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Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections,9780130408525
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Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130408525

ISBN10:
0130408522
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $97.00
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Summary

For Probation and Parole courses at the sophomore/junior undergraduate level. Suggesting that all components of the criminal and juvenile justice systems are interrelated to varying degrees, this thorough study describes the objectives of probation and parole for criminally convicted adults and juveniles and whether these objectives are achieved. Helping students deepen their understanding of these philosophies through an examination of the history of parole and probation in the United States, it describes probation and parole programs, considers various classes of offenders, and highlights several problems associated with the selection and training of probation and parole officers including their relationships with offender-clients. It remains the only major text of its kind to combine the standard topics in probation and parole with full coverage of recent trends in community corrections. Exceptionally well organized, it emphasizes a legalistic approach, noting our key legal cases where appropriate and including our most recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART I Probation, Community Corrections, and the Sentencing Process
Criminal Justice System Components: Locating Probation and Parole
1(28)
Introduction
3(1)
An Overview of the Criminal Justice System
3(3)
Types of Offenses
6(3)
Felonies and Misdemeanors
6(1)
Violent and Property Crimes
7(1)
The Uniform Crime Reports and the National Crime Victimization Survey
8(1)
Classifying Offenders
9(4)
Traditional Offender Categorizations
9(4)
Criminal Justice System Components
13(12)
Law Enforcement
13(3)
Prosecutorial Descision Making
16(6)
Courts and Judges
22(1)
Corrections
23(2)
Probation and Parole Distinguished
25(4)
Summary
26(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
Questions for Review
28(1)
Suggested Readings
28(1)
An Overview of Community Corrections: Types, Goals, and Functions
29(46)
Introduction
31(1)
Community Corrections and Intermediate Punishments
31(3)
The Community Corrections Act
34(1)
The Philosophy and History of Community Corrections
35(2)
Characteristics, Goals, and Functions of Community Corrections Programs
37(8)
The Goals of Community-Based Corrections
39(1)
The Functions of Community-Based Corrections
39(6)
Selected Issues in Community Corrections
45(6)
Public Resistance to Locating Community Programs in Communities (The NIMBY Syndrome: ``Not In My Back Yard'')
45(1)
Punishment and Public Safety versus Offender Rehabilitation and Reintegration
46(1)
Net-Widening
47(1)
Privatization of Community-Based Correctional Agencies
48(2)
Services Delivery
50(1)
Home Confinement Programs
51(9)
Home Confinement Defined
51(1)
The Early Uses of Home Confinement
51(6)
The Goals of Home Confinement Programs
57(1)
A Profile of Home Confinement Clients
57(1)
Selected Issues in Home Confinement
58(2)
Electronic Monitoring Programs
60(8)
Electronic Monitoring Defined
60(1)
Early Uses of Electronic Monitoring
61(1)
Types of Electronic Monitoring Systems
62(1)
Electronic Monitoring with Home Confinement
63(2)
Arguments for and against Electronic Monitoring
65(1)
A Profile of Electronic Monitoring Clients
65(1)
Selected Issues in Electronic Monitoring
66(2)
Day Reporting Centers
68(7)
An Example of a Day Reporting Center in Action
70(1)
Summary
71(2)
Key Terms
73(1)
Questions for Review
73(1)
Suggested Readings
74(1)
Sentencing and the Presentence Investigation Report: Background, Preparation, and Functions
75(56)
Introduction
77(1)
The Sentencing Process: Types of Sentencing Systems and Sentencing Issues
78(8)
Functions of Sentencing
78(2)
Types of Sentencing
80(4)
Sentencing Issues
84(2)
The Role of Probation Officers in Sentencing
86(1)
Presentence Investigation (PSI) Reports: Interstate Variations
87(11)
The Confidentiality of PSI Reports
89(3)
The Preparation of PSI Reports
92(1)
Functions and Uses of PSI Reports
93(3)
The Defendant's Sentencing Memorandum
96(1)
The Inclusion of Victim Impact Statements
97(1)
Privatizing PSI Report Preparation
97(1)
The Sentencing Hearing
98(1)
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
99(1)
Aggravating Circumstances
99(1)
Mitigating Circumstances
99(1)
A Sample PSI Report from North Dakota
100(6)
A PSI Report from Wisconsin
106(9)
Changing Responsibilities of Probation Officers Resulting from Sentencing Reforms and Trends
115(16)
Summary
116(1)
Key Terms
117(1)
Questions for Review
118(1)
Suggested Readings
118(1)
Appendix: Sample PSI Report
119(12)
Probation and Probationers: History, Philosophy, Goals, and Functions
131(38)
Introduction
133(1)
Probation Defined
134(1)
The History of Probation in the United States
135(5)
Judicial Reprieves and Releases on an Offender's Recognizance
135(1)
John Augustus, the Father of Probation in the United States
136(1)
The Ideal-Real Dilemma: Philosophies in Conflict
137(1)
Public Reaction of Probation
137(3)
The Philosophy of Probation
140(2)
Models for Dealing with Criminal Offenders
142(4)
The Treatment or Medical Model
143(1)
The Rehabilitation Model
143(1)
The Justice/Due Process Model
144(1)
The Just-Deserts Model
144(1)
The Community Model
145(1)
Functions of Probation
146(4)
Crime Control
146(1)
Community Reintegration
146(1)
Rehabilitation
147(2)
Punishment
149(1)
Deterrence
149(1)
A Profile of Probationers
150(3)
First-Offenders and Recidivists
153(1)
Civil Mechanisms in Lieu of Probation
154(9)
Alternative Dispute Resolution
157(3)
Pretrial Diversion
160(1)
Functions of Diversion
161(2)
Judicial Discretion and the Probation Decision
163(6)
Summary
166(2)
Key Terms
168(1)
Questions for Review
168(1)
Suggested Readings
168(1)
Programs for Probationers
169(44)
Introduction
171(1)
Standard Probation
172(5)
Federal and State Probation Orders
173(4)
Intensive Supervised Probation (ISP)
177(8)
Three Conceptual Models of ISP
178(2)
The Georgia ISP Program
180(1)
The Idaho ISP Program
181(1)
The South Carolina ISP Program
181(3)
Criticisms of the Georgia, Idaho, and South Carolina ISP Programs
184(1)
Shock Probation and Split Sentencing
185(3)
Shock Probation
185(1)
Split Sentencing
185(1)
The Philosophy and Objectives of Shock Probation
186(2)
The Effectiveness of Shock Probation
188(1)
Boot Camps
188(7)
Boot Camps Defined
188(1)
Goals of Boot Camps
189(1)
A Profile of Boot Camp Clientele
190(1)
Boot Camp Programs
190(1)
Jail Boot Camps
190(2)
The Effectiveness of Boot Camps
192(3)
Female Probationers and Parolees: A Profile
195(5)
Special Programs and Services for Female Offenders
195(5)
The Probation Revocation Process
200(3)
Special Circumstances: Federal Mandatory Probation Revocation
202(1)
Landmark Cases and Special Issues
203(10)
Summary
210(1)
Key Terms
211(1)
Questions for Review
211(1)
Suggested Readings
212(1)
PART II Jails, Prisons, and Parole
Jails and Prisons
213(44)
Introduction
215(1)
Jails and Jail Characteristics
216(4)
Workhouses
217(1)
The Walnut Street Jail
217(1)
Subsequent Jail Developments
218(1)
The Number of Jails in the United States
219(1)
Functions of Jails
220(3)
A Profile of Jail Inmates
223(1)
Prisons, Prison History, and Prison Characteristics
224(3)
Prisons Defined
224(3)
Functions of Prisons
227(1)
Inmate Classification Systems
228(7)
A Profile of Prisoners in U.S. Prisons
235(5)
Some Jail and Prison Contrasts
240(1)
Selected Jail and Prison Issues
240(11)
Jail and Prison Overcrowding
240(2)
Violence and Inmate Discipline
242(2)
Jail and Prison Design and Control
244(1)
Vocational/Technical and Educational Programs in Jails and Prisons
245(3)
Jail and Prison Privatization
248(1)
Gang Formation and Perpetuation
248(3)
The Role of Jails and Prisons in Probation and Parole Decision Making
251(6)
Summary
253(1)
Key Terms
254(1)
Questions for Review
255(1)
Suggested Readings
256(1)
Parole and Parolees
257(28)
Introduction
259(1)
Parole Defined
259(1)
The Historical Context of Parole
260(4)
Parole and Alternative Sentencing Systems
264(6)
Indeterminate Sentencing and Parole
265(2)
The Shift to Determinate Sentencing
267(3)
The Philosophy of Parole
270(1)
Functions of Parole
270(5)
Offender Reintegration
270(1)
Crime Deterrence and Control
271(1)
Decreasing Prison and Jail Overcrowding
271(1)
Compensating for Sentencing Disparities
272(1)
Public Safety and Protection
273(2)
A Profile of Parolees in the United States
275(10)
The Growing Gang Presence
279(3)
Summary
282(1)
Key Terms
283(1)
Questions for Review
283(1)
Suggested Readings
284(1)
Early Release, Parole Programs, and Parole Revocation
285(60)
Introduction
287(2)
Prerelease Programs
289(23)
Definition and Examples
289(1)
Work Release Programs
290(3)
Study Release Programs
293(2)
Furlough Programs
295(2)
Standard Parole with Conditions
297(2)
Intensive Supervised Parole
299(8)
Shock Parole
307(1)
Halfway Houses and Community Residential Centers
308(4)
Other Parole Conditions
312(5)
Day Reporting Centers
312(1)
Fines
312(1)
Day Fines
313(2)
Community Service Orders
315(1)
Restitution
316(1)
Parole Boards and Early-Release Decision Making
317(12)
Parole Boards, Sentencing Alternatives, and the Get-Tough Movement
317(1)
Parole Board Composition and Diversity
318(1)
Functions of Parole Boards
319(3)
Parole Board Decision Making and Inmate Control
322(2)
Parole Board Orientations
324(1)
Developing and Implementing Objective Parole Criteria
325(4)
Salient Factor Scores and Predicting Parolee Success on Parole
329(4)
The Process of Parole Revocation
333(1)
Landmark Cases and Selected Issues
333(12)
Pardons
336(2)
Parolee Program Conditions
338(3)
Summary
341(1)
Key Terms
342(1)
Questions for Review
343(1)
Suggested Readings
343(2)
PART III The Administration of Probation and Parole Organizational Operations: Supervising Special Populations of Offenders
Probation/Parole Organization and Operations: Recruitment, Training, and Officer-Client Relations
345(40)
Introduction
345(10)
The Organization and Operation of Probation and Parole Agencies
346(1)
Functions and Goals of Probation and Parole Services
347(1)
Organization and Administration of Probation and Parole Departments
347(4)
Selected Criticisms of Probation and Parole Programs
351(4)
Probation and Parole Officers: A Profile
355(6)
Characteristics of Probation and Parole Officers
355(2)
What Do POs Do?
357(2)
Recruitment of POs
359(2)
PO Training and Specialization
361(8)
Assessment Centers and Staff Effectiveness
361(1)
The Florida Assessment Center
362(1)
The Use of Firearms in Probation and Parole Work
363(2)
Establishing Negligence in Training, Job Performance, and Retention
365(1)
Liability Issues Associated with PO Work
366(2)
Probation and Parole Officer Labor Turnover
368(1)
Probation and Parole Officer Caseloads
369(3)
Ideal Caseloads
369(1)
Chaning Caseloads and Officer Effectiveness
370(1)
Caseload Assignment and Management Models
371(1)
Officer/Client Interactions
372(13)
A Code of Ethics
376(3)
PO Unionization and Collective Bargaining
379(2)
Summary
381(2)
Key Terms
383(1)
Questions for Review
383(1)
Suggested Readings
384(1)
Probation and Parole Officer Roles and Responsibilities
385(36)
Introduction
385(1)
Probation and Parole: Risk/Needs Assessments
386(13)
Assessing Offender Risk: A Brief History
386(2)
Classification and Its Functions
388(5)
Types of Risk Assessment Instruments
393(3)
The Effectiveness of Risk Assessment Devices
396(1)
Some Applications of Risk/Needs Measures
397(1)
Selective Incapacitation
398(1)
The Changing Probation/Parole Officer Role
399(1)
Apprehension Units
400(2)
Gang Units
402(3)
Research Units
405(1)
Stress and Burnout in Probation/Parole Officer Role Performance
405(6)
Stress
406(1)
Burnout
407(1)
Sources of Stress
408(2)
Mitigating Factors to Alleviate Stress and Burnout
410(1)
Volunteers in Probation/Parole Work
411(3)
Criticisms of Volunteers in Correctional Work
412(2)
Paraprofessionals in Probation/Parole Work
414(7)
Roles of Paraprofessionals
414(2)
Legal Liabilities of Volunteers and Paraprofessionals
416(2)
Summary
418(2)
Key Terms
420(1)
Questions for Review
420(1)
Suggested Readings
420(1)
Theories of Offender Treatment
421(30)
Introduction
422(1)
Theories of Criminal Behavior
423(2)
Biological Theories
425(2)
Abnormal Physical Structure
425(2)
Hereditary Criminal Behaviors
427(1)
Biochemical Disturbances
427(1)
Psychological Theories
427(5)
Psychoanalytic Theory
429(1)
Cognitive Development Theory
430(1)
Social Learning Theory
431(1)
Sociological and Sociocultural Theories
432(9)
Differential Association Theory
433(1)
Anomie Theory or Innovative Adaptation
434(2)
The Subculture Theory of Delinquency
436(2)
Labeling Theory
438(2)
Social Control Theory
440(1)
Conflict/Marxist Theory
441(1)
Reality Therapy
441(1)
Social Casework
442(1)
Which Theory Is Best? An Evaluation
443(2)
Theories about Adult Offenders
443(1)
Theories about Delinquency
444(1)
Treatment Programs and Theories
445(6)
Summary
448(1)
Key Terms
449(1)
Questions for Review
449(1)
Suggested Readings
450(1)
Offender Supervision: Types of Offenders and Special Supervisory Considerations
451(34)
Introduction
451(2)
Types of Offenders: An Overview
453(9)
Coping with Special Needs Offenders
454(2)
Mentally Ill Offenders
456(1)
Sex Offenders and Child Sexual Abusers
457(2)
Drug- and Alcohol- Dependent Offenders
459(1)
AIDS/HIV Offenders
460(1)
Gang Members
461(1)
Developmentally Disabled Offenders
462(1)
Mentally Ill Offenders
462(3)
Sex Offenders
465(1)
Offenders with HIV/AIDS
466(1)
Substance-Abusing Offenders
467(9)
Drug Screening and Methadone Treatment
470(1)
Drug Courts and the Drug Court Movement
471(5)
Community Programs for Special Needs Offenders
476(2)
Therapeutic Communities
476(1)
Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Gamblers Anonymous Programs
477(1)
Gang Members
478(7)
Tattoo Removal Programs
481(1)
Summary
482(2)
Key Terms
484(1)
Questions for Review
484(1)
Suggested Readings
484(1)
PART IV Juvenile Probation and Parole and Program Evaluation
Juvenile Probation and Parole
485(58)
Introduction
487(1)
Juveniles and Juvenile delinquency
488(1)
Delinquency and Juvenile Delinquents
489(1)
Status Offenders
489(1)
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice System
489(11)
The Origins and Purposes of Juvenile Courts
490(2)
Major Differences between Criminal and Juvenile Courts
492(2)
Parens Patriae
494(1)
Arrest and Other Options
495(1)
Intake Screenings and Detention Hearings
496(1)
Petitions and Adjudicatory Proceedings
496(1)
Transfers, Waivers, or Certifications
497(3)
Types of Waivers
500(4)
Judicial Waivers
500(1)
Direct File
501(1)
Statutory Exclusion
501(1)
Demand Waivers
502(1)
Other Types of Waivers
502(1)
Waiver Hearings
503(1)
Reverse Waiver Hearings
503(1)
Time Standards Governing Waiver Decisions
504(1)
Implications of Waiver Hearings for Juveniles
504(1)
Positive Benefits Resulting from Juvenile Court Adjudications
504(1)
Adverse Implications of Juvenile Court Adjudications
505(1)
Juvenile Rights
505(3)
Landmark Cases in Juvenile Justice
505(3)
Offense Seriousness and Dispositions: Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
508(7)
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
508(1)
Judicial Dispositional Options
509(1)
Nominal and Conditional Sanctions
509(3)
Custodial Sanctions
512(1)
Nonsecure Facilities
512(3)
Secure Confinement
515(1)
Juvenile Probation Officers and Predispositional Reports
515(8)
Juvenile Probation Officers
515(3)
The Predispositional Report and Its Preparation
518(5)
Juvenile Probation and Parole Programs
523(10)
Unconditional and Conditional Probation
523(3)
Intensive Supervised Probation (ISP) Programs
526(2)
The Ohio Experience
528(1)
The Allegheny Academy
529(1)
Boston Offender Project
530(1)
Other Juvenile Probation and Parole Programs
531(2)
Revoking Juvenile Probation and Parole
533(10)
Recidivism and Probation/Parole Revocation
535(1)
Juvenile Case Law on Probation Revocations
536(2)
Juvenile Case Law on Parole Revocations
538(1)
Summary
539(1)
Key Terms
540(1)
Questions for Review
540(1)
Suggested Readings
541(2)
Evaluating Programs: Balancing Service Delivery and Recidivism Considerations
543(24)
Introduction
543(1)
Program Evaluation: How Do We Know Programs Are Effective?
544(6)
Some Recommended Outcome Measures
547(3)
Balancing Program Objectives and Offender Needs
550(2)
Recidivism Defined
552(6)
Rearrests
555(1)
Reconvictions
556(1)
Revocations of Parole or Probation
556(1)
Reincarcerations
557(1)
Technical Program Violations
557(1)
Recidivist Offenders and Their Characteristics
558(2)
Avertable and Nonavertable Recidivists
558(2)
Public Policy and Recidivism
560(1)
Probationers, Parolees, and Recidivism
560(7)
Probationers and Parolees Compared
561(1)
Prison versus Probation
562(1)
Curbing Recidivism
562(1)
Summary
563(1)
Key Terms
564(1)
Questions for Review
564(1)
Suggested Readings
565(2)
Internet Addresses for Professional Organizations and Probation/Parole Agencies 567(2)
Glossary 569(22)
References 591(24)
Name Index 615(7)
Subject Index 622(11)
Case Cited 633


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