Concentrations and Quasi-Fermi Levels Summary Problems Review Questions
3 DRIFT 3.1 ENERGY BANDS WITH APPLIED ELECTRIC FIELD 3.1.1 Energy-Band Presentation of Drift Current 3.1.2 Resistance and Power Dissipation due to Carrier Scattering 3.2 OHM'S LAW, SHEET RESISTANCE, AND CONDUCTIVITY 3.2.1 Designing Integrated-Circuit Resistors 3.2.2 Differential Form of Ohm's Law 3.2.3 Conductivity Ingredients 3.3 CARRIER MOBILITY 3.3.1 Thermal and Drift Velocities 3.3.2 Mobility Definition 3.3.3 Scattering Time and Scattering Cross Section 3.3.4 Mathieson's Rule °3.3.5 Hall Effect Summary Problems Review Questions
5 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION 5.1 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION MECHANISMS 5.2 GENERAL FORM OF THE CONTINUITY EQUATION 5.2.1 Recombination and Generation Rates 5.2.2 Minority-Carrier Lifetime 5.2.3 Diffusion Length 5.3 GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PHYSICS AND SHOCKLEYREAD- HALL (SRH) THEORY 5.3.1 Capture and Emission Rates in Thermal Equilibrium 5.3.2 Steady-State Equation for the Effective Thermal Generation/Recombination Rate 5.3.3 Special Cases 5.3.4 Surface Generation and Recombination Summary Problems Review Questions
PART II FUNDAMENTAL DEVICE STRUCTURES 6 P-N JUNCTION 6.1 P-N JUNCTION PRINCIPLES 6.1.1 p-~ Junction in Thermal Equilibrium 6.1.2 Reverse-Biased P-N Junction 6.1.3 Forward-Biased P-K Junction 6.1.4 Breakdown Phenomena 6.2 DC MODEL 6.2.1 Basic Current-Voltage (I-V) Equation 6.2.2 Important Second-Order Effects 6.2.3 Temperature Effects 6.3 CAPACITA CE OF REVERSE-BIASED P-:-I JUNCTION 6.3.1 C-V Dependence 6.3.2 Depletion-Layer Width: Solving the Poisson Equation 6.3.3 SPICE Model for the Depletion-Layer Capacitance 6.4 STORED-CHARGE EFFECTS 6.4.1 Stored Charge and Transit Time 6.4.2 Relationship Between the Transit Time and the Minority-Carrier Lifetime 6.4.3 Switching Characteristics: Reverse-Recovery Time Summary Problems Review Questions
7 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT AND MOS CAPACITOR 7.1 METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT 7.1.1 Schottky Diode: Rectifying Metal-Semiconductor Contact 7.1.2 Ohmic Metal-Semiconductor Contacts 7.2 MOS CAPACITOR 7.2.1 Properties of the Gate Oxide and the Oxide-Semiconductor Interface 7.2.2 C-V Curve and the Surface-Potential Dependence on Gate Voltage 7.2.3 Energy-Band Diagrams ·7.2.4 Flat4Band Capacitance and Debye Length Summary Problems Review Questions
8 MOSFET 8.1 MOSFET PRINCIPLES B.1.1 MOSFET Structure 8.1.2 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Switch B.1.3 The Threshold Voltage and the Body Effect B.1.4 MOSFET as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source: Mechanisms of Current Saturation 8.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUATIONS 8.2.1 SPICE LEVEL 1 Model 8.2.2 SPICE LEVEL 2 Model 8.2.3 SPICE LEVEL 3 Model: Principal Effects 8.3 SECO:\D-OROER EFFECTS 8.3.1 Mobility Reduction with Gate Voltage 8.3.2 Velocity Saturation (Mobility Reduction with Drain Voltage) 8.3.3 Finite Output Resistance 8.3.4 Threshold-Voltage-Related Short-Channel Effects 8.3.5 Threshold Voltage Related Narrow-Channel Effects 8.3.6 Subthreshold Current 8.4 Nanoscale MOSFETs 8.4.1 Down-Scaling Benefits and Rules 8.4.2 Leakage Currents 8.4.3 Advanced MOSFETs "8.5 MOS-BASED MEMORY DEVICES 8.5.1 1C1T DRAM Cell 8.5.2 Flash-Memory Cell Summary Problems Review Questions
9 BJT 9.1 B.JT PRINCIPLES 9.1.1 BJT as a Voltage-Controlled Current Source 9.1.2 BJT Currents and Gain Definitions 9.1.3 Dependence of ? and ? Current Gains on Technological Parameters 9.1.4 The Four Modes of Operation: BJT as a Switch 9.1.5 Complementary BJT 9.1.6 BJT Versus MOSFET 9.2 PRINCIPAL CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS, EBERE-MOLL MODEL IN SPICE 9.2.1 Injection Version 9.2.2 Transport Version 9.2.3 SPICE Version 9.3 SECOND·ORDER EFFECTS 9.3.1 Early Effect: Finite Dynamic Output Resistance 9.3.2 Parasitic Resistances 9.3.3 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Low-Current Effects 9.3.4 Dependence of Common-Emitter Current Gain on Transistor Current: Gummel-Poon Model for High-Current Effects 9.4 HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR Summary Problems Review Questions
PART III SUPPLEMENTARY TOPICS 10 PHYSICS OF NANOSCALE DEVICES 10.1 SINGLE-CARRIER EVENTS 10.1.1 Beyond the Classical Principle of Continuity 10.1.2 Current-Time Form of Uncertainty Principle 10.1.3 Carrier-Supply Limit to Diffusion Current 10.1.4 Spatial Uncertainty 10.1.5 Direct Nonequilibrium Modeling of Single-Carrier Events 10.2 TWO-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT IN MOSFETs AND HEMTs 10.2.1 Quantum Confinement 10.2.2 HEMT Structure and Characteristics 10.2.3 Application of Classical MOSFET Equations to Two-Dimensional Transport in MOSFETs and HEMTs 10.3 ONE-DIMENSUIONAL TRANSPORT IN NANOWIRES AND CARBON NANOTUBES 10.3.1 Ohmic Transport in Nanowire and Carbon-Nanotube FETs 10.3.2 One-Dimensional Ballistic Transport and the Quantum Conductance Limit Summary Problems Review Questions
II DEVICE ELECTRONICS, EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS A D SPICE PARAMETERS lI.l DIODES 11.1.1 Static Model and Parameters in SPICE 11.1.2 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit in SPICE 11.1.3 Parameter Measurement 11.1.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit ll.2 MOSFET 11.2.1 Static Model and Parameters; LEVEL 3 in SPICE 11.2.2 Parameter Measurement 11.2.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE 11.2.4 Simple Digital ~1od.el 11.2.5 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit 11.3 BJT 11.3.1 Static Model and Parameters: Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon Levels in SPICE 11.3.2 Parameter Measurement 11.3.3 Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit and Dynamic Parameters in SPICE 11.3.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Summary Problems Review Questions
12 PHOTONIC DEVICES 12.1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED) 12.2 PHOTODETECTORS AND SOLAR CELLS 12.2.1 Biasing for Photodetector and Solar-Cell Applications 12.2.2 Carrier Generation in Photodetectors and Solar Cells 12.2.3 Photocurrent Equation 12.3 LASERS 12.3.1 Stimulated Emission, Inversion Population, and Other Fundamental Concepts 12.3.2 A Typical Heterojunction Laser Summary Problems Review Questions
13 JFET AND MESFET 13.1 JFET 13.1.1 JFET Structure 13.1.2 JFET Characteristics 13.1.3 SPICE Model and Parameters 13.2 MESFET 13.2.1 MESFET Structure 13.2.2 MESFET Characteristics 13.2.3 SPICE Model and Parameters Summary Problems Review Questions
14 POWER DEVICES 14.1 POWER DIODES 14.1.1 Drift Region in Power Devices 14.1.2 Switching Characteristics 14.1.3 Schottky Diode 14.2 POWER MOSFET 14.3 IGBT 14.4 THYRISTOR Summary Problems Review Questions
16 INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGIES 16.1 A DIODE IN IC TECHNOLOGY 16.1.1 Basic Structure 16.1.2 Lithography 16.1.3 Process Sequence 16.1.4 Diffusion Profiles 16.2 MOSFET TECHNOLOGIES 16.2.1 Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS) 16.2.2 NMOS Technology 16.2.3 Basic CMOS Technology 16.2.4 Silicon-on-Insulator (SOl) Technology 16.3 BIPOLAR IC TECHNOLOGIES 16.3.1 IC Structure of NPN BJT 16.3.2 Standard Bipolar Technology Process 16.3.3 Implementation of PNP BJTs, Resistors, Capacitors, and Diodes 16.3.4 Parasitic IC Elements not Included in Device Models 16.3.5 Layer Merging 16.3.6 BiCMOS Technology Summary Problems Review Questions