Preface 

xiii  

Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis 


1  (21) 

Overview: Statistical Inference, Samples, Populations, and Experimental Design 


1  (3) 


4  (3) 

Sampling Procedures; Collection of Data 


7  (2) 

Measures of Location: The Sample Mean 


9  (2) 


11  (3) 

Discrete and Continuous Data 


14  (1) 

Statistical Modeling, Scientific Inspection, and Graphical Diagnostics 


14  (2) 

Graphical Methods and Data Description 


16  (6) 


22  (41) 


22  (3) 


25  (6) 


31  (8) 


39  (4) 


43  (4) 


47  (3) 


50  (7) 


57  (6) 


61  (2) 

Random Variables and Probability Distributions 


63  (25) 

Concept of a Random Variable 


63  (2) 

Discrete Probability Distributions 


65  (4) 

Continuous Probability Distributions 


69  (5) 

Joint Probability Distributions 


74  (14) 


86  (2) 


88  (27) 

Mean of a Random Variable 


88  (7) 


95  (8) 

Means and Variances of Linear Combinations of Random Variables 


103  (7) 


110  (5) 


114  (1) 

Some Discrete Probability Distributions 


115  (27) 


115  (1) 

Discrete Uniform Distribution 


116  (1) 

Binomial and Multinomial Distributions 


117  (9) 

Hypergeometric Distribution 


126  (6) 

Negative Binomial and Geometric Distributions 


132  (3) 

Poisson Distribution and the Poisson Process 


135  (7) 


140  (2) 

Some Continuous Probability Distributions 


142  (35) 

Continuous Uniform Distribution 


142  (1) 


143  (4) 

Areas Under the Normal Curve 


147  (5) 

Applications of the Normal Distribution 


152  (6) 

Normal Approximation to the Binomial 


158  (7) 

Gamma and Exponential Distributions 


165  (3) 

Applications of the Exponential and Gamma Distributions 


168  (2) 


170  (1) 


171  (1) 


172  (5) 


175  (2) 

Functions of Random Variables {Optional) 


177  (17) 


177  (1) 

Transformations of Variables 


177  (9) 

Moments and MomentGenerating Functions 


186  (8) 

Fundamental Sampling Distributions and Data Descriptions 


194  (36) 


194  (3) 

Some Important Statistics 


197  (4) 

Data Displays and Graphical Methods 


201  (7) 


208  (1) 

Sampling Distribution of Means 


209  (7) 

Sampling Distribution of S2 


216  (3) 


219  (5) 


224  (6) 


228  (2) 

One and TwoSample Estimation Problems 


230  (54) 


230  (1) 


230  (1) 

Classical Methods of Estimation 


231  (3) 

Single Sample: Estimating the Mean 


234  (6) 

Standard Error of a Point Estimate 


240  (1) 


241  (2) 


243  (3) 

Two Samples: Estimating the Difference Between Two Means 


246  (7) 


253  (4) 

Single Sample: Estimating a Proportion 


257  (4) 

Two Samples: Estimating the Difference Between Two Proportions 


261  (3) 

Single Sample: Estimating the Variance 


264  (1) 

Two Samples: Estimating the Ratio of Two Variances 


265  (3) 

Bayesian Methods of Estimation (Optional) 


268  (7) 

Maximum Likelihood Estimation (Optional) 


275  (9) 


281  (3) 

One and TwoSample Tests of Hypotheses 


284  (66) 

Statistical Hypotheses: General Concepts 


284  (2) 

Testing a Statistical Hypothesis 


286  (8) 

One and TwoTailed Tests 


294  (1) 

The Use of PValues for Decision Making 


295  (5) 

Single Sample: Tests Concerning a Single Mean (Variance Known) 


300  (3) 

Relationship to Confidence Interval Estimation 


303  (1) 

Single Sample: Tests on a Single Mean (Variance Unknown) 


304  (3) 

Two Samples: Tests on Two Means 


307  (5) 

Choice of Sample Size for Testing Means 


312  (4) 

Graphical Methods for Comparing Means 


316  (7) 

One Sample: Test on a Single Proportion 


323  (3) 

Two Samples: Tests on Two Proportions 


326  (2) 

One and TwoSample Tests Concerning Variances 


328  (5) 


333  (3) 

Test for Independence (Categorical Data) 


336  (3) 


339  (1) 

Testing for Several Proportions 


340  (2) 


342  (8) 


347  (3) 

Simple Linear Regression and Correlation 


350  (50) 

Introduction to Linear Regression 


350  (1) 


351  (4) 

Least Squares and The Fitted Model 


355  (5) 

Properties of the Least Squares Estimators 


360  (3) 

Inferences Concerning the Regression Coefficients 


363  (5) 


368  (4) 

Choice of a Regression Model 


372  (1) 

AnalysisofVariance Approach 


373  (2) 

Test for Linearity of Regression: Data with Repeated Observations 


375  (8) 

Data Plots and Transformations 


383  (4) 

Simple Linear Regression Case Study 


387  (3) 


390  (10) 


396  (4) 

Multiple Linear Regression and Certain Nonlinear Regression Models 


400  (61) 


400  (1) 

Estimating the Coefficients 


401  (3) 

Linear Regression Model Using Matrices (Optional) 


404  (7) 

Properties of the Least Squares Estimators 


411  (2) 

Inferences in Multiple Linear Regression 


413  (7) 

Choice of a Fitted Model Through Hypothesis Testing 


420  (3) 

Special Case of Orthogonality (Optional) 


423  (4) 

Categorical or Indicator Variables 


427  (5) 

Sequential Methods for Model Selection 


432  (6) 

Study of Residuals and Violation of Assumptions 


438  (4) 

Cross Validation, Cp, and Other Criteria for Model Selection 


442  (10) 

Special Nonlinear Models for Nonideal Conditions 


452  (9) 


456  (5) 

OneFactor Experiments: General 


461  (58) 

AnalysisofVariance Technique 


461  (2) 

The Strategy of Experimental Design 


463  (1) 

OneWay Analysis of Variance: Completely Randomized Design 


463  (6) 

Tests for the Equality Of Several Variances 


469  (4) 

SingleDegreeofFreedom Comparisons 


473  (4) 


477  (4) 

Comparing Treatments with a Control 


481  (5) 

Comparing a Set of Treatments in Blocks 


486  (1) 

Randomized Complete Block Designs 


487  (7) 

Graphical Methods and Further Diagnostics 


494  (2) 


496  (6) 


502  (5) 

Power of AnalysisofVariance Tests 


507  (4) 


511  (8) 


515  (4) 

Factorial Experiments (Two or More Factors) 


519  (36) 


519  (2) 

Interaction and the TwoFactor Experiment 


521  (1) 

TwoFactor Analysis of Variance 


522  (8) 

Graphical Analysis in the TwoFactor Problem 


530  (5) 


535  (10) 

Model II and III Factorial Experiments 


545  (4) 


549  (6) 


552  (3) 

2k Factorial Experiments and Fractions 


555  (45) 


555  (1) 

Analysis of Variance and the Calculation of Effects 


556  (4) 

Nonreplicated 2k Factorial Experiment 


560  (1) 

Injection Molding Case Study 


561  (6) 

Factorial Experiments in Incomplete Blocks 


567  (5) 


572  (3) 

Factorial Experiments in a Regression Setting 


575  (4) 


579  (3) 

Fractional Factorial Experiments 


582  (3) 

Analysis of Fractional Factorial Experiments 


585  (4) 

Higher Fractions and Screening Designs 


589  (1) 

Construction of Resolution III and IV Designs with 8,16, and 32 Design Points 


590  (1) 

Other TwoLevel Resolution III Designs; The PlackettBurman Designs 


591  (1) 

Taguchi's Robust Parameter Design 


592  (8) 


598  (2) 


600  (25) 


600  (1) 


601  (4) 


605  (5) 


610  (3) 


613  (3) 


616  (3) 


619  (1) 

Rank Correlation Coefficient 


620  (5) 


624  (1) 

Statistical Quality Control 


625  (31) 


625  (2) 

Nature of the Control Limits 


627  (1) 

Purposes of the Control Chart 


627  (1) 

Control Charts for Variables 


628  (15) 

Control Charts for Attributes 


643  (6) 


649  (7) 


653  (3) 
Bibliography 

656  (3) 
Appendix: Statistical Tables and Proofs 

659  (56) 
Answers to OddNumbered Exercises 

715  (11) 
Index 

726  