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Professional Nursing Practice : Concepts and Perspectives

by ; ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131188198

ISBN10:
0131188194
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This book provides knowledge of the historical, theoretical, ethical, and legal foundations of professional nursing.This resource explores the changing health care system especially related to health care economics, nursing in a culture of violence, and nursing in a culturally and spiritually diverse world. Also included is a chapter on returning to school after already practicing nursing in the field. The book serves as a refresher for topics and issues previously covered in nursing school, but also addresses issues that nurses will face in their new professional practice.An excellent resource for professionals in the nursing field. Specifically designed the transition from RN-to-BSN. These are professionals that have their RN, but are returning for their BSN to further advance their careers.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Contributors xvii
Reviewers xix
Beginning the Transition: Journey to Professionalism
1(12)
Factors in Society That Promote the Nurse's Return to School
1(3)
Changing Perceptions of Nursing as a Profession
2(2)
Factors in the Profession That Promote the Nurse's Return to School
4(1)
Credentialing Requirements
4(1)
Professional Role Transitions
4(3)
Bridges' Model of Transition
4(1)
Spencer and Adams' Model of Transition
5(2)
What Will It Take to Get There: Overcoming Barriers
7(4)
Time Management
7(1)
Money
8(1)
Social Supports
8(1)
Working with Faculty
9(1)
Study Skills
10(1)
References
11(2)
Unit I: Foundations of Professional Nursing Practice
Socialization to Professional Nursing Roles
13(18)
Challenges and Opportunities
14(1)
Professionalism
14(3)
Nursing as a Discipline and Profession
14(1)
Standards of Clinical Nursing Practice
15(2)
Professional Socialization
17(6)
Critical Values of Professional Nursing
18(1)
The Initial Process of Professional Socialization
19(2)
Ongoing Professional Socialization and Resocialization
21(2)
Role Theory
23(2)
Elements of Roles
23(2)
Boundaries for Nursing Roles
25(1)
Role Stress and Role Strain
25(4)
Stress Reduction Strategies
27(1)
Managing Role Stress and Role Strain
27(2)
Summary
29(1)
References
30(1)
Historical Foundations of Professional Nursing
31(16)
Challenges and Opportunities
32(1)
Nursing in Primitive Societies
32(1)
Nursing in Ancient Civilizations
32(1)
The Role of Religion in the Development of Nursing
33(2)
The Development of Modern Nursing
35(1)
The Development of Nursing in the Americas
36(1)
Historical Leaders in Nursing
37(4)
The Founders
37(1)
The Men
37(1)
The Risk Takers
38(1)
The Social Reformers
39(2)
Nursing: A History of Caring
41(1)
The Development of Professional Nursing Organizations
42(3)
American Nurses Association
42(1)
National Student Nurses Association
43(1)
National League for Nursing
43(1)
American Association of Colleges of Nursing
43(1)
International Council of Nurses
43(1)
Sigma Theta Tau International
43(1)
Specialty Nursing Organizations
43(1)
Special Interest Organizations
44(1)
Summary
45(1)
References
45(2)
Ethical Foundation of Professional Nursing
47(26)
Challenges and Opportunities
48(1)
Values
48(3)
Values Transmission
48(1)
Values Clarification
49(1)
Identifying Personal Values
49(1)
Helping Clients Identify Values
50(1)
Morals
51(4)
Moral Development
51(1)
Kohlberg
51(1)
Gilligan
52(2)
Moral Frameworks
54(1)
Moral Principles
54(1)
Ethics
55(11)
Nursing Codes of Ethics
56(2)
Types of Ethical Problems
58(1)
Making Ethical Decisions
59(5)
Specific Ethical Issues
64(1)
Strategies to Enhance Ethical Decision Making
65(1)
Advocacy
66(3)
The Advocacy Role
66(1)
Professional/Public Advocacy
66(3)
Summary
69(1)
References
70(3)
Legal Foundations of Professional Nursing
73(20)
Challenges and Opportunities
74(1)
The Judicial System
74(1)
Constitutions
74(1)
Legislation (Statutes)
74(1)
Common Law
75(1)
Types of Legal Actions
75(1)
Safeguarding the Public
75(1)
Credentialing
76(2)
Licensure
76(1)
Registration
77(1)
Certification
77(1)
Accreditation
77(1)
Standards of Care
78(1)
Potential Liability Areas
78(8)
Malpractice
78(1)
Documentation
79(1)
Delegation
80(1)
Informed Consent
81(1)
Adverse Events and Risk Management
82(1)
Wills
83(1)
Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders
84(1)
Advance Medical Directives
84(1)
Euthanasia
85(1)
Death and Related Issues
85(1)
Organ Donation
85(1)
Inquest
86(1)
The Impaired Nurse
86(1)
Sexual Harassment
87(1)
Nurses as Witnesses
88(1)
Collective Bargaining
88(2)
Summary
90(1)
References
91(2)
Theoretical Foundations of Professional Nursing
93(22)
Challenges and Opportunities
94(1)
World Views and Knowledge Development
94(2)
Defining Terms
96(1)
Theory Development in Nursing
97(1)
Overview of Selected Nursing Theories
98(12)
Nightingale's Environmental Theory
98(1)
Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Model
98(1)
Henderson's Definition of Nursing
99(1)
Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings
99(1)
Orem's General Theory of Nursing
100(2)
King's Goal-Attainment Theory
102(1)
Neuman Systems Model
102(1)
Roy's Adaptation Model
103(1)
Benner's Novice to Expert
104(1)
The Caring Theorists
105(5)
One Model Versus Several Models
110(1)
Relationship of Theories to the Nursing Process and Research
110(2)
Summary
112(1)
References
112(3)
Unit II: Professional Nursing Roles
The Nurse as Health Promoter and Care Provider
115(20)
Challenges and Opportunities
116(1)
Defining Health Promotion
117(1)
Healthy People 2010
118(3)
Increasing Quality and Years of Healthy Life
118(2)
Eliminating Health Disparities
120(1)
Health-Promotion Activities
121(3)
Types of Health-Promotion Programs
122(1)
Sites for Health-Promotion Activities
122(2)
Health-Promotion Models
124(4)
Pender's Health-Promotion Model
124(3)
Kulbok's Resource Model of Preventive Health Behavior
127(1)
Neuman Systems Model
128(1)
Stages of Health Behavior Change
128(2)
The Nurse's Role in Health Promotion
130(2)
Summary
132(1)
References
132(3)
The Nurse as Learner and Teacher
135(28)
Challenges and Opportunities
136(1)
Nurses as Learners
136(1)
The Learning Process
137(9)
Theories of Learning
138(1)
Social Learning Theory
139(3)
Applying Learning Theories
142(1)
Cognitive Learning Processes
143(1)
Factors Facilitating Learning
143(2)
Factors Inhibiting Learning
145(1)
Nurses as Teachers
146(1)
The Art of Teaching
147(12)
Guidelines for Learning and Teaching
147(1)
Assessing Learning Needs
148(3)
Planning Content and Teaching Strategies
151(4)
Implementing a Teaching Plan
155(1)
Evaluating Learning and Teaching
155(1)
Special Teaching Strategies
156(2)
Transcultural Client Teaching
158(1)
Documentation of Teaching
159(1)
Summary
160(1)
References
161(2)
The Nurse as Leader and Manager
163(20)
Challenges and Opportunities
164(1)
Nursing Leadership
164(5)
Leadership, Characteristics
165(1)
Leadership Style
165(4)
Nursing Management
169(5)
Theories of Management Style
169(1)
Management Competencies
170(1)
Management Roles
171(3)
Nursing Delivery Models
174(4)
Total Patient Care
174(1)
Functional Method
174(1)
Team Nursing
174(1)
Primary Nursing
174(1)
Case Management
175(1)
Shared Governance
175(1)
Managed Care
176(1)
Differentiated Practice
177(1)
Mentors and Preceptors
178(1)
Networking
179(1)
Summary
180(1)
References
180(3)
The Nurse as Research Consumer
183(16)
Challenges and Opportunities
184(1)
Evidence-Based Practice
184(1)
Empirical Nursing Knowledge
184(1)
Research in Nursing
184(6)
Roles in Research
186(1)
Historical Perspective
186(2)
Ethical Concerns
188(1)
Approaches in Nursing Research
189(1)
Using Research in Practice
190(6)
Critiquing Research Reports
190(1)
Research Utilization
191(5)
Summary
196(1)
References
196(3)
The Nurse as Political Advocate
199(16)
Challenges and Opportunities
200(1)
Power
200(5)
Empowerment
200(1)
Sources of Power
200(2)
Caring Types of Power
202(1)
Laws of Power
202(3)
Politics
205(8)
Strategies to Influence Political Decisions
206(2)
Developing Political Astuteness and Skill
208(1)
Seeking Opportunities for Political Action
209(4)
Summary
213(1)
References
214(1)
The Nurse as Colleague and Collaborator
215(14)
Challenges and Opportunities
216(1)
Collaborative Health Care
216(5)
Collaborative Practice
218(1)
The Nurse as a Collaborator
219(2)
Benefits of Collaborative Care
221(1)
Competencies Basic to Collaboration
221(3)
Communication Skills
221(1)
Mutual Respect and Trust
221(1)
Giving and Receiving Feedback
222(1)
Decision Making
222(1)
Conflict Management
222(2)
Factors Leading to the Need for Increased Collegiality and Collaboration
224(2)
Consumer Wants and Needs
224(1)
Self-Help Initiatives
225(1)
Changing Demographics and Epidemiology
225(1)
Health Care Access
225(1)
Technological Advances
226(1)
Summary
226(1)
References
227(2)
Unit III: Processes Guiding Professional Practice
Communication
229(20)
Challenges and Opportunities
230(1)
Definitions of Communication
230(1)
The Communication Process
230(2)
Sender
231(1)
Message
231(1)
Channel
231(1)
Receiver
231(1)
Response
231(1)
Factors Influencing the Communication Process
232(3)
Developmental Stage
232(1)
Gender
232(1)
Roles and Relationships
233(1)
Sociocultural Characteristics
233(1)
Values and Perceptions
233(1)
Space and Territoriality
234(1)
Environment
234(1)
Congruence
234(1)
Interpersonal Attitudes
234(1)
Types of Communication
235(5)
Oral Communication
235(1)
Nonverbal Communication
236(1)
Therapeutic Communication
237(3)
Written Communication
240(1)
Characteristics of Effective Written Communication
240(1)
Barriers to Communication
241(1)
Nursing Documentation
241(4)
Methods of Documentation
243(2)
Communication Through Technology
245(1)
Summary
245(1)
References
246(3)
Change Process
249(18)
Challenges and Opportunities
250(1)
Meanings and Types of Change
250(2)
Spontaneous Change
250(1)
Developmental Change
251(1)
Planned Change
251(1)
Change Theory
252(4)
Approaches to Planned Change
252(1)
Change Strategies
253(1)
Frameworks for Change
253(3)
Managing Change
256(9)
Change Agent
257(1)
Coping with Change
258(2)
Resistance to Change
260(4)
Examples of Change
264(1)
Summary
265(1)
References
266(1)
Group Process
267(22)
Challenges and Opportunities
268(1)
Groups
268(6)
Types of Groups
268(1)
Functions of Groups
269(1)
Levels of Group Formality
269(2)
Group Development
271(1)
Characteristics of Effective Groups
272(2)
Group Dynamics
274(4)
Commitment
274(1)
Leadership Style
274(1)
Decision-Making Methods
274(2)
Member Behaviors
276(1)
Interaction Patterns
277(1)
Cohesiveness
277(1)
Power
277(1)
Facilitating Group Discussion
278(1)
Group Problems
279(3)
Monopolizing
279(1)
Conflict
280(1)
Groupthink
280(1)
Scapegoating
280(1)
Silence and Apathy
280(1)
Transference and Countertransference
281(1)
Types of Health Care Groups
282(4)
Committees or Teams
282(1)
Task Forces
282(1)
Teaching Groups
282(1)
Self-Help Groups
282(1)
Self-Awareness/Growth Groups
283(2)
Therapy Groups
285(1)
Work-Related Social Support Groups
285(1)
Professional Nursing Organizations
285(1)
Summary
286(1)
References
286(3)
Technology and Informatics
289(12)
Challenges and Opportunities
290(1)
Nursing Informatics, Health Care Informatics, and Technology
290(3)
Nursing Roles and Education
290(1)
Technology and Informatics
291(1)
Informatics Frameworks
292(1)
Issues Related to Information Technology
293(1)
Ethical Concerns
293(1)
Confidentiality of Medical Records and Data
294(1)
Data Integrity
294(1)
Caring in a High-Tech Environment
294(1)
The Technology Explosion
294(3)
Evolution of Technology
294(2)
Computer Technology in Practice, Education, Research, and Administration
296(1)
Current Applications of Information Technology in Practice
297(2)
Physician Order Entry
297(1)
Clinical Information Systems
298(1)
Wireless and Portable Devices
298(1)
Computer-Based Patient Record
298(1)
Summary
299(1)
References
299(2)
Unit IV: Professional Nursing in a Changing Health Care Delivery System
Nursing in an Evolving Health Care Delivery System
301(18)
Challenges and Opportunities
302(2)
Selected Issues
303(1)
Concepts of Health, Wellness, and Well-Being
304(4)
Health
306(1)
Wellness and Well-Being
306(1)
Illness and Disease
307(1)
Models of Health and Wellness
308(1)
Leavell and Clark's Agent-Host-Environment Model
308(1)
Dunn's Levels of Wellness
308(1)
Health and Wellness Continuum
309(1)
Health Status, Beliefs, and Behaviors
309(2)
Health Belief Models
311(2)
Health Locus of Control Model
311(1)
Rosenstock and Becker's Health Belief Model
311(2)
International Initiative for Health and Wellness
313(1)
Nursing in an Era of Shortage
314(3)
Summary
317(1)
References
317(2)
Health Care Economics
319(16)
Challenges and Opportunities
320(1)
Issues
320(1)
Demand Versus Supply of Health Care
320(1)
Paying for Health Care
320(1)
Separate Billing for Nursing Services
321(1)
Cost-Containment Strategies
321(3)
Competition
321(1)
Price Controls
321(2)
Alternative Delivery Systems
323(1)
Managed Care
323(1)
Vertically Integrated Health Services Organizations
324(1)
Health Care Economics
324(5)
Billing Methods
324(1)
Payment Sources in the United States
325(1)
The International Perspective
326(2)
Voluntary Insurance and the United States
328(1)
Nursing Economics
329(1)
The Nursing Shortages
329(1)
Financial Management
330(2)
Profit Versus Not-for-Profit Organizations
330(1)
Costs and Budgeting
331(1)
Summary
332(1)
References
333(2)
Providing Care in the Home and Community
335(22)
Challenges and Opportunities
336(1)
Home Health Nursing
336(5)
Definitions of Home Health Nursing
337(1)
Perspectives of Home Health Nursing
337(3)
Applying the Nursing Process in the Home
340(1)
Differences Between Home Health Nursing and Hospital Nursing
340(1)
Community Nursing
341(7)
Definitions of Community and Community Nursing
342(1)
Settings For Community-Based Nursing Practice
343(5)
Applying the Nursing Process in the Community
348(5)
Assessing
348(2)
Diagnosing
350(3)
Planning and Implementing
353(1)
Evaluating
353(1)
Integration of Home and Community Nursing
353(2)
Summary
355(1)
References
355(2)
Nursing in a Culture of Violence
357(16)
Challenges and Opportunities
358(1)
Family Violence and Abuse
358(6)
Domestic Violence
358(1)
Intimate Partner Abuse
358(2)
Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
360(1)
Elder Abuse
361(1)
Violence in the Community
362(1)
School Violence
363(1)
Violence in the Workplace
363(1)
Assessing the Effects of Violence and Abuse
364(1)
Planning/Implementing Interventions for the Abused
365(2)
Short-Term Interventions
365(1)
Long-Term Interventions
366(1)
Prevention of Violence and Abuse
367(1)
Violence and Public Health
368(2)
Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction
368(1)
Strengthening the Public Health System
369(1)
Summary
370(1)
References
371(2)
Nursing in a Culturally Diverse World
373(24)
Challenges and Opportunities
374(1)
Concepts Related to Culture
375(2)
Characteristics of Culture
377(1)
Components of Culture
377(1)
Culture and Health Care
377(1)
Leininger's Sunrise Model
378(1)
Culturally Sensitive Care
378(4)
Barriers to Cultural Sensitivity
378(2)
Conveying Cultural Sensitivity
380(2)
Selected Cultural Parameters Influencing Nursing Care
382(9)
Health Beliefs and Practices
382(1)
Family Patterns
383(1)
Communication Style
384(3)
Space Orientation
387(1)
Time Orientation
387(1)
Nutritional Patterns
387(1)
Pain Responses
388(1)
Childbirth and Perinatal Care
388(2)
Death and Dying
390(1)
Providing Culturally Competent Care
391(3)
Summary
394(1)
References
394(3)
Nursing in a Spiritually Diverse World
397(18)
Challenges and Opportunities
398(1)
Concepts Related to Spirituality
398(5)
Spirituality, Religion, and Faith
398(3)
Spiritual Development
401(1)
Prayer and Meditation
401(2)
Selected Spiritual and Religious Beliefs Influencing Nursing Care
403(4)
Holy Days
403(1)
Sacred Writings and Symbols
403(1)
Dress
404(1)
Health Beliefs and Practices
405(2)
Spiritual Distress
407(1)
Providing Spiritually Competent Care
407(4)
Spiritual Assessment
407(1)
Diagnosing, Planning, and Implementing Spiritually Competent Care
407(4)
Summary
411(1)
References
412(3)
Unit V: Into the Future
Advanced Nursing Education and Practice
415(20)
Challenges and Opportunities
416(1)
Advanced Nursing Education
416(4)
Preparation for Advanced Clinical Practice
416(2)
Master's Degree in Nursing
418(1)
Doctoral Programs in Nursing
419(1)
Advanced Nursing Practice
420(9)
Types of Advanced Practice
420(6)
Regulation of Advanced Practice
426(1)
The International Perspective
427(2)
The Future of Advanced Practice Nursing
429(1)
Selecting a Graduate Program
429(4)
Professional Career Goals
429(1)
Personal and Family Factors
430(1)
Program Characteristics
431(2)
Summary
433(1)
References
433(2)
Visions for the Future
435(16)
Challenges and Opportunities
436(1)
Past Events That Have Affected Nursing
436(4)
Events That Promoted Nursing's Growth and Development
436(2)
Events That Have Indirectly Affected Nursing
438(1)
Social Movements and Technological Initiatives That Have Affected Nursing
438(2)
Future Events That Will Affect Nursing
440(6)
Computer Technology and Its Effect on Health and Nursing Care
440(3)
Health Care System Changes
443(1)
Regulatory Changes
444(1)
Continued Medical, Surgical, and Pharmacological Advances
444(2)
Past Lessons That Can Help Nurses in the Future
446(1)
Visions of Tomorrow
446(4)
Summary
450(1)
References
450(1)
Index 451


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