9781574445145

Probiotics In Food Safety And Human Health

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  • ISBN13:

    9781574445145

  • ISBN10:

    1574445146

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-10-10
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

The discovery of new and previously unknown organisms that cause foodborne illness makes it essential for scientists, regulators, and those in the food industry to reconsider their traditional approaches to food preservation. A single source reference that can provide the latest practical information on how to deal with the range of probiotic health issues that have recently arisen would be invaluable to have.Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health is that resource. It presents an in-depth characterization and diagnosis of probiotic strains and their mechanisms of action in humans, explains the role food applications have in the development of new products that guard against gastrointestinal diseases, and addresses the current regulatory environment. The material in each chapter is written in an accessible format by internationally renowned experts and includes citations from scientific literature.Highlights include a thorough discussion of probiotic issues such as pre- and postharvest food safety applications of probiotics, genetic engineering, and probiotic identification. The book also presents information on new regulations and emerging trends in the two major probiotics markets in the world, Europe and Japan.Unique in its depth and breadth of scope, Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health provides vital information to those who need to be knowledgeable of the functional properties of foods aimed at improving human health.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Prebiotics and Probiotics 1(34)
Wilhelm H. Holzapfel
1.1 Introduction
1(6)
1.1.1 History
1(1)
1.1.2 Definitions
2(3)
1.1.3 Administration and Consumption of Probiotics
5(2)
1.2 Gut Microbial Ecology
7(6)
1.2.1 The Gastrointestinal Tract as Ecosystem
7(1)
1.2.2 Microbiota of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract
7(6)
1.2.3 Role and Functions of the Microorganisms of the Gut
13(1)
1.3 Probiotic Microorganisms
13(9)
1.3.1 Examples of Probiotic Microorganisms
13(5)
1.3.2 Selection of Appropriate Strains
18(2)
1.3.3 Functional Properties
20(2)
1.4 Prebiotics
22(2)
1.5 Conclusions
24(1)
References
25(10)
2 Development of Probiotic Food Ingredients 35(32)
Katja Schmid, Ralf-Christian Schlothauer, Udo Friedrich, Christine Staudt, Juha Apajalahti, and Egon Bech Hansen
2.1 Introduction
35(1)
2.1.1 History of Probiotics
35(1)
2.1.2 Definition of Probiotics
36(1)
2.2 Intestinal Flora — Important "Organ" in Human Nutrition and Health
36(2)
2.2.1 Role of Intestinal Microbial Flora in Digestion and Release of Nutrients
36(1)
2.2.2 Role of Beneficial Flora in Exclusion of Pathogens
37(1)
2.2.3 Disorders Associated with Disturbed Intestinal Flora
37(1)
2.3 Analysis of the Effect of Probiotics
38(11)
2.3.1 In Vitro Systems and Assays
38(9)
2.3.2 Animal Trials
47(1)
2.3.3 Human Trials
48(1)
2.4 Health Benefits of Probiotics
49(3)
2.4.1 Health Benefits of Probiotics Established in Human Studies
49(3)
2.5 Technology of Probiotics
52(2)
2.5.1 Application of Probiotic Cultures in Food Products
52(2)
2.6 Conclusions
54(1)
References
55(12)
3 Taxonomy and Biology of Probiotics 67(24)
Lorenzo Morelli and Maria L. Callegari
3.1 Introduction
67(2)
3.2 Identification and Classification
69(9)
3.3 The Physiology of Probiotic Bacteria
78(6)
References
84(7)
4 Primary Sources of Probiotic Cultures 91(18)
Daniel J. O'Sullivan
4.1 Introduction
91(1)
4.2 Delivery of Probiotics
92(3)
4.3 Where Do Probiotic Bacteria Come from?
95(1)
4.4 Species Used as Probiotic Cultures
96(2)
4.5 What Is Known about Selection Criteria for Probiotic Cultures
98(4)
4.5.1 Tolerance to Acid and Bile
99(1)
4.5.2 β-Galactosidase Activity
99(1)
4.5.3 Adherence to Intestinal Cells
100(1)
4.5.4 Bacteriocin Production
100(1)
4.5.5 Competition for Organic Nutritients
101(1)
4.5.6 Competition for Iron
101(1)
4.6 How Will the Genomic Era Provide the Knowledge Base for a Scientific Selection Process for Probiotic Cultures?
102(2)
4.7 Conclusions
104(1)
References
104(5)
5 Properties of Evidence-Based Probiotics for Human Health 109(30)
Lynne V. McFarland and Gary W. Elmer
5.1 Introduction
110(1)
5.2 Desirable Properties for Therapeutic Probiotics
111(5)
5.2.1 Manufacturing Properties
111(3)
5.2.1.1 Strain Identification
111(1)
5.2.1.2 Potency Properties
111(2)
5.2.1.3 Stability Properties
113(1)
5.2.1.4 Formulation and Dose Concerns
113(1)
5.2.1.5 Marketing Properties
113(1)
5.2.1.6 Commercial-Scale Production
113(1)
5.2.1.7 Quality Control
114(1)
5.2.2 Endogenous Properties
114(2)
5.2.2.1 Transit to the Target Organ or Surface
114(1)
5.2.2.2 Persistence within the Target
114(1)
5.2.2.3 Adherence to Mucosal Surfaces
115(1)
5.2.2.4 Reproduction within the Target
115(1)
5.2.2.5 Metabolic Pathway Interference
115(1)
5.2.2.6 Stimulation of the Immune System
115(1)
5.2.2.7 Safety
115(1)
5.3 Properties of Evidenced-Based Probiotics
116(8)
5.3.1 By Microbial Species
116(8)
5.3.1.1 Lactobacillus Species in General
116(1)
5.3.1.2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus
117(1)
5.3.1.3 Lactobacillus reuteri
118(1)
5.3.1.4 Bifidobacterium species
119(1)
5.3.1.5 Lactobacillus acidophilus
120(1)
5.3.1.6 Lactobacillus casei
120(1)
5.3.1.7 Other Lactobacilli
121(1)
5.3.1.8 Saccharomyces boulardii
122(2)
5.4 Evidence-Based Probiotics
124(4)
5.4.1 Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea
125(1)
5.4.2 Clostridium difficile Disease
126(1)
5.4.3 Traveler's Diarrhea
126(1)
5.4.4 Pediatric Diarrhea
127(1)
5.4.5 Treatment of Acute Diarrhea
127(1)
5.5 Conclusions
128(1)
References
128(11)
6 Genetic Engineering of Probiotic Bacteria 139(26)
Collette Desmond, Paul Ross, Gerald F. Fitzgerald, and Catherine Stanton
6.1 Introduction
139(2)
6.2 Development of Improved Genetic Tools
141(5)
6.2.1 Transformation
142(2)
6.2.2 Food-Grade Markers
144(1)
6.2.3 Manipulation of the Probiotic Genome through Homologous Recombination
145(1)
6.4 Genomic Dissection of Probiotics
146(1)
6.5 Genetic Engineering for Design of Improved Probiotic Cultures
147(6)
6.4.1 Accentuate Functionality
147(3)
6.4.2 Improved Technological Suitability
150(1)
6.4.3 Modification of Nonprobiotic Strains toward Improving Health
151(2)
6.5 Functional Genomics and Proteomics
153(1)
6.6 Safety Legislation and Risk Assessment
154(2)
6.7 Conclusion and Future Developments
156(1)
Acknowledgments
156(1)
References
157(8)
7 Immunochemical Methods for Detection of Probiotics 165(26)
Analia G. Abraham, Maria Serradell, Graciela L. Garrote, Alberto C. Fossati, and Graciela L. De Antoni
7.1 Antigenic Molecules and Structures Associated with Probiotic Characteristics
166(1)
7.2 Application of Immunochemical Techniques to Potentially Detect Probiotic Bacteria
167(4)
7.3 Methodology for Immunochemical Detection of Probiotics
171(14)
7.3.1 Preparation of Antigens
171(2)
7.3.1.1 Preparation of Bacterial Antigens
171(1)
7.3.1.2 Purification of Bacterial Proteins
172(1)
7.3.2 Production of Specific Antibodies
173(4)
7.3.2.1 Production of Polyclonal Antibodies (Antisera)
173(2)
7.3.2.2 Preparation and Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
175(2)
7.3.3 Labeling of Antibodies
177(3)
7.3.3.1 Labeling Antibodies with Fluorochromes
177(1)
7.3.3.2 Labeling Antibodies with Biotin
178(1)
7.3.3.3 Labeling Antibodies with Enzymes
179(1)
7.3.4 Methods for Detection
180(13)
7.3.4.1 Indirect Immunofluorescence
180(1)
7.3.4.2 Noncompetitive Indirect ELISA
180(2)
7.3.4.3 Competitive Sequential ELISA
182(1)
7.3.4.4 Capture ELISA
183(1)
7.3.4.5 Immunoblotting or Western Blot
183(1)
7.3.4.6 Dot Blot
184(1)
7.3.4.7 Flow Cytometry
185(1)
Conclusions
185(1)
Acknowledgment
186(1)
References
186(5)
8 Molecular-Based Methods Directed toward Probiotics 191(16)
Marlene E. Janes and Nigel Cook
8.1 introduction
191(2)
8.2 Molecular-Based Identification Methods
193(8)
8.2.1 Isolation of DNA
193(1)
8.2.2 Primers for Identification of Probiotic Bacteria
194(4)
8.2.3 PCR-Based Identification Methods
198(2)
8.2.4 Restriction Enzyme Analysis-Based Identification Methods
200(1)
8.3 Future Directions
201(1)
8.4 Conclusion
202(1)
References
202(5)
9 Application of Repetitive Element Sequence-Based (rep-) PCR and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis for the dentification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Probiotic Products 207(22)
Robin Temmerman, Liesbeth Masco, Geert Huys, and Jean Swings
9.1 Introduction
208(1)
9.2 Culture-Dependent Analysis
209(9)
9.2.1 Sample Treatment
209(2)
9.2.1.1 Dairy Products
210(1)
9.2.1.2 Freeze-Dried Products
210(1)
9.2.2 Plating
211(2)
9.2.2.1 Culture Media
211(2)
9.2.2.2 Different Plating Techniques
213(1)
9.2.3 Incubation
213(1)
9.2.4 Enumeration and Isolation
9.2.4.1 Enumeration
213(1)
9.2.4.2 Isolation and Strain Storage 213
214(1)
9.2.5 Identification—Repetitive Element Sequence-Based (rep-) PCR
214(4)
9.2.5.1 Bacterial Strains and Cultivation
215(1)
9.2.5.2 Total DNA Extraction
215(2)
9.2.5.3 rep-PCR Fingerprinting
217(1)
9.3 Culture-Independent Analysis
218(7)
9.3.1 Principle
220(1)
9.3.2 Method Description
221(10)
9.3.2.1 DNA Extraction
221(1)
9.3.2.2 PCR
221(1)
9.3.2.3 DGGE Analysis
222
9.3.2.4 Processing of DGGE Gels
221(4)
9.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
225(1)
References
226(3)
10 Genetically Modified Probiotics 229(1)
Farid E. Ahmed
10.1 Introduction
229(2)
10.2 Cloning of LAB
231(2)
10.2.1 Cloning Systems
231(1)
10.2.2 Chromosomal Modification Systems
231(2)
10.2.3 Expression Systems
233(1)
10 3 Construction of Starter LAB Strains
233(2)
10.3.1 Production of Genetic Variants
233(1)
10.3.2 Engineering Strains with Genes from Other LAB or Other Bacteria
233(2)
10.4 Molecular Phenotyping of LAB
235(5)
10.5 Gene Expression and Its Measurement
240(1)
10.6 Risk Assessment and Regulatory Controversies
241(4)
References
245(6)
11 Use of Probiotics in Preharvest Food Safety Applications 251(1)
Francisco Diez-Gonzalez and Gerry P. Schamberger
11.1 Introduction
251(1)
11.2 History of Probiotic Use in Animals
252(1)
11.3 Use of Probiotics for Animal Production
253(2)
11.4 Infectious Disease Prevention
255(2)
11.5 Food Safety Applications
257(7)
11.5.1 Cattle
257(4)
11.5.2 Poultry
261(3)
11.5.3 Sheep
264(1)
11.6 Selection Criteria for Preharvest Food Safety Probiotics
264(3)
11.7 Conclusions
267(1)
References
267(6)
12 Preharvest Food Safety Applications of Competitive Exclusion Cultures and Probiotics 273(1)
Robin C. Anderson, Kenneth J. Genovese, Roger B. Harvey, Todd R. Callaway, and David J. Nisbet
12.1 Introduction
273(1)
12.2 Rationale for Preharvest Intervention
274(1)
12.3 Competitive Exclusion Cultures and Probiotics
275(3)
12.3.1 Competitive Exclusion Cultures
276(1)
12.3.2 Probiotics
277(1)
12.4 Practical Issues in Culture Development and Application
278(1)
12.5 Future Outlook for Competitive Exclusion and Probiotics in Preharvest Food Safety
279(1)
References
279(6)
13 Probiotics as Biopreservatives for Enhancing Food Safety 285(1)
Ipek Goktepe
13.1 Introduction
285(1)
13.2 Probiotic Bacteria in Food Safety Applications
286(12)
13.2.1 Bifidobacteria
287(3)
13.2.1.1 Antimicrobial Activity of Bifidobacteria against Pathogenic Microorganisms
287(1)
13.2.1.2 Use of Bifidobacteria in Food Preservation
288(2)
13.2.2 Lactobacillus
290(5)
13.2.2.1 Antimicrobial Properties of Lactobacillus
290(2)
13.2.2.2 Bacteriocins Produced by Lactobacillus
292(2)
13.2.2.3 Use of Lactobacilli Bacteriocins in Food Preservation
294(1)
13.2.3 Other Bacteriocin Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria
295(3)
13.3 Conclusions
298(2)
References
300(9)
14 EU Perspectives on Food, Gastrointestinal Tract Functionality, and Human Health 309(1)
Tiina Mattila-Sandholm, Liisa Lähteemäki, and Maria Saarela
14.1 Introduction Development of Efficacious Functional Foods for Intestinal Health
310(1)
14.2 Description of Projects
311(15)
14.2.1 Developing Research Tools
311(4)
14.2.1.1 Development and Application of High Throughput Molecular Methods for Studying the Human Gut Microbiota in Relation to Diet and Health — MICROBE DIAGNOSTICS
311(4)
14.2.2 Understanding Mechanisms
315(4)
14.2.2.1 Probiotic Strains with Designed Health Properties — DEPROHEALTH
315(2)
14.2.2.2 Molecular Analysis and Mechanistic Elucidation of the Functionality of Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Inhibition of Pathogenic Microorganisms to Combat Gastrointestinal Disorders and to Improve Human Health — PROPATH.
317(1)
14.2.2.3 Functional Assessment of Interactions between the Human Gut Microbiota and the Host — EU & MICROFUNCTION
318(1)
14.2.3 Investigating Health Effects
319(6)
14.2.3.1 Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disorders: Controlled Trials of European Union Patients — PROGID
319(2)
14.2.3.2 Functional Food, Gut Microflora, and Healthy Aging — CROWNALIFE
321(1)
14.2.3.3 Biosafety Evaluation of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Used for Human Consumption — PROSAFE
322(3)
14.2.4 Probiotic and Prebiotic Technologies
325(19)
14.2.4.1 Nutritional Enhancement of Probiotics and Prebiotics: Technology Aspects on Microbial Viability, Stability, Functionality, and on Prebiotic Function — PROTECH
325(1)
14.3 Consumers and Perceived Health Benefits of Probiotics
326(5)
14.4 Conclusions
331(1)
References
332(9)
15 Modulation of Epithelial Function and Local Immune System by Probiotics: Mechanisms Involved 341(1)
Sandrine Ménard and Martine Heyman
15.1 Introduction
342(1)
15.2 Forces Driving Intestinal Homeostasis as Targets of Probiotics
342(2)
15.3 Effect of Probiotics on the Luminal Environment
344(4)
15.3.1 Probiotic Bacteria: Where Do They Come From?
344(2)
15.3.2 Survival at Low pH and Resistance to Bile Acids
346(1)
15.3.3 Provision of an External Source of Lactase
347(1)
15.3.4 Bacterial Interference
347(1)
15.3.4.1 Antimicrobial Effect
348(1)
15.3.4.2 Antitoxin Effect
348(1)
15.4 Effect of Probiotics on Intestinal Epithelial Cells
348(6)
15.4.1 Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial Cells
348(2)
15.4.1.1 Epithelial Receptors Involved in Bacterial Binding
349(1)
15.4.1.2 Receptor-Binding Region of Probiotic Bacteria
350(1)
15.4.2 Inhibition of Pathogen Binding to Brush-Border Epithelial Cell Membranes
350(2)
15.4.2.1 Competitive Exclusion
350(1)
15.4.2.2 Mucus Secretion
351(1)
15.4.3 Improvement of Epithelial Barrier Function
352(2)
15.4.3.1 Transepithelial Electrical Resistance and Intestinal Permeability
352(1)
15.4.3.2 Neutrophil Migration and Bacterial Translocation
353(1)
15.4.3.3 Antiapoptotic Effect
353(1)
15.4.3.4 Epithelial Proliferation and Repair
354(1)
15.5 Effect of Probiotics on Local Immune Response
354(3)
15.5.1 Enhancement of Secretory IgA Protection
354(1)
15.5.1.1 Secretory IgA Immunity
354(1)
15.5.2 Cross Talk between Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Commensal-Probiotic Bacteria: Downregulation of Inflammation?
355(12)
15.5.2.1 Cytokine Release by Epithelial Cells
356(1)
References
357(8)
16 Probiotics in Cancer Prevention 365(1)
Kazuhiro Hirayama and Joseph Rafter
16.1 Introduction
365(1)
16.2 Epidemiological Studies
366(1)
16.3 Experimental Studies
367(3)
16.3.1 Studies in Human Volunteers
367(1)
16.3.2 Laboratory Animal Studies
367(2)
16.3.3 In Vitro Studies
369(1)
16.4 Mechanisms by Which Probiotic Bacteria Inhibit Cancer
370(5)
16.4.1 Binding and Degrading Potential Carcinogens
370(1)
16.4.2 Production of Antitumorigenic or Antimutagenic Compounds
371(1)
16.4.3 Alteration of the Metabolic Activities of Intestinal Microflora
372(1)
16.4.4 Quantitative and Qualitative Alterations in the Intestinal Microflora
372(1)
16.4.5 Alteration of Physicochemical Conditions in the Intestine
373(1)
16.4.6 Enhancing the Host's Immune Response
373(1)
16.4.7 Effects on Physiology of the Host
374(1)
16.5 Conclusions
375(1)
Acknowledgments
376(1)
References
376(7)
17 Statistical Considerations for Testing the Efficacy of Probiotics 383(1)
Mohamed Ahmedna
17.1 Introduction
383(2)
17.2 Approach to Testing the Efficacy of Probiotics
385(1)
17.3 Common Designs for Testing the Efficacy of Probiotics
386(15)
17.3.1 In Vitro and In Vivo Animal Studies
386(5)
17.3.2 Efficacy Studies Involving Human Subjects
391(15)
17.3.2.1 Issues of Validity and Power
391(5)
17.3.2.2 Randomized Experimental Studies
396(2)
17.3.2.3 Quasi-experimental Studies
398(2)
17.3.2.4 Causal Comparative and Correlational Studies
400(1)
17.4 Concluding Remarks
401(1)
References
402(3)
18 The Safety of Probiotics in Foods in Europe and Its Legislation 405(1)
Arthur C. Ouwehand, Vanessa Vankerckhoven, Herman Goossens, Geert Hays, Jean Swings, Marc Vancanneyt, and Anu Lähteenmäki
18.1 Introduction
406(1)
18.2 Infections Where Lactic Acid Bacteria Were Involved
406(1)
18.2.1 Relevance for Probiotics
406(1)
18.2.2 Underlying Conditions
407(1)
18.3 Safety Assessment of Probiotic Microbes
407(8)
18.3.1 Acute Toxicity
407(1)
18.3.2 Endocarditis Model
408(1)
18.3.3 Effect on the Immune System
409(1)
18.3.4 Metabolism
409(1)
18.3.5 Hemolysis
410(1)
18.3.6 Resistance to Human Serum-Mediated Killing
410(1)
18.3.7 Induction of Respiratory Burst
411(1)
18.3.8 Platelet Aggregation
411(1)
18.3.9 Adhesion to Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Intestinal Mucus
412(1)
18.3.10 Adhesion to Tissue Culture Cells
412(2)
18.3.11 Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) Activity
414(1)
18.3.12 Mucinolytic Activity
414(1)
18.4 Antibiotic Resistance
415(1)
18.5 The Importance of Taxonomy
415(5)
18.6 Postmarketing Surveillance
420(1)
18.7 Next-Generation Probiotics
420(1)
18.8 Legislation Evaluation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
421(1)
18.9 Conclusions
422(1)
References
423(8)
19 Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health: Current Status of Regulations on the Use of Probiotics in Foods in Japan 431(1)
Yoichi Fakashinia and Hisakazu Iino
19.1 Introduction
432(1)
19.2 History and Regulatory Framework of Probiotics in Japan
433(6)
19.2.1 History of Fermented Milk in Japan
433(1)
19.2.2 Legal Definition and Regulation of Fermented Milk in Japan
433(3)
19.2.3 Food Labeling
436(3)
19.2.4 Quality Examination
439(1)
19.3 Foods for Specific Health Uses (FOSHU)
439(4)
19.3.1 Health Status of Japanese
439(1)
19.3.2 History of Functional Foods and FOSHU
440(1)
19.3.3 Current Status of FOSHU
441(2)
19.4 Probiotics and FOSHU
443(8)
19.4.1 Appearance of Probiotics with FOSHU Health Claims
443(2)
19.4.2 Conditions for FOSHU Approval
445(2)
19.4.3 Scientific Evidence of Probiotics in FOSHU Health Claims
447(1)
19.4.4 Guidelines for FOSHU Application and Evaluation
448(2)
19.4.5 Dietary Exposure and Safety
450(1)
19.4.6 Approval Process
451(1)
19.5 Efficacy of Probiotics and Future Health Claims
451(7)
19.5.1 Efficacy of Probiotics
451(4)
19.5.2 Future Health Claims
455(1)
19.5.3 International Harmonization
455(1)
19.5.4 Regulation on Drugs and Foods
456(2)
19.6 Conclusion
458(1)
Acknowledgments
459(1)
Abbreviations
459(1)
References
460(5)
Index 465

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