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Principles of Wireless Access and Localization,9780470697085
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Principles of Wireless Access and Localization

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780470697085

ISBN10:
0470697083
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/11/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $133.33

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Summary

A comprehensive, encompassing and accessible text examining a wide range of key Wireless Networking and Localization technologies

This book provides a unified treatment of issues related to all wireless access and wireless localization techniques.  The book reflects principles of design and deployment of infrastructure for wireless access and localization for wide, local, and personal networking.   Description of wireless access methods includes design and deployment of traditional TDMA and CDMA technologies and emerging Long Term Evolution (LTE) techniques for wide area cellular networks, the IEEE 802.11/WiFi wireless local area networks as well as IEEE 802.15 Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband (UWB), RF Microwave and body area networks used for sensor and ad hoc networks.  The principles  of wireless localization techniques using time-of-arrival and received-signal-strength of the wireless signal used in military and commercial applications in smart devices operating in urban, indoor and inside the human body localization are explained and compared.  

Questions, problem sets and hands-on projects enhances the learning experience for students to understand and appreciate the subject. These include analytical  and practical examples with software projects to challenge students in practically important simulation problems, and problem sets that use MatLab.

Key features:

  • Provides a broad coverage of main wireless technologies including emerging technical developments such as body area networking and cyber physical systems
  • Written in a tutorial form that can be used by students and researchers in the field
  • Includes practical examples and software projects to challenge students in practically important simulation problems

Author Biography

Kaveh Pahlavan, Professor of ECE, a Professor of CS, and Director of the Center for Wireless Information Network Studies at Worcester Polytechnic Institute.  He is also a visiting Professor of Telecommunication Laboratory and Center for Wireless Communications at the University of Oulu, Finland.  His area of research is location aware broadband sensor and ad hoc networks and he is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal on Wireless Information Networks, the first journal in modern wireless networks established in 1994.

Prashant Krishnamurthy, Associate Professor for the graduate program in Telecommunications & Networking at the University of Pittsburgh, USA. His research interests include Wireless network security, wireless data networks, position location for wireless networks on which he has written numerous journal papers.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Elements of Information Networks 3

1.2.1 Evolution of Applications, Devices, and Networks 5

1.2.2 Information Network Infrastructures and Wireless Access 7

1.2.3 Connection Between Wireless Access and Localization 9

1.2.4 Standards Organizations for Information Networking 10

1.2.5 Four Markets in the Evolution of Wireless Networking Standards 13

1.2.6 Trends in Wireless Data Applications 14

1.3 Evolution of Wireless Access to the PSTN 17

1.3.1 Cordless Telephone Systems 18

1.3.2 Cellular Telephone Networks 18

1.4 Evolution of Wireless Access to the Internet 21

1.4.1 Local Wireless Data Networks 21

1.4.2 Wide Area Wireless Data Networks 24

1.5 Evolution of Wireless Localization Technologies 27

1.5.1 TOA-based Wireless Localization 27

1.5.2 RSS-based Localization 28

1.6 Structure of this Book 29

1.6.1 Part I: Principles of Air–Interference Design 30

1.6.2 Part II: Principle of Network Infrastructure Design 31

1.6.3 Part III: Wireless Local Access 31

1.6.4 Part IV: Wide Area Wireless Access 32

1.6.5 Part V: Wireless Localization 33

Part I PRINCIPLES OF AIR–INTERFERENCE DESIGN

2 Characteristics of the Wireless Medium 39

2.1 Introduction 39

2.1.1 Causes of Multipath Propagation 40

2.1.2 Effects of Multipath Propagation 41

2.1.3 Applied Channel Models for Wireless Communication Applications 43

2.2 Modeling of Large-scale RSS, Path Loss, and Shadow Fading 45

2.2.1 General Features of Large-Scale RSS 45

2.2.2 Friis Equation and Path-Loss Modeling in Free Space 47

2.2.3 Empirical Determination of Path Loss Gradient 51

2.2.4 Shadow Fading and Fading Margin 51

2.2.5 Popular Models for Path Loss and Shadow Fading 55

2.3 Modeling of RSS Fluctuations and Doppler Spectrum 60

2.3.1 Friis’ Equation and Geometric Ray Tracing 61

2.3.2 Modeling of Small-Scale Fading 69

2.3.3 Modeling of Doppler Spectrum 70

2.4 Wideband Modeling of Multipath Characteristics 72

2.4.1 Impulse Response, Multipath Intensity, and Bandwidth 72

2.4.2 Multipath Spread, ISI, and Bandwidth 74

2.4.3 Wideband Channel Models in Standardization Organizations 77

2.4.4 Simulation of Channel Behavior 79

2.5 Emerging Channel Models 79

2.5.1 Wideband Channel Models for Geolocation 79

2.5.2 SIMO and MIMO Channel Models 82

Appendix A2: What Is the Decibel? 84

3 Physical Layer Alternatives forWireless Networks 99

3.1 Introduction 99

3.2 Physical Layer Basics: Data rate, Bandwidth, and Power 100

3.2.1 Data Rate and Bandwidth 101

3.2.2 Power and Error Rate 101

3.2.3 Shannon–Hartley Bound on Achievable Data Rate 105

3.3 Performance in Multipath Wireless Channels 107

3.3.1 Effects of Flat Fading 108

3.3.2 ISI Effects Due to Multipath 110

3.4 Wireless Transmission Techniques 112

3.4.1 Power Efficient Short Distance Baseband Transmission 112

3.4.2 Bandwidth Efficient Carrier Modulated Transmission 114

3.5 Multipath Resistant Techniques 120

3.5.1 Flat Fading, Antenna Diversity, and MIMO 121

3.5.2 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Transmissions 123

3.5.3 FH-CDMA and OFDM 127

3.5.4 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Transmission 129

3.5.5 DS-CDMA and M-ary Orthogonal Coding 131

3.5.6 Comparison of DSSS, FHSS and OFDM 133

3.6 Coding Techniques for Wireless Communications 136

3.6.1 Block Codes 137

3.6.2 Convolutional Codes 139

3.6.3 Turbocodes and Other Advanced Codes 140

3.6.4 Space–Time Coding 140

3.6.5 Automatic Repeat Request Schemes 141

3.6.6 Block Interleaving 142

3.6.7 Scrambling 143

3.6.8 Speech Coding 143

3.7 Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access 145

Appendix A3 145

4 Medium Access Methods 153

4.1 Introduction 153

4.2 Centralized Assigned-Access Schemes 155

4.2.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access 156

4.2.2 Time Division Multiple Access 159

4.2.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 163

4.2.4 Comparison of CDMA, TDMA and FDMA 166

4.2.5 Performance of Assigned-Access Methods 169

4.3 Distributed Random Access for Data Oriented Networks 173

4.3.1 Random Access Methods for Data Services 174

4.3.2 Access methods for LANs 180

4.3.3 Performance of Random Access Methods 186

4.4 Integration of Voice and Data Traffic 195

4.4.1 Access Methods for Integrated Services 195

4.4.2 Data Integration in Voice-Oriented Networks 196

4.4.3 Voice Integration into Data-Oriented Networks 202

Part II PRINCIPLES OF NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGN

5 Deployment ofWireless Networks 217

5.1 Introduction 217

5.2 Wireless Network Architectures 218

5.2.1 Classification of Wireless Networks Based on Topologies 219

5.2.2 Classification of Wireless Networks Based on Coverage 223

5.3 Interference in Wireless Networks 224

5.3.1 Interference Range 225

5.3.2 Probability of Interference 228

5.3.3 Empirical Results 231

5.4 Deployment of Wireless LANs 233

5.5 Cellular Topology, Cell Fundamentals, and Frequency Reuse 238

5.5.1 The Cellular Concept 239

5.5.2 Cellular Hierarchy 241

5.5.3 Cell Fundamentals and Frequency Reuse 243

5.5.4 Signal to Interference Ratio Calculation 244

5.6 Capacity Expansion Techniques 248

5.6.1 Architectural Methods for Capacity Expansion 250

5.6.2 Channel Allocation Techniques and Capacity Expansion 260

5.6.3 Migration to Digital Systems 267

5.7 Network Planning for CDMA Systems 268

5.7.1 Issues in CDMA Network Planning 269

5.7.2 Migration from Legacy Systems 270

5.8 Femtocells 270

6 Wireless Network Operations 275

6.1 Introduction 275

6.1.1 Operations in Cellular Telephone Networks 276

6.1.2 Operations in Wireless Local Area Networks 278

6.1.3 Operations in Wireless Personal Area Networks 280

6.2 Cell Search and Registration 281

6.3 Mobility Management 283

6.3.1 Location Management 283

6.3.2 Handoff Management 288

6.3.3 Mobile IP and IMS 297

6.4 Radio Resources and Power Management 301

6.4.1 Adjusting Link Quality 303

6.4.2 Power Control 303

6.4.3 Power Saving Mechanisms in Wireless Networks 307

6.4.4 Energy Efficient Designs 309

6.4.5 Energy Efficient Software Approaches 312

7 Wireless Network Security 321

7.1 Introduction 321

7.1.1 General Security Threats 322

7.1.2 Cryptographic Protocols for Security 323

7.2 Security in Wireless Local Networks 324

7.2.1 Security Threats 324

7.2.2 Security Protocols 325

7.3 Security in Wireless Personal Networks 330

7.3.1 Security Threats 330

7.3.2 Security Protocols 332

7.4 Security in Wide Area Wireless Networks 334

7.4.1 Security Threats 334

7.4.2 Security Protocols 336

7.5 Miscellaneous Issues 340

Appendix A7: An Overview of Cryptography and Cryptographic Protocols 341

Part III WIRELESS LOCAL ACCESS

8 Wireless LANs 357

8.1 Introduction 357

8.1.1 Early Experiences 358

8.1.2 Emergence of Unlicensed Bands 359

8.1.3 Products, Bands, and Standards 360

8.1.4 Shift in Marketing Strategy 361

8.2 Wireless Local Area Networks and Standards 363

8.2.1 WLAN Standards and 802.11 Standards Activities 364

8.2.2 Ethernet and IEEE 802.11 366

8.2.3 Overview of IEEE 802.11 367

8.3 IEEE 802.11 WLAN Operations 369

8.3.1 Topology and Architecture 369

8.3.2 The IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer 373

8.3.3 The PHY Layer 381

8.3.4 Capacity of Infrastructure WLANs 391

8.3.5 Security Issues and Implementation in IEEE 802.11 394

9 Low Power Sensor Networks 405

9.1 Introduction 405

9.2 Bluetooth 406

9.2.1 Overall Architecture 409

9.2.2 Protocol Stack 410

9.2.3 Physical Layer 412

9.2.4 MAC Mechanism 414

9.2.5 Frame Formats 415

9.2.6 Connection Management 421

9.2.7 Security 424

9.3 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee 424

9.3.1 Overall Architecture 425

9.3.2 Protocol Stack and Operation 426

9.3.3 Physical Layer 428

9.3.4 MAC Layer 430

9.3.5 Frame Format 432

9.3.6 Comparison of ZigBee with Bluetooth and WiFi 432

9.4 IEEE 802.15.6 Body Area Networks 434

9.4.1 What is a BAN? 434

9.4.2 Overall Architecture and Applications 435

9.4.3 Channel Measurement and Modeling 436

9.4.4 Physical and MAC Layer 444

10 GigabitWireless 447

10.1 Introduction 447

10.1.1 UWB Networking at 3.1–10.6 GHz 448

10.1.2 Gigabit Wireless at 60 GHz 450

10.2 UWB Communications at 3.1–10.6 GHz 451

10.2.1 Impulse Radio and Time Hopping Access 451

10.2.2 Direct Sequence UWB 455

10.2.3 Multi-Band OFDM 459

10.2.4 Channel Models for UWB Communications 461

10.3 Gigabit Wireless at 60 GHz 467

10.3.1 Architecture and Application Scenarios 468

10.3.2 Transmission and Medium Access 470

10.3.3 Channel Models for 60 GHz mmWave Networks 472

Part IV WIDE AREA WIRELESS ACCESS

11 TDMA Cellular Systems 479

11.1 Introduction 479

11.2 What is TDMA Cellular? 480

11.2.1 Original Services and Shortcomings 481

11.2.2 Reference Architecture for a Cellular Network 482

11.3 Mechanisms to Support a Mobile Environment 486

11.3.1 Registration 486

11.3.2 Call Establishment 487

11.3.3 Handoff 488

11.3.4 Security 490

11.4 Communication Protocols 491

11.4.1 Layer I: Physical Layer 493

11.4.2 Layer II: Data Link Layer 499

11.4.3 Layer III: Networking Layer 500

11.5 Channel Models for Cellular Networks 501

11.5.1 Path Loss Models for Cellular Networks 503

11.5.2 Models for Scattering Function of Cellular Networks 506

11.6 Transmission Techniques in TDMA Cellular 508

11.7 Evolution of TDMA for Internet Access 512

11.7.1 Architectural and MAC Layer Changes 512

11.7.2 Data Rate in TDMA Packet Switched Networks 515

12 CDMA Cellular Systems 519

12.1 Introduction 519

12.2 Why CDMA? 520

12.3 CDMA Based Cellular Systems 521

12.4 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 522

12.4.1 Receiver Processing with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 523

12.4.2 Channelization using Orthogonal Sequences 525

12.4.3 Multipath Diversity with PN Sequences 528

12.5 Communication Channels and Protocols in Example CDMA Systems 534

12.5.1 The 2G CDMA System 534

12.5.2 The 3G UMTS System 543

12.6 Cell Search, Mobility, and Radio Resource Management in CDMA 546

12.6.1 Cell Search 546

12.6.2 Soft Handoff 548

12.6.3 Power Control 552

12.7 High Speed Packet Access 554

13 OFDM and MIMO Cellular Systems 561

13.1 Introduction 561

13.2 Why OFDM? 562

13.2.1 Robustness in Multipath Dispersion 563

13.2.2 Flexible Allocation of Resources 567

13.2.3 Challenges with OFDM 569

13.3 Multiple Input Multiple Output 572

13.3.1 Diversity 573

13.3.2 Spatial Multiplexing 575

13.3.3 Beamforming 576

13.4 WiMax 576

13.4.1 General Architecture of WiMax 579

13.4.2 MAC Layer of WiMAX 581

13.4.3 PHY Layer of WiMax 582

13.5 Long Term Evolution 582

13.5.1 Architecture and Protocol Stack 583

13.5.2 Downlink in LTE 586

13.5.3 Uplink in LTE 588

13.5.4 LTE Operational Aspects 589

13.5.5 Miscellaneous 591

13.6 LTE Advanced 591

Part V WIRELESS LOCALIZATION

14 Geolocation Systems 597

14.1 Introduction 597

14.2 What is Wireless Geolocation? 598

14.2.1 Wireless Emergency Services 600

14.2.2 Performance Measures for Geolocation Systems 601

14.3 RF Location Sensing and Positioning Methodologies 602

14.3.1 Generic Architecture 602

14.3.2 Positioning Algorithms 604

14.3.3 Positioning Standards for Cellular Telephone Systems 611

14.4 Location Services Architecture for Cellular Systems 613

14.4.1 Cellular Network Architecture 615

14.4.2 Location Services Architecture 616

14.4.3 Over the Air (Access Network) Communications for Location Services 618

14.4.4 Signaling in the Fixed Infrastructure (Core Network) for Location Services 618

14.4.5 Mobile Location Protocol 619

14.5 Positioning in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks 620

15 Fundamentals of RF Localization 625

15.1 Introduction 625

15.2 Modeling of the Behavior of RF Sensors 626

15.2.1 Behavior of RSS Sensors 627

15.2.2 Behavior of TOA Sensors 627

15.2.3 Models of the Behavior of DOA 629

15.3 Performance Bounds for Ranging 631

15.3.1 Fundamentals of Estimation Theory and CRLB 631

15.3.2 RSS-based Localization 633

15.3.3 TOA-based Localization 634

15.3.4 DOA-based Localization 636

15.4 Wireless Positioning Algorithms 639

15.4.1 Relation between Ranging and Positioning 639

15.4.2 RSS-based Pattern Recognition Algorithms 641

15.4.3 TOA-based Least Square Algorithms 648

16 Wireless Localization in Practice 653

16.1 Introduction 653

16.2 Emergence of Wi-Fi Localization 653

16.2.1 Evolution of Wi-Fi Localization 655

16.2.2 Wi-Fi Localization: TOA versus RSS 656

16.2.3 How does RSS-based Wi-Fi Localization Work? 657

16.3 Comparison of Wi-Fi Localization Systems 657

16.3.1 RTLS: Wi-Fi Localization for RFID Applications 658

16.3.2 WPS: Software GPS 660

16.4 Practical TOA Measurement 665

16.4.1 Measurement of TOA using a Narrowband Carrier Phase 665

16.4.2 Wideband TOA Measurement and Super-resolution Algorithm 666

16.4.3 UWB TOA Measurement 667

16.5 Localization in the Absence of DP 669

16.5.1 Ranging Error in the Absence of DP 670

16.5.2 Effects of Bandwidth 671

16.5.3 Localization using Multipath Diversity 672

16.5.4 Cooperative Localization Using Spatial Diversity 673

16.6 Challenges in Localization inside the Human Body 675

16.6.1 Bounds on RSS-based Localization inside the Human Body 676

16.6.2 Challenges in TOA-based RF Localization inside the Human Body 679

16.6.3 Modeling of Wideband RF Propagation from inside the Human Body 681

References 687

Index 701



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