Preface 

xv  

Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis 


1  (30) 

Overview: Statistical Inference, Samples, Populations and Experimental Design 


1  (3) 


4  (3) 

Sampling Procedures; Collection of Data 


7  (4) 

Measures of Location: The Sample Mean and Median 


11  (3) 


13  (1) 


14  (3) 


17  (1) 

Discrete and Continuous Data 


17  (2) 

Statistical Modeling, Scientific Inspection, and Graphical Diaganostics 


19  (1) 

Graphical Methods and Data Description 


20  (5) 

General Types of Statistical Studies: Designed Experiment, Observational Study, and Retrospective Study 


25  (6) 


28  (3) 


31  (46) 


31  (3) 


34  (6) 


38  (2) 


40  (8) 


47  (1) 


48  (4) 


52  (6) 


55  (3) 


58  (3) 


61  (7) 


65  (3) 


68  (9) 


72  (1) 


73  (4) 

Random Variables and Probability Distributions 


77  (30) 

Concept of a Random Variable 


77  (3) 

Discrete Probability Distributions 


80  (4) 

Continuous Probability Distributions 


84  (7) 


88  (3) 

Joint Probability Distributions 


91  (15) 


101  (2) 


103  (3) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


106  (1) 


107  (34) 

Mean of a Random Variable 


107  (8) 


113  (2) 

Variance and Covariance of Random Variables 


115  (8) 


122  (1) 

Means and Variances of Linear Combinations of Random Variables 


123  (8) 


131  (7) 


134  (2) 


136  (2) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


138  (3) 

Some Discrete Probability Distributions 


141  (30) 

Introduction and Motivation 


141  (1) 

Discrete Uniform Distribution 


141  (2) 

Binomial and Multinomial Distributions 


143  (9) 


150  (2) 

Hypergeometric Distribution 


152  (6) 


157  (1) 

Negative Binomial and Geometric: Distributions 


158  (3) 

Poisson Distribution and the Poisson Process 


161  (8) 


165  (2) 


167  (2) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


169  (2) 

Some Continuous Probability Distributions 


171  (40) 

Continuous Uniform Distribution 


171  (1) 


172  (4) 

Areas under the Normal Curve 


176  (6) 

Applications of the Normal Distribution 


182  (5) 


185  (2) 

Normal Approximation to the Binomial 


187  (7) 


193  (1) 

Gamma and Exponential Distributions 


194  (3) 

Applications of the Exponential and Gamma Distributions 


197  (3) 


200  (1) 


201  (1) 

Weibull Distribution (Optional) 


202  (7) 


205  (1) 


206  (3) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


209  (2) 

Functions of Random Variables (Optional) 


211  (18) 


211  (1) 

Transformations of Variables 


211  (8) 

Moments and MomentGenerating Functions 


219  (10) 


226  (3) 

Fundamental Sampling Distributions and Data Descriptions 


229  (40) 


229  (2) 

Some Important Statistics 


231  (5) 


234  (2) 

Data Displays and Graphical Methods 


236  (7) 


243  (1) 

Sampling Distribution of Means 


244  (10) 


251  (3) 

Sampling Distribution of S2 


254  (3) 


257  (4) 


261  (7) 


265  (1) 


266  (2) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


268  (1) 

One and TwoSample Estimation Problems 


269  (52) 


269  (1) 


269  (1) 

Classical Methods of Estimation 


270  (4) 

Single Sample: Estimating the Mean 


274  (6) 

Standard Error of a Point Estimate 


280  (1) 


281  (2) 


283  (5) 


285  (3) 

Two Samples: Estimating the Difference between Two Means 


288  (6) 


294  (5) 


297  (2) 

Single Sample: Estimating a Proportion 


299  (3) 

Two Samples: Estimating the Difference between Two Proportions 


302  (4) 


304  (2) 

Single Sample: Estimating the Variance 


306  (2) 

Two Samples: Estimating the Ratio of Two Variances 


308  (2) 


310  (1) 

Maximum Likelihood Estimation (Optional) 


310  (9) 


315  (1) 


315  (4) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards: Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


319  (2) 

One and TwoSample Tests of Hypotheses 


321  (68) 

Statistical Hypotheses: General Concepts 


321  (2) 

Testing a Statistical Hypothesis 


323  (9) 

One and TwoTailed Tests 


332  (2) 

The Use of PValues for Decision Making in Testing Hypotheses 


334  (4) 


336  (2) 

Single Sample: Tests Concerning a Single Mean (Variance Known) 


338  (3) 

Relationship to Confidence Interval Estimation 


341  (1) 

Single Sample: Tests on a Single Mean (Variance Unknown) 


342  (3) 

Two Samples: Tests on Two Means 


345  (5) 

Choice of Sample Size for Testing Means 


350  (5) 

Graphical Methods for Comparing Means 


355  (6) 


357  (4) 

One Sample: Test on a Single Proportion 


361  (3) 

Two Samples: Tests on Two Proportions 


364  (3) 


366  (1) 

One and TwoSample Tests Concerning Variances 


367  (4) 


370  (1) 


371  (3) 

Test for Independence (Categorical Data) 


374  (3) 


377  (1) 

Testing for Several Proportions 


378  (2) 


380  (7) 


383  (2) 


385  (2) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


387  (2) 

Simple Linear Regression and Correlation 


389  (56) 

Introduction to Linear Regression 


389  (1) 

The Simple Linear Regression Model 


390  (4) 

Least Squares and the Fitted Model 


394  (6) 


397  (3) 

Properties of the Least Squares Estimators 


400  (2) 

Inferences Concerning the Regression Coefficients 


402  (7) 


409  (5) 


412  (2) 

Choice of a Regression Model 


414  (1) 

AnalysisofVariance Approach 


415  (2) 

Test for Linearity of Regression: Data with Repeated Observations 


417  (8) 


423  (2) 

Data Plots and Transformations 


425  (5) 

Simple Linear Regression Case Study 


430  (2) 


432  (11) 


438  (1) 


438  (5) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


443  (2) 

Multiple Linear Regression and Certain Nonlinear Regression Models 


445  (66) 


445  (1) 

Estimating the Coefficients 


446  (3) 

Linear Regression Model Using Matrices (Optional) 


449  (7) 


452  (4) 

Properties of the Least Squares Estimators 


456  (2) 

Inferences in Multiple Linear Regression 


458  (7) 


464  (1) 

Choice of a Fitted Model through Hypothesis Testing 


465  (4) 

Special Case of Orthogonality (Optional) 


469  (5) 


473  (1) 

Categorical or Indicator Variables 


474  (5) 


478  (1) 

Sequential Methods for Model Selection 


479  (6) 

Study of Residuals and Violation of Assumptions 


485  (5) 

Cross Validation, Cp, and Other Criteria for Model Selection 


490  (9) 


496  (3) 

Special Nonlinear Models for Nonideal Conditions 


499  (9) 


503  (5) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


508  (3) 

OneFactor Experiments: General 


511  (62) 

AnalysisofVariance Technique 


511  (1) 

The Strategy of Experimental Design 


512  (1) 

OneWay Analysis of Variance: Completely Randomized Design (OneWay ANOVA) 


513  (5) 

Tests for the Equality of Several Variances 


518  (5) 


521  (2) 

SingleDegreeofFreedom Comparisons 


523  (4) 


527  (4) 

Comparing Treatments with a Control 


531  (4) 


533  (2) 

Comparing a Set of Treatments in Blocks 


535  (2) 

Randomized Complete Block Designs 


537  (7) 

Graphical Methods and Model Checking 


544  (3) 

Data Transformations In Analysis of Variance) 


547  (2) 


549  (6) 


551  (4) 


555  (4) 

Power of AnalysisofVariance Tests 


559  (4) 


563  (8) 


565  (2) 


567  (4) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


571  (2) 

Factorial Experiments (Two or More Factors) 


573  (38) 


573  (1) 

Interaction in the TwoFactor Experiment 


574  (3) 

TwoFactor Analysis of Variance 


577  (13) 


587  (3) 


590  (10) 


597  (3) 

Model II and III Factorial Experiments 


600  (3) 


603  (6) 


605  (2) 


607  (2) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards; Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


609  (2) 

2k Factorial Experiments and Fractions 


611  (60) 


611  (1) 

The 2k Factorial: Calculation of Effects and Analysis of Variance 


612  (6) 

Nonreplicated 2k Factorial Experiment 


618  (1) 

Injection Molding Case Study 


619  (6) 


622  (3) 

Factorial Experiments in a Regression Setting 


625  (6) 


631  (8) 

Factorial Experiments in Incomplete Blocks 


639  (8) 


645  (2) 

Fractional Factorial Experiments 


647  (6) 

Analysis of Fractional Factorial Experiments 


653  (4) 


656  (1) 

Higher Fractions and Screening Designs 


657  (1) 

Construction of Resolution III and IV Designs 


658  (2) 

Other TwoLevel Resolution III Designs: The PlackettBurman Designs 


660  (1) 


661  (8) 


666  (1) 


667  (2) 

Potential Misconceptions and Hazards: Relationship to Material in Other Chapters 


669  (2) 


671  (26) 


671  (5) 


676  (5) 


679  (2) 


681  (3) 


684  (3) 


686  (1) 


687  (3) 


690  (1) 

Rank Correlation Coefficient 


690  (7) 


693  (2) 


695  (2) 

Statistical Quality Control 


697  (28) 


697  (2) 

Nature of the Control Limits 


699  (1) 

Purposes of the Control Chart 


699  (1) 

Control Charts for Variables 


700  (13) 

Control Charts for Attributes 


713  (8) 


721  (4) 


722  (3) 

Bayesian Statistics (Optional) 


725  (12) 


725  (1) 


726  (6) 

Bayes Estimates Using Decision Theory Framework 


732  (5) 


734  (3) 
Bibliography 

737  (4) 
A. Statistical Tables and Proofs 

741  (54) 
B. Answers to OddNumbered NonReview Exercises 

795  (16) 
Index 

811  